Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 598

Search results for: characteristic

598 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

Authors: Vladimir S. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Keywords: Characteristic function, distributional moments, robustness, outlier, statistical estimation problem, statistical simulation.

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597 Method of Finding Aerodynamic Characteristic Equations of Missile for Trajectory Simulation

Authors: Attapon Charoenpon, Ekkarach Pankeaw

Abstract:

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (╬¢ ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ╬¢ <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Characteristic Equation, Angle ofAttack, Polynomial interpolation, Trajectories

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596 A Convenient Model for I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator as an Active Two-Pole with Self-Limitation of Current

Authors: A. A. Penin, A. S. Sidorenko

Abstract:

A convenient and physically sound mathematical model of the external or I - V characteristic of solar cells generators is presented in this paper. This model is compared with the traditional model of p-n junction. The direct analytical calculation of load regime leads to a quadratic equation, which is importantly to simplify the calculations in the real time.

Keywords: A solar cell generator, I−V characteristic, activetwo-pole.

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595 PID Controller Design for Following Control of Hard Disk Drive by Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method

Authors: Chaoraingern J., Trisuwannawat T., Numsomran A.

Abstract:

The author present PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive by characteristic ratio assignment method. The study in this paper concerns design of a PID controller which sufficiently robust to the disturbances and plant perturbations on following control of hard disk drive. Characteristic Ratio Assignment (CRA) is shown to be an efficient control technique to serve this requirement. The controller design by CRA is based on the choice of the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system according to the convenient performance criteria such as equivalent time constant and ration of characteristic coefficient. Hence, in this study, CRA method is applied in PID controller design for following control of hard disk drive. Matlab simulation results shown that CRA design is fairly stable and robust whilst giving the convenience in controller-s parameters adjustment.

Keywords: Following Control, Hard Disk Drive, PID, CRA

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594 Exterior Calculus: Economic Growth Dynamics

Authors: Troy L. Story

Abstract:

Mathematical models of dynamics employing exterior calculus are mathematical representations of the same unifying principle; namely, the description of a dynamic system with a characteristic differential one-form on an odd-dimensional differentiable manifold leads, by analysis with exterior calculus, to a set of differential equations and a characteristic tangent vector (vortex vector) which define transformations of the system. Using this principle, a mathematical model for economic growth is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential one-form for economic growth dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics), then generating a pair of characteristic differential equations and solving these equations for the rate of economic growth as a function of labor and capital. By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with the vortex vector, the Lagrangian for economic growth dynamics is obtained.

Keywords: Differential geometry, exterior calculus, Hamiltonian geometry, mathematical economics.

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593 Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System

Authors: Bhupeshwaran Mani, S. Radha, A. Jawahar, A. Sivasubramanian

Abstract:

Here, we study the characteristic feature of conventional (ON-OFF keying) and soliton based transmission system. We consider 20Gbps transmission system implemented with Conventional Single Mode Fiber (C-SMF) to examine the role of Gaussian pulse which is the characteristic of conventional propagation and Hyperbolic-secant pulse which is the characteristic of soliton propagation in it. We note the influence of these pulses with respect to different dispersion lengths and soliton period in conventional and soliton system respectively and evaluate the system performance in terms of Quality factor. From the analysis, we could prove that the soliton pulse has the consistent performance even for long distance without dispersion compensation than the conventional system as it is robust to dispersion. For the length of transmission of 200Km, soliton system yielded Q of 33.958 while the conventional system totally exhausted with Q=0.

Keywords: Soliton, dispersion length, Soliton period, Return-tozero (RZ), Q-factor.

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592 The Adsorption of SDS on Ferro-Precipitates

Authors: R.Marsalek

Abstract:

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (ν ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ν <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

Keywords: ferro-precipitate, adsorption, SDS, zeta potential

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591 Exterior Calculus: Economic Profit Dynamics

Authors: Troy L. Story

Abstract:

A mathematical model for the Dynamics of Economic Profit is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential oneform for this dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics). After processing this form with exterior calculus, a pair of characteristic differential equations is generated and solved for the rate of change of profit P as a function of revenue R (t) and cost C (t). By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with a vortex vector, the Lagrangian is obtained for the Dynamics of Economic Profit.

Keywords: Differential geometry, exterior calculus, Hamiltonian geometry, mathematical economics, economic functions, and dynamics

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590 Comparison of the Existing Methods in Determination of the Characteristic Polynomial

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

This paper presents comparison among methods of determination of the characteristic polynomial coefficients. First, the resultant systems from the methods are compared based on frequency criteria such as the closed loop bandwidth, gain and phase margins. Then the step responses of the resultant systems are compared on the basis of the transient behavior criteria including overshoot, rise time, settling time and error (via IAE, ITAE, ISE and ITSE integral indices). Also relative stability of the systems is compared together. Finally the best choices in regards to the above diverse criteria are presented.

Keywords: Characteristic Polynomial, Transient Response, Filters, Stability.

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589 Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm

Authors: Fırat Matur, Yekta Ülgen

Abstract:

Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements. Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for dominant arm. With the post-menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified osteopenic and osteoporic population around lumbar spine, is statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve of the characteristic frequency is 0.830, suggesting that the Cole-Cole plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis. Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by monitoring frequency driven angular behavior of the dominant arm without performing any complex calculation.

Keywords: Bio-impedance spectroscopy, bone mineral density, characteristic frequency, osteoporosis, receiver operating curve.

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588 Stability Analysis in a Fractional Order Delayed Predator-Prey Model

Authors: Changjin Xu, Peiluan Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the stability of a fractional order delayed predator-prey model. By using the Laplace transform, we introduce a characteristic equation for the above system. It is shown that if all roots of the characteristic equation have negative parts, then the equilibrium of the above fractional order predator-prey system is Lyapunov globally asymptotical stable. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the approach presented in this paper.

Keywords: Fractional predator-prey model, laplace transform, characteristic equation.

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587 Stability Analysis of Linear Fractional Order Neutral System with Multiple Delays by Algebraic Approach

Authors: Lianglin Xiong, Yun Zhao, Tao Jiang

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the stability of n-dimensional linear fractional neutral differential equation with time delays. By using the Laplace transform, we introduce a characteristic equation for the above system with multiple time delays. We discover that if all roots of the characteristic equation have negative parts, then the equilibrium of the above linear system with fractional order is Lyapunov globally asymptotical stable if the equilibrium exist that is almost the same as that of classical differential equations. An example is provided to show the effectiveness of the approach presented in this paper.

Keywords: Fractional neutral differential equation, Laplace transform, characteristic equation.

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586 Meandered Microstrip Open Circuited Stub with Bandstop Characteristic

Authors: Goh Chin Hock, Chandan Kumar Chakrabarty, Mohammad Hadi Badjian, Sanjay Devkumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a microstrip meandered open circuited stub with bandstop characteristic. The proposed structure is designed on a high frequency laminate with dielectric constant of 4.0 and board thickness of 0.508 millimeters. The scattering parameters and electromagnetic field distributions at various frequencies are investigated by modeling the structure with three dimensional electromagnetic simulation tool. In order to describe the resonant and bandstop characteristic of the meandered open circuited stub, a Smith chart as well as electric field at various frequencies and phases is illustrated accordingly. The structure can be an alternative method in suppressing the harmonic response of a bandpass filter.

Keywords: Bandstop, Equivalent Lumped Element Model, Electromagnetic Model, Meandered Open Circuited Stub

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585 Reliability Based Investigation on the Choice of Characteristic Soil Properties

Authors: Jann-Eike Saathoff, Kirill Alexander Schmoor, Martin Achmus, Mauricio Terceros

Abstract:

By using partial factors of safety, uncertainties due to the inherent variability of the soil properties and loads are taken into account in the geotechnical design process. According to the reliability index concept in Eurocode-0 in conjunction with Eurocode-7 a minimum safety level of β = 3.8 for reliability class RC2 shall be established. The reliability of the system depends heavily on the choice of the prespecified safety factor and the choice of the characteristic soil properties. The safety factors stated in the standards are mainly based on experience. However, no general accepted method for the calculation of a characteristic value within the current design practice exists. In this study, a laterally loaded monopile is investigated and the influence of the chosen quantile values of the deterministic system, calculated with p-y springs, will be presented. Monopiles are the most common foundation concepts for offshore wind energy converters. Based on the calculations for non-cohesive soils, a recommendation for an appropriate quantile value for the necessary safety level according to the standards for a deterministic design is given.

Keywords: Asymptotic sampling, characteristic value, monopile foundation, probabilistic design, quantile values.

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584 An Empirical Validation of the Linear- Hyperbolic Approximation of the I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

An empirical linearly-hyperbolic approximation of the I - V characteristic of a solar cell is presented. This approximation is based on hyperbolic dependence of a current of p-n junctions on voltage for large currents. Such empirical approximation is compared with the early proposed formal linearly-hyperbolic approximation of a solar cell. The expressions defining laws of change of parameters of formal approximation at change of a photo current of family of characteristics are received. It allows simplifying a finding of parameters of approximation on actual curves, to specify their values. Analytical calculation of load regime for linearly - hyperbolic model leads to quadratic equation. Also, this model allows to define soundly a deviation from the maximum power regime and to compare efficiency of regimes of solar cells with different parameters.

Keywords: a solar cell generator, I − V characteristic, p − n junction, approximation

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583 Optimization of Control Parameters for MRR in Injection Flushing Type of EDM on Stainless Steel 304 Workpiece

Authors: M. S. Reza, M. Hamdi, A.S. Hadi

Abstract:

The operating control parameters of injection flushing type of electrical discharge machining process on stainless steel 304 workpiece with copper tools are being optimized according to its individual machining characteristic i.e. material removal rate (MRR). Lower MRR during EDM machining process may decrease its- machining productivity. Hence, the quality characteristic for MRR is set to higher-the-better to achieve the optimum machining productivity. Taguchi method has been used for the construction, layout and analysis of the experiment for each of the machining characteristic for the MRR. The use of Taguchi method in the experiment saves a lot of time and cost of preparing and machining the experiment samples. Therefore, an L18 Orthogonal array which was the fundamental component in the statistical design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the optimum machining parameters for this machining characteristic. The control parameters selected for this optimization experiments are polarity, pulse on duration, discharge current, discharge voltage, machining depth, machining diameter and dielectric liquid pressure. The result had shown that the higher the discharge voltage, the higher will be the MRR.

Keywords: ANOVA, EDM, Injection Flushing, L18 OrthogonalArray, MRR, Stainless Steel 304

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582 The Study and Practice of the Thermal Energy and Power Engineering Characteristic Specialty in China

Authors: Junjie Chen

Abstract:

According to the demand of the power and refrigeration industry, the theoretical and practical teachings of the Thermal Energy and Power Engineering characteristic specialty in china are studied. The teaching reform and practice of the Thermal Energy and Power Engineering specialty have been carried out, including construction and reform measures, teaching reform and practice, features, and achievements. Proved by practices, the theoretical and practical teaching effects are obvious. The study results can provides certain reference experience for theoretical and practical teachings of the related specialties in china.

Keywords: Theoretical teaching, practical teaching, Thermal Energy and Power Engineering, characteristic specialty, teaching reform.

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581 Clustering Multivariate Empiric Characteristic Functions for Multi-Class SVM Classification

Authors: María-Dolores Cubiles-de-la-Vega, Rafael Pino-Mejías, Esther-Lydia Silva-Ramírez

Abstract:

A dissimilarity measure between the empiric characteristic functions of the subsamples associated to the different classes in a multivariate data set is proposed. This measure can be efficiently computed, and it depends on all the cases of each class. It may be used to find groups of similar classes, which could be joined for further analysis, or it could be employed to perform an agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis of the set of classes. The final tree can serve to build a family of binary classification models, offering an alternative approach to the multi-class SVM problem. We have tested this dendrogram based SVM approach with the oneagainst- one SVM approach over four publicly available data sets, three of them being microarray data. Both performances have been found equivalent, but the first solution requires a smaller number of binary SVM models.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Empiric Characteristic Function, Multi-class SVM, R.

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580 The Effect of Prior Characteristic on Perceived Prosocial Content in Media

Authors: Pawit Monkolprasit, Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

It was important to understand the impact of media in young adolescents. The animated film, Khun Tong Dang the Inspirations (2015), was purposefully created for teaching young children to have a positive personal trait. The current study used this film as the case study. The objective is to understand the relationship between the good characteristic of movie audiences and their perception of the good characteristic of a movie character. One-hundred students from various age ranges responded to quantitative questionnaires. The questions included their age, gender, perception about their own personal traits, perception about their experiences with others, and perception about the bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character. It was found that a good personal trait has a strong relationship with the perception of bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character.

Keywords: Impact of media, children, personal trait, prosocial content.

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579 Optimization of Control Parameters for EWR in Injection Flushing Type of EDM on Stainless Steel 304 Workpiece

Authors: M. S. Reza, M. Hamdi, S. H. Tomadi, A. R. Ismail

Abstract:

The operating control parameters of injection flushing type of electrical discharge machining process on stainless steel 304 workpiece using copper tools are being optimized according to its individual machining characteristic i.e. Electrode Wear Ratio (EWR). Higher EWR would give bad dimensional precision for the EDM machined workpiece because of high electrode wear. Hence, the quality characteristic for EWR is set to lower-the-better to achieve the optimum dimensional precision for the machined workpiece. Taguchi method has been used for the construction, layout and analysis of the experiment for EWR machining characteristic. The use of Taguchi method in the experiment saves a lot of time and cost of preparing and machining the experiment samples. Therefore, an L18 Orthogonal array which was the fundamental component in the statistical design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the optimum machining parameters for this machining characteristic. The control parameters selected for this optimization experiments are polarity, pulse on duration, discharge current, discharge voltage, machining depth, machining diameter and dielectric liquid pressure. The result had shown that negative polarity machining parameter setting will decreases EWR.

Keywords: ANOVA, EDM, Injection Flushing, L18Orthogonal Array, EWR, Stainless Steel 304

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578 The Genesis of the Art of the Kazakh Sals, Seris and Paluans in Characteristic Comparison to European Histriones and Russian Skomorkhs

Authors: D. Dosbatyrov

Abstract:

This article is a piece of the doctoral thesis "Syncretism of traditional Kazakh culture in the light of the innovation direction of circus and choreographic art of Kazakhstan and its integration into the world civilization", and reveals the features of the creative personalities of the traditional culture of shamans, sals, seris, paluans in the comparative characteristic of the European histriones and Russian skomorokhs.

Keywords: circus, histriones, shamans, skomorkhs

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577 The Study of Chain Initiation Effect on the Direct Initiation of Detonation

Authors: Masoud Afrand, Saeid Farahat, Mehdi Alamkar

Abstract:

In this research, effect of combustion reaction mechanism on direct initiation of detonation has been studied numerically. For this purpose, reaction mechanism has been simulated by using a three-step chemical kinetics model. The reaction scheme consists sequentially of a chain-initiation and chainbranching step, followed by a temperature -independent chaintermination. In a previous research, the effect of chain-branching on the direct initiation of detonation is studied. In this research effect of chain-initiation on direct initiation of detonation is investigated. For the investigation, first a characteristic time (τ) for each step of mechanism, which includes effect of different kinetics parameters, is defined. Then the effect of characteristic time of chain-initiation (τI) on critical initiation energy is studied. It is seen that increasing τI, causes critical initiation energy to be increased. Drawing detonation's shock pressure diagrams for different cases, shows that in small value of τI , kinetics has more important effect on the behavior of the wave.

Keywords: Detonation initiation, Initiation energy, Reaction rate, Characteristic time.

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576 Stability Analysis of Fractional Order Systems with Time Delay

Authors: Hong Li, Shou-Ming Zhong, Hou-Biao Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we mainly study the stability of linear and interval linear fractional systems with time delay. By applying the characteristic equations, a necessary and sufficient stability condition is obtained firstly, and then some sufficient conditions are deserved. In addition, according to the equivalent relationship of fractional order systems with order 0 < α ≤ 1 and with order 1 ≤ β < 2, one may get more relevant theorems. Finally, two examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our results.

Keywords: Fractional order systems, Time delay, Characteristic equation.

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575 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: Array signal processing, unbiased Doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, slowly fluctuating point target.

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574 Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region

Authors: P. H. Mukti, I. Kurniawati, F. Oktaviansyah, A. D. Adhitya, N. Rachmadani, R. Corputty, G. Hendrantoro, T. Fukusako

Abstract:

HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.

Keywords: Channel Characteristic, HF Communication System, LabVIEW, Software-Defined Radio, Universal Software Radio Pheripheral.

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573 Optimization of the Characteristic Straight Line Method by a “Best Estimate“ of Observed, Normal Orthometric Elevation Differences

Authors: Mahmoud M. S. Albattah

Abstract:

In this paper, to optimize the “Characteristic Straight Line Method" which is used in the soil displacement analysis, a “best estimate" of the geodetic leveling observations has been achieved by taking in account the concept of 'Height systems'. This concept has been discussed in detail and consequently the concept of “height". In landslides dynamic analysis, the soil is considered as a mosaic of rigid blocks. The soil displacement has been monitored and analyzed by using the “Characteristic Straight Line Method". Its characteristic components have been defined constructed from a “best estimate" of the topometric observations. In the measurement of elevation differences, we have used the most modern leveling equipment available. Observational procedures have also been designed to provide the most effective method to acquire data. In addition systematic errors which cannot be sufficiently controlled by instrumentation or observational techniques are minimized by applying appropriate corrections to the observed data: the level collimation correction minimizes the error caused by nonhorizontality of the leveling instrument's line of sight for unequal sight lengths, the refraction correction is modeled to minimize the refraction error caused by temperature (density) variation of air strata, the rod temperature correction accounts for variation in the length of the leveling rod' s Invar/LO-VAR® strip which results from temperature changes, the rod scale correction ensures a uniform scale which conforms to the international length standard and the introduction of the concept of the 'Height systems' where all types of height (orthometric, dynamic, normal, gravity correction, and equipotential surface) have been investigated. The “Characteristic Straight Line Method" is slightly more convenient than the “Characteristic Circle Method". It permits to evaluate a displacement of very small magnitude even when the displacement is of an infinitesimal quantity. The inclination of the landslide is given by the inverse of the distance reference point O to the “Characteristic Straight Line". Its direction is given by the bearing of the normal directed from point O to the Characteristic Straight Line (Fig..6). A “best estimate" of the topometric observations was used to measure the elevation of points carefully selected, before and after the deformation. Gross errors have been eliminated by statistical analyses and by comparing the heights within local neighborhoods. The results of a test using an area where very interesting land surface deformation occurs are reported. Monitoring with different options and qualitative comparison of results based on a sufficient number of check points are presented.

Keywords: Characteristic straight line method, dynamic height, landslides, orthometric height, systematic errors.

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572 T-DOF PID Controller Design using Characteristic Ratio Assignment Method for Quadruple Tank Process

Authors: Tianchai Suksri, U-thai Sritheeravirojana, Arjin Numsomran, Viriya Kongrattana, Thongchai Werataweemart

Abstract:

A control system design with Characteristic Ratio Assignment (CRA) is proven that effective for SISO control design. But the control system design for MIMO via CRA is not concrete procedure. In this paper presents the control system design method for quadruple-tank process via CRA. By using the decentralized method for both minimum phase and non-minimum phase are made. The results from PI and PID controller design via CRA can be illustrated the validity of our approach by MATLAB.

Keywords: CRA, Quadruple-Tank.

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571 Performance Analysis of BPJLT with Different Gate and Spacer Materials

Authors: Porag Jyoti Ligira, Gargi Khanna

Abstract:

The paper presents a simulation study of the electrical characteristic of Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor (BPJLT) using spacer. The BPJLT is a transistor without any PN junctions in the vertical direction. It is a gate controlled variable resistor. The characteristics of BPJLT are analyzed by varying the oxide material under the gate. It can be shown from the simulation that an ideal subthreshold slope of ~60 mV/decade can be achieved by using highk dielectric. The effects of variation of spacer length and material on the electrical characteristic of BPJLT are also investigated in the paper. The ION / IOFF ratio improvement is of the order of 107 and the OFF current reduction of 10-4 is obtained by using gate dielectric of HfO2 instead of SiO2.

Keywords: BPJLT, double gate, high-k, spacer.

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570 Optimization of a Triangular Fin with Variable Fin Base Thickness

Authors: Hyung Suk Kang

Abstract:

A triangular fin with variable fin base thickness is analyzed and optimized using a two-dimensional analytical method. The influence of fin base height and fin base thickness on the temperature in the fin is listed. For the fixed fin volumes, the maximum heat loss, the corresponding optimum fin effectiveness, fin base height and fin tip length as a function of the fin base thickness, convection characteristic number and dimensionless fin volume are represented. One of the results shows that the optimum heat loss increases whereas the corresponding optimum fin effectiveness decreases with the increase of fin volume.

Keywords: A triangular fin, Convection characteristic number, Heat loss, Fin base thickness.

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569 Degradation in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

Authors: Saba Zare Zardareh, Farhad Akbari Boroumand

Abstract:

The objective is to fabricate organic light emitting diode and to study its degradation process in atmosphere condition in which PFO as an emitting material and PEDOT:PSS as a hole injecting material were used on ITO substrate. Thus degradation process of the OLED was studied upon its current-voltage characteristic. By fabricating this OLED and obtaining blue light and analysis of current-voltage characteristic during the time after fabrication, it was observed that the current of the OLED was exponentially decreased. Current reduction during the initial hours of fabrication was outstanding and after few days its reduction rate was dropped significantly, while the diode was dying.

Keywords: OLED, Degradation, Dark spot.

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