Search results for: Universal filter
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 786

Search results for: Universal filter

786 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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785 A New Current-mode Multifunction Filter with High Impedance Outputs Using Minimum Number of Passive Elements

Authors: Mehmet Sagbas, Kemal Fidanboylu, Mehmet C. Bayram

Abstract:

A new current-mode multifunction filter using minimum number of passive elements is proposed. The proposed filter has single-input and four high-impedance outputs. It uses four passive elements (two capacitors and two resistors) and four dual output second generation current conveyors. Each output provides a different filter response, namely, low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-reject. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out on both ideal and non-ideal filter configurations. The validity of the proposed filter is verified through PSPICE simulations.

Keywords: Active filter, Universal filter, Currentconveyors.

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784 Resistor-less Current-mode Universal Biquad Filter Using CCTAs and Grounded Capacitors

Authors: T. Thosdeekoraphat, S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, S. Santalunai, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents a current-mode universal biquadratic filter. The proposed circuit can apparently provide standard functions of the biquad filter: low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, band-reject and all-pass functions. The circuit uses 4 current controlled transconductance amplifiers (CCTAs) and 2 grounded capacitors. In addition, the pole frequency and quality factor can be adjusted by electronic method by adjusting the bias currents of the CCTA. The proposed circuit uses only grounded capacitors without additional external resistors, the proposed circuit is considerably appropriate to further developing into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Resistor-less, Current-mode, Biquad filter, CCTA.

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783 A Design of Electronically Tunable Voltagemode Universal Filter with High Input Impedance

Authors: Surapong Siripongdee, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

This article presents a voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter performing simultaneous 3 standard functions: lowpass, high-pass and band-pass functions, employing differential different current conveyor (DDCC) and current controlled current conveyor (CCCII) as active element. The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned independently via the input bias currents: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 1 DDCC, 2 CCCIIs, 2 electronic resistors and 2 grounded capacitors. Without requiring component matching conditions, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: Filter, DDCC, CCCII, Analog circuit, Voltagemode, PSPICE

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782 Low Power Approach for Decimation Filter Hardware Realization

Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo

Abstract:

There are multiple ways to implement a decimator filter. This paper addresses usage of CIC (cascaded-integrator-comb) filter and HB (half band) filter as the decimator filter to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 and detail of the implementation step to realize this design in hardware. Low power design approach for CIC filter and half band filter will be discussed. The filter design is implemented through MATLAB system modeling, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) design flow and verified using a FPGA (field programmable gate array) board and MATLAB analysis.

Keywords: CIC filter, decimation filter, half-band filter, lowpower.

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781 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

Authors: S. Park, J. Hwang, K. Rou, E. Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

Keywords: Particle filter, genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm.

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780 Universal Current-Mode OTA-C KHN Biquad

Authors: Dalibor Biolek, Viera Biolková, Zden─øk Kolka

Abstract:

A universal current-mode biquad is described which represents an economical variant of well-known KHN (Kerwin, Huelsman, Newcomb) voltage-mode filter. The circuit consists of two multiple-output OTAs and of two grounded capacitors. Utilizing simple splitter of the input current and a pair of jumpers, all the basic 2nd-order transfer functions can be implemented. The principle is verified by Spice simulation on the level of a CMOS structure of OTAs.

Keywords: Biquad, current mode, OTA.

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779 Gaussian Particle Flow Bernoulli Filter for Single Target Tracking

Authors: Hyeongbok Kim, Lingling Zhao, Xiaohong Su, Junjie Wang

Abstract:

The Bernoulli filter is a precise Bayesian filter for single target tracking based on the random finite set theory. The standard Bernoulli filter often underestimates the number of the targets. This study proposes a Gaussian particle flow (GPF) Bernoulli filter employing particle flow to migrate particles from prior to posterior positions to improve the performance of the standard Bernoulli filter. By employing the particle flow filter, the computational speed of the Bernoulli filters is significantly improved. In addition, the GPF Bernoulli filter provides more accurate estimation compared with that of the standard Bernoulli filter. Simulation results confirm the improved tracking performance and computational speed in two- and three-dimensional scenarios compared with other algorithms.

Keywords: Bernoulli filter, particle filter, particle flow filter, random finite sets, target tracking.

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778 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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777 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis

Abstract:

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: Discrete time, linear estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain.

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776 Image Enhancement using α-Trimmed Mean ε-Filters

Authors: Mahdi Shaneh, Arash Golibagh Mahyari

Abstract:

Image enhancement is the most important challenging preprocessing for almost all applications of Image Processing. By now, various methods such as Median filter, α-trimmed mean filter, etc. have been suggested. It was proved that the α-trimmed mean filter is the modification of median and mean filters. On the other hand, ε-filters have shown excellent performance in suppressing noise. In spite of their simplicity, they achieve good results. However, conventional ε-filter is based on moving average. In this paper, we suggested a new ε-filter which utilizes α-trimmed mean. We argue that this new method gives better outcomes compared to previous ones and the experimental results confirmed this claim.

Keywords: Image enhancement, median filter, ε-filter – α-trimmed mean filter.

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775 High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications

Authors: Néjib Hassen, Thouraya Ettaghzouti, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

Keywords: Current controlled current conveyor CCCII, floating inductor, grounded inductor, oscillator, universal filter.

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774 Robust Integrated Navigation of a Low Cost System

Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Robust nonlinear integrated navigation of GPS and low cost MEMS is a hot topic of research these days. A robust filter is required to cope up with the problem of unpredictable discontinuities and colored noises associated with low cost sensors. H∞ filter is previously used in Extended Kalman filter and Unscented Kalman filter frame. Unscented Kalman filter has a problem of Cholesky matrix factorization at each step which is a very unstable operation. To avoid this problem in this research H∞ filter is designed in Square root Unscented filter framework and found 50% more robust towards increased level of colored noises.

Keywords: H∞ filter, MEMS, GPS, Nonlinear system, robust system, Square root unscented filter.

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773 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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772 A New Version of Unscented Kalman Filter

Authors: S. A. Banani, M. A. Masnadi-Shirazi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new algorithm which yields a nonlinear state estimator called iterated unscented Kalman filter. This state estimator makes use of both statistical and analytical linearization techniques in different parts of the filtering process. It outperforms the other three nonlinear state estimators: unscented Kalman filter (UKF), extended Kalman filter (EKF) and iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) when there is severe nonlinearity in system equation and less nonlinearity in measurement equation. The algorithm performance has been verified by illustrating some simulation results.

Keywords: Extended Kalman Filter, Iterated EKF, Nonlinearstate estimator, Unscented Kalman Filter.

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771 Application of Hardware Efficient CIC Compensation Filter in Narrow Band Filtering

Authors: Vishal Awasthi, Krishna Raj

Abstract:

In many communication and signal processing systems, it is highly desirable to implement an efficient narrow-band filter that decimate or interpolate the incoming signals. This paper presents hardware efficient compensated CIC filter over a narrow band frequency that increases the speed of down sampling by using multiplierless decimation filters with polyphase FIR filter structure. The proposed work analyzed the performance of compensated CIC filter on the bases of the improvement of frequency response with reduced hardware complexity in terms of no. of adders and multipliers and produces the filtered results without any alterations. CIC compensator filter demonstrated that by using compensation with CIC filter improve the frequency response in passed of interest 26.57% with the reduction in hardware complexity 12.25% multiplications per input sample (MPIS) and 23.4% additions per input sample (APIS) w.r.t. FIR filter respectively.

Keywords: Multirate filtering, Narrow-band Signaling, Compensation Theory, CIC filter, Decimation, Compensation filter.

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770 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters

Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner

Abstract:

For vacuum cleaned dust filters there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e.g. traverse velocity of the nozzle, filter area…). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse velocity of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions.

A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.

Keywords: Design of dust filter, Dust removing, Filter regeneration, Operation parameters.

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769 A Low-Voltage Tunable Channel Selection Filter for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Kayvan Ahmadi, Hossein Shamsi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low-voltage and low-power fully integrated digitally tuned continuous-time channel selection filter for WiMAX applications. A 5th-order elliptic low-pass filter is realized in a Gm-C topology. The bandwidth of the fully differential filter is reconfigurable from 2.5MHz to 20MHz (8x) for different requirements in WiMAX applications. The filter is simulated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Simulation results show the THD (@Vout =100mVpp) is less than -66dB. The in-band ripple of the filter is about 0.15dB. The filter consumes 1.5mW from a supply voltage of 0.9V.

Keywords: Common-mode feedback, continuous-time, fully differential transconductor, Gm-C topology, low-voltage

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768 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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767 Application of Hermite-Rodriguez Functions to Pulse Shaping Analog Filter Design

Authors: Mohd Amaluddin Yusoff

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the design of pulse shaping filter using orthogonal Hermite-Rodriguez basis functions. The pulse shaping filter design problem has been formulated and solved as a quadratic programming problem with linear inequality constraints. Compared with the existing approaches reported in the literature, the use of Hermite-Rodriguez functions offers an effective alternative to solve the constrained filter synthesis problem. This is demonstrated through a numerical example which is concerned with the design of an equalization filter for a digital transmission channel.

Keywords: channel equalization filter, Hermite-Rodriguez, pulseshaping filter, quadratic programming.

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766 Current Controlled Current Conveyor (CCCII)and Application using 65nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Zia Abbas, Giuseppe Scotti, Mauro Olivieri

Abstract:

Current mode circuits like current conveyors are getting significant attention in current analog ICs design due to their higher band-width, greater linearity, larger dynamic range, simpler circuitry, lower power consumption and less chip area. The second generation current controlled conveyor (CCCII) has the advantage of electronic adjustability over the CCII i.e. in CCCII; adjustment of the X-terminal intrinsic resistance via a bias current is possible. The presented approach is based on the CMOS implementation of second generation positive (CCCII+), negative (CCCII-) and dual Output Current Controlled Conveyor (DOCCCII) and its application as Universal filter. All the circuits have been designed and simulated using 65nm CMOS technology model parameters on Cadence Virtuoso / Spectre using 1V supply voltage. Various simulations have been carried out to verify the linearity between output and input ports, range of operation frequency, etc. The outcomes show good agreement between expected and experimental results.

Keywords: CCCII+, CCCII-, DOCCCII, Electronic tunability, Universal filter

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765 UD Covariance Factorization for Unscented Kalman Filter using Sequential Measurements Update

Authors: H. Ghanbarpour Asl, S. H. Pourtakdoust

Abstract:

Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is probably the most widely used estimation algorithm for nonlinear systems. However, not only it has difficulties arising from linearization but also many times it becomes numerically unstable because of computer round off errors that occur in the process of its implementation. To overcome linearization limitations, the unscented transformation (UT) was developed as a method to propagate mean and covariance information through nonlinear transformations. Kalman filter that uses UT for calculation of the first two statistical moments is called Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). Square-root form of UKF (SRUKF) developed by Rudolph van der Merwe and Eric Wan to achieve numerical stability and guarantee positive semi-definiteness of the Kalman filter covariances. This paper develops another implementation of SR-UKF for sequential update measurement equation, and also derives a new UD covariance factorization filter for the implementation of UKF. This filter is equivalent to UKF but is computationally more efficient.

Keywords: Unscented Kalman filter, Square-root unscentedKalman filter, UD covariance factorization, Target tracking.

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764 Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS

Authors: R. Heydari, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and optical coherence are not affected on this filter.

Keywords: Bandpass filter, EOPM, photonic microwave filter, polarization beamsplitter.

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763 A new Configurable Decimation Filter using Pascal-s Triangle Theorem

Authors: A. Chahardah Cherik, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new configurable decimation filter for sigma-delta modulators. The filter employs the Pascal-s triangle-s theorem for building the coefficients of non-recursive decimation filters. The filter can be connected to the back-end of various modulators with different output accuracy. In this work two methods are shown and then compared from area occupation viewpoint. First method uses the memory and the second one employs Pascal-s triangle-s method, aiming to reduce required gates. XILINX ISE v10 is used for implementation and confirmation the filter.

Keywords: Decimation filter, sigma delta, Pascal's triangle'stheorem, memory

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762 Universal Metadata Definition

Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Mohammad Haseeb Anwer, Nadeem Iftikhar

Abstract:

The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.

Keywords: Metadata, Standard, Universal, XML.

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761 Adaptive Notch Filter for Harmonic Current Mitigation

Authors: T. Messikh, S. Mekhilef, N. A. Rahim

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective technique for harmonic current mitigation using an adaptive notch filter (ANF) to estimate current harmonics. The proposed filter consists of multiple units of ANF connected in parallel structure; each unit is governed by two ordinary differential equations. The frequency estimation is carried out based on the output of these units. The simulation and experimental results show the ability of the proposed tracking scheme to accurately estimate harmonics. The proposed filter was implemented digitally in TMS320F2808 and used in the control of hybrid active power filter (HAPF). The theoretical expectations are verified and demonstrated experimentally.

Keywords: Adaptive notch filter, Active power filter, harmonic filtering, Time varying frequency.

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760 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani

Abstract:

Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid, and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, respectively.

Keywords: Empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property.

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759 Wavelet-Based Despeckling of Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Using Adaptive and Mean Filters

Authors: Syed Musharaf Ali, Muhammad Younus Javed, Naveed Sarfraz Khattak

Abstract:

In this paper we introduced new wavelet based algorithm for speckle reduction of synthetic aperture radar images, which uses combination of undecimated wavelet transformation, wiener filter (which is an adaptive filter) and mean filter. Further more instead of using existing thresholding techniques such as sure shrinkage, Bayesian shrinkage, universal thresholding, normal thresholding, visu thresholding, soft and hard thresholding, we use brute force thresholding, which iteratively run the whole algorithm for each possible candidate value of threshold and saves each result in array and finally selects the value for threshold that gives best possible results. That is why it is slow as compared to existing thresholding techniques but gives best results under the given algorithm for speckle reduction.

Keywords: Brute force thresholding, directional smoothing, direction dependent mask, undecimated wavelet transformation.

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758 Analysis of Complex Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

Authors: Chimin Tsai

Abstract:

This work consists of three parts. First, the alias-free condition for the conventional two-channel quadrature mirror filter bank is analyzed using complex arithmetic. Second, the approach developed in the first part is applied to the complex quadrature mirror filter bank. Accordingly, the structure is simplified and the theory is easier to follow. Finally, a new class of complex quadrature mirror filter banks is proposed. Interesting properties of this new structure are also discussed.

Keywords: Aliasing cancellation, complex signal processing, polyphase realization, quadrature mirror filter banks.

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757 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen

Abstract:

Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: Frequency transformation, Bilinear z-transformation, Pre-warping frequency, Digital filters, Analog filters, Pascal’s triangle.

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