Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 102

Search results for: inverted pyramid nanostructured

102 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, W. Liu, A. Abas, J. Yu, S. Li, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker

Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured, reflection, solar cells.

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101 Dual Pyramid of Agents for Image Segmentation

Authors: K. Idir, H. Merouani, Y. Tlili.

Abstract:

An effective method for the early detection of breast cancer is the mammographic screening. One of the most important signs of early breast cancer is the presence of microcalcifications. For the detection of microcalcification in a mammography image, we propose to conceive a multiagent system based on a dual irregular pyramid. An initial segmentation is obtained by an incremental approach; the result represents level zero of the pyramid. The edge information obtained by application of the Canny filter is taken into account to affine the segmentation. The edge-agents and region-agents cooper level by level of the pyramid by exploiting its various characteristics to provide the segmentation process convergence.

Keywords: Dual Pyramid, Image Segmentation, Multi-agent System, Region/Edge Cooperation.

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100 The Exploitation of Balancing an Inverted Pendulum System Using Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Sheren H. Salah, Ahmed Y. Ben Sasi

Abstract:

The inverted pendulum system is a classic control problem that is used in universities around the world. It is a suitable process to test prototype controllers due to its high non-linearities and lack of stability. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. This paper presents the possibility of balancing an inverted pendulum system using sliding mode control (SMC). The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum’s angle and cart's position. Therefore, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) is used for comparison. Results have proven SMC control produced better response compared to PID control in both normal and noisy systems.

Keywords: Inverted pendulum (IP) proportional-integralderivative (PID), sliding mode control (SMC).

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99 Performance Comparison between Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and PD-PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum System

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. A. Ahmad

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to compare the time specification performance between conventional controller PID and modern controller SMC for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum-s angle and cart-s position. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. Two controllers are presented such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Proportional- Integral-Derivatives (PID) controllers for controlling the highly nonlinear system of inverted pendulum model. Simulation study has been done in Matlab Mfile and simulink environment shows that both controllers are capable to control multi output inverted pendulum system successfully. The result shows that Sliding Mode Control (SMC) produced better response compared to PID control strategies and the responses are presented in time domain with the details analysis.

Keywords: SMC, PID, Inverted Pendulum System.

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98 Adaptive Integral Backstepping Motion Control for Inverted Pendulum

Authors: Ö. Tolga Altınöz

Abstract:

The adaptive backstepping controller for inverted pendulum is designed by using the general motion control model. Backstepping is a novel nonlinear control technique based on the Lyapunov design approach, used when higher derivatives of parameter estimation appear. For easy parameter adaptation, the mathematical model of the inverted pendulum converted into the motion control model. This conversion is performed by taking functions of unknown parameters and dynamics of the system. By using motion control model equations, inverted pendulum is simulated without any information about not only parameters but also measurable dynamics. Also these results are compare with the adaptive backstepping controller which extended with integral action that given from [1].

Keywords: Adaptive backstepping, inverted pendulum, nonlinear adaptive control.

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97 String Matching using Inverted Lists

Authors: Chouvalit Khancome, Veera Boonjing

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new solution to string matching problem. This solution constructs an inverted list representing a  string pattern to be searched for. It then uses a new algorithm to process an input string in a single pass. The preprocessing phase  takes 1) time complexity O(m) 2) space complexity O(1) where m is  the length of pattern. The searching phase time complexity takes 1)  O(m+α ) in average case 2) O(n/m) in the best case and 3) O(n) in  the worst case, where α is the number of comparing leading to  mismatch and n is the length of input text.

Keywords: String matching, inverted list, inverted index, pattern, algorithm.

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96 The Relationship of the Dentate Nucleus with the Pyramid of Vermis: A Microneurosurgical Anatomical Study

Authors: Santhosh K. S. Annayappa, Nupur Pruthi

Abstract:

The region of dentate nucleus is a common site for various pathologies like hematomas, tumours, etc. We aimed to study in detail the relationship of this region with the vermis, especially the pyramid using microscopic fibre dissection technique. To achieve this aim, 20 cerebellar hemispheres were studied from the 11 cerebellums. Dissection was performed using wooden spatulas and micro dissectors under a microscope following Klingler’s preservation technique. The relationship between the pyramid of vermis and the dentate nucleus was studied in detail. A similar relationship was studied on the MRI of randomly selected trigeminal neuralgia patients and correlated with anatomical findings. Results show the mean distance of the lateral margin of the dentate nucleus from the midline on anatomic specimens was 21.4 ± 1.8 mm (19-25 mm) and 23.4 ± 3.4 mm (15-29 mm) on right and left side, respectively. Similar measurements made on the MRI were 22.97 ± 2.0 mm (20.03-26.15 mm) on the right side and 23.98 ± 2.1 mm (21.47-27.67 mm) on the left side. The amount of white matter dissection required to reach the dentate nucleus at the pyramidal attachment area was 7.3 ± 1.0 mm (6-9 mm) on the right side and 6.8 ± 1.4 mm (5-10 mm) on the left side. It was concluded that the pyramid of vermis has a constant relationship with the dentate nucleus and can be used as an excellent landmark during surgery to localise the dentate nucleus on the suboccipital surface.

Keywords: Fiber dissection, micro neurosurgery, dentate nucleus of cerebellum, pyramid of vermis.

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95 Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Shin-Ham Lee, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.

Keywords: Balance control, synchronization control, two wheel inverted pendulum, TWIP.

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94 Simulation of the Performance of Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Technique on Two Cart-inverted Pendulum System

Authors: B. Baigzadeh, V.Nazarzehi, H.Khaloozadeh

Abstract:

The two cart inverted pendulum system is a good bench mark for testing the performance of system dynamics and control engineering principles. Devasia introduced this system to study the asymptotic tracking problem for nonlinear systems. In this paper the problem of asymptotic tracking of the two-cart with an inverted-pendulum system to a sinusoidal reference inputs via introducing a novel method for solving finite-horizon nonlinear optimal control problems is presented. In this method, an iterative method applied to state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) to obtain a reliable algorithm. The superiority of this technique has been shown by simulation and comparison with the nonlinear approach.

Keywords: Nonlinear optimal control, State dependent Riccatiequation, Asymptotic tracking, inverted pendulum

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93 Effective Teaching Pyramid and Its Impact on Enhancing the Participation of Students in Swimming Classes

Authors: Salam M. H. Kareem

Abstract:

Instructional or teaching procedures and their proper sequence are essential for high-quality learning outcomes. These actions are the path that the teacher takes during the learning process after setting the learning objectives. Teachers and specialists in the education field should include teaching procedures with putting in place an effective mechanism for the procedure’s implementation to achieve a logical sequence with the desired output of overall education process. Determining the sequence of these actions may be a strategic process outlined by a strategic educational plan or drawn by teachers with a high level of experience, enabling them to determine those logical procedures. While specific actions may be necessary for a specific form, many Physical Education (PE) teachers can work out on various sports disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of using the teaching sequence of the teaching pyramid in raising the level of enjoyment in swimming classes. Four months later of teaching swimming skills to the control and experimental groups of the study, we figured that using the tools shown in the teaching pyramid with the experimental group led to statistically significant differences in the positive tendencies of students to participate in the swimming classes by using the traditional procedures of teaching and using of successive procedures in the teaching pyramid, and in favor of the teaching pyramid, The students are influenced by enhancing their tendency to participate in swimming classes when the teaching procedures followed are sensitive to individual differences and are based on the element of pleasure in learning, and less positive levels of the tendency of students when using traditional teaching procedures, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform. The level of positive tendencies of students when using successive procedures in the teaching pyramid was increased, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform, because of the high level of motivation and the desire to challenge the self-provided by the teaching pyramid.

Keywords: Physical education, swimming classes, teaching process, teaching pyramid.

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92 The Effect of Pyramid Structure on Firm Value

Authors: Irfah Najihah Basir Malan, Norhana Salamudin, Noryati Ahmad

Abstract:

Corporate ownership structure is an important factor influencing firm performance. This study aims to answer the question whether pyramid structure has negative effect on firm value. This study is important because the ownership of public listed companies in Malaysia is highly concentrated. The concentrated ownership such as Malaysia, agency conflict is prevalent between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders. Accordingly, the dominant role of shareholders in firms allows the controlling shareholders (including managers) to expropriate the interest of the minority shareholders for their own private advantage. This research is conducted on pyramidal firms in Malaysia. Applying the Attig Model as the underlying statistical test, it is found that firm value is negatively related to pyramid ownership of Malaysian public listed firms due to the mismatch between cash flow rights and control rights. Future research needs to focus on identifying the heterogeneous factors that improve the generalizability of research.

Keywords: Pyramid structure, Cash flow right, Control right, Firm value, Attig model.

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91 Information Retrieval: A Comparative Study of Textual Indexing Using an Oriented Object Database (db4o) and the Inverted File

Authors: Mohammed Erritali

Abstract:

The growth in the volume of text data such as books and articles in libraries for centuries has imposed to establish effective mechanisms to locate them. Early techniques such as abstraction, indexing and the use of classification categories have marked the birth of a new field of research called "Information Retrieval". Information Retrieval (IR) can be defined as the task of defining models and systems whose purpose is to facilitate access to a set of documents in electronic form (corpus) to allow a user to find the relevant ones for him, that is to say, the contents which matches with the information needs of the user. Most of the models of information retrieval use a specific data structure to index a corpus which is called "inverted file" or "reverse index". This inverted file collects information on all terms over the corpus documents specifying the identifiers of documents that contain the term in question, the frequency of each term in the documents of the corpus, the positions of the occurrences of the word... In this paper we use an oriented object database (db4o) instead of the inverted file, that is to say, instead to search a term in the inverted file, we will search it in the db4o database. The purpose of this work is to make a comparative study to see if the oriented object databases may be competing for the inverse index in terms of access speed and resource consumption using a large volume of data.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, indexation, oriented object database (db4o), inverted file.

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90 Doping of Conveyor Belt Materials with Nanostructured Fillers to Adapt Innovative Performance Characteristics

Authors: S. Falkenberg, L. Overmeyer

Abstract:

The “conveyor belt" as a product represents a complex high performance component with a wide range of different applications. Further development of these highly complex components demands an integration of new technologies and new enhanced materials. In this context nanostructured fillers appear to have a more promising effect on the performance of the conveyor belt composite than conventional micro-scaled fillers. Within the project “DotTrans" nanostructured fillers, for example silicon dioxide, are used to optimize performance parameters of conveyor belt systems. The objective of the project includes operating parameters like energy consumption or friction characteristics as well as adaptive parameters like cut or wear resistance.

Keywords: Conveyor belt, nanostructured fillers, wear resistance, friction characteristics.

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89 Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured Catalysts for Pyrolysis of Biomass

Authors: Phuong T. Dang, Hy G. Le, Giang T. Pham, Hong T. M. Vu, Kien T, Nguyen, Canh D. Dao, Giang H. Le, Hoa T. K. Tran, Quang K. Nguyen, Tuan A. Vu

Abstract:

Nanostructured catalysts were successfully prepared by acidification of diatomite and regeneration of FCC spent catalysts. The obtained samples were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, EDX, MAS-NMR (27Al and 29Si), NH3-TPD and tested in catalytic pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw). The results showed that the similar bio-oil yield of 41.4% can be obtained by pyrolysis with catalysts at 450oC as compared to that of the pyrolysis without catalyst at 550oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 42.55% at the pyrolysis temperature of 500oC with catalytic content of 20%. Moreover, by catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil quality was better as reflected in higher ratio of H/C, lower ratio of O/C. This clearly indicated high application potential of these new nanostructured catalysts in the production of bio-oil with low oxygenated compounds.

Keywords: Acidified diatomite, biomass, catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil, nanostructured catalysts, regenerated FCC catalyst.

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88 Design and Motion Control of a Two-Wheel Inverted Pendulum Robot

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Su-Shean Chen, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

Two-wheel inverted pendulum robot (TWIPR) is designed with two-hub DC motors for human riding and motion control evaluation. In order to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum robot, accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are chosen. The mobile robot’s moving position and velocity were estimated based on DC motor built in hall sensors. The control kernel of this electric mobile robot is designed with embedded Arduino Nano microprocessor. A handle bar was designed to work as steering mechanism. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm for this mobile robot motion monitoring with different control purpose adjustment. The intelligent controllers were designed for balance control, and moving speed control purposes of this robot under different operation conditions and the control performance were evaluated based on experimental results.

Keywords: Balance control, speed control, intelligent controller and two wheel inverted pendulum.

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87 Local Steerable Pyramid Binary Pattern Sequence LSPBPS for Face Recognition Method

Authors: Mohamed El Aroussi, Mohammed El Hassouni, Sanaa Ghouzali, Mohammed Rziza, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of face recognition under variable illumination conditions is considered. Most of the works in the literature exhibit good performance under strictly controlled acquisition conditions, but the performance drastically drop when changes in pose and illumination occur, so that recently number of approaches have been proposed to deal with such variability. The aim of this work is to introduce an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based steerable pyramid (SP) for face recognition. Local information is extracted from SP sub-bands using LBP(Local binary Pattern). The underlying statistics allow us to reduce the required amount of data to be stored. The experiments carried out on different face databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Face recognition (FR), Steerable pyramid (SP), localBinary Pattern (LBP).

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86 Nonlinear Controller for Fuzzy Model of Double Inverted Pendulums

Authors: I. Zamani, M. H. Zarif

Abstract:

In this paper a method for designing of nonlinear controller for a fuzzy model of Double Inverted Pendulum is proposed. This system can be considered as a fuzzy large-scale system that includes offset terms and disturbance in each subsystem. Offset terms are deterministic and disturbances are satisfied a matching condition that is mentioned in the paper. Based on Lyapunov theorem, a nonlinear controller is designed for this fuzzy system (as a model reference base) which is simple in computation and guarantees stability. This idea can be used for other fuzzy large- scale systems that include more subsystems Finally, the results are shown.

Keywords: Controller, Fuzzy Double Inverted Pendulums, Fuzzy Large-Scale Systems, Lyapunov Stability.

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85 Real-Time Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot

Authors: S. W. Nawawi, M. N. Ahmad, J. H. S. Osman

Abstract:

The research on two-wheeled inverted pendulum (TWIP) mobile robots or commonly known as balancing robots have gained momentum over the last decade in a number of robotic laboratories around the world. This paper describes the hardware design of such a robot. The objective of the design is to develop a TWIP mobile robot as well as MATLAB interfacing configuration to be used as flexible platform comprises of embedded unstable linear plant intended for research and teaching purposes. Issues such as selection of actuators and sensors, signal processing units, MATLAB Real Time Workshop coding, modeling and control scheme will be addressed and discussed. The system is then tested using a wellknown state feedback controller to verify its functionality.

Keywords: Embedded System, Two-wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot.

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84 Inverse Sets-based Recognition of Video Clips

Authors: Alexei M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The paper discusses the mathematics of pattern indexing and its applications to recognition of visual patterns that are found in video clips. It is shown that (a) pattern indexes can be represented by collections of inverted patterns, (b) solutions to pattern classification problems can be found as intersections and histograms of inverted patterns and, thus, matching of original patterns avoided.

Keywords: Artificial neural cortex, computational biology, data mining, pattern recognition.

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83 Target Trajectory Design of Parametrically Excited Inverted Pendulum for Efficient Bipedal Walking

Authors: Toyoyuki Honjo, Takeshi Hayashi, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

For stable bipedal gait generation on the level floor, efficient restoring of mechanical energy lost by heel collision at the ground is necessary. Parametric excitation principle is one of the solutions. We dealt with the robot-s total center of mass as an inverted pendulum to consider the total dynamics of the robot. Parametrically excited walking requires the use of continuous target trajectory that is close to discontinuous optimal trajectory. In this paper, we proposed the new target trajectory based on a position in the walking direction. We surveyed relations between walking performance and the parameters that form the target trajectory via numerical simulations. As a result, it was found that our target trajectory has the similar characteristics of a parametrically excited inverted pendulum.

Keywords: Dynamic Bipedal Walking, Parametric Excitation, Target Trajectory Design.

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82 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber.

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81 An Impulse-Momentum Approach to Swing-Up Control of Double Inverted Pendulum on a Cart

Authors: Thamer Ali Albahkali

Abstract:

The challenge in the swing-up problem of double inverted pendulum on a cart (DIPC) is to design a controller that bring all DIPC's states, especially the joint angles of the two links, into the region of attraction of the desired equilibrium. This paper proposes a new method to swing-up DIPC based on a series of restto- rest maneuvers of the first link about its vertically upright configuration while holding the cart fixed at the origin. The rest-torest maneuvers are designed such that each one results in a net gain in energy of the second link. This results in swing-up of DIPC-s configuration to the region of attraction of the desired equilibrium. A three-step algorithm is provided for swing-up control followed by the stabilization step. Simulation results with a comparison to an experimental work done in the literature are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: Double Inverted pendulum, Impulse, momentum, underactuated

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80 Automatic 2D/2D Registration using Multiresolution Pyramid based Mutual Information in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

Authors: Jing Jia, Shanqing Huang, Fang Liu, Qiang Ren, Gui Li, Mengyun Cheng, Chufeng Jin, Yican Wu

Abstract:

Medical image registration is the key technology in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) systems. On the basis of the previous work on our IGRT prototype with a biorthogonal x-ray imaging system, we described a method focused on the 2D/2D rigid-body registration using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information in this paper. Three key steps were involved in the method : firstly, four 2D images were obtained including two x-ray projection images and two digital reconstructed radiographies(DRRs ) as the input for the registration ; Secondly, each pair of the corresponding x-ray image and DRR image were matched using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information under the ITK registration framework ; Thirdly, we got the final couch offset through a coordinate transformation by calculating the translations acquired from the two pairs of the images. A simulation example of a parotid gland tumor case and a clinical example of an anthropomorphic head phantom were employed in the verification tests. In addition, the influence of different CT slice thickness were tested. The simulation results showed that the positioning errors were 0.068±0.070, 0.072±0.098, 0.154±0.176mm along three axes which were lateral, longitudinal and vertical. The clinical test indicated that the positioning errors of the planned isocenter were 0.066, 0.07, 2.06mm on average with a CT slice thickness of 2.5mm. It can be concluded that our method with its verified accuracy and robustness can be effectively used in IGRT systems for patient setup.

Keywords: 2D/2D registration, image guided radiation therapy, multi resolution pyramid, mutual information.

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79 The Applicability of the Zipper Strut to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures

Authors: G. R. Nouri, H. Imani Kalesar, Zahra Ameli

Abstract:

Chevron frames (Inverted-V-braced frames or Vbraced frames) have seismic disadvantages, such as not good exhibit force redistribution capability and compression brace buckles immediately. Researchers developed new design provisions on increasing both the ductility and lateral resistance of these structures in seismic areas. One of these new methods is adding zipper columns, as proposed by Khatib et al. (1988) [2]. Zipper columns are vertical members connecting the intersection points of the braces above the first floor. In this paper applicability of the suspended zipper system to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures is investigated. The models are 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-story Inverted-V-braced frames. In this case, it is assumed that the structures must be rehabilitated. For rehabilitation of structures, zipper column is used. The result of researches showed that the suspended zipper system is effective in case of 3-, 6-, and 9-story Inverted-V-braced frames and it would increase lateral resistance of structure up to life safety level. But in case of high-rise buildings (such as 12 story frame), it doesn-t show good performance. For solving this problem, the braced bay can consist of small “units" over the height of the entire structure, which each of them is a zipper-braced bay with a few stories. By using this method the lateral resistance of 12 story Inverted-V-braced frames is increased up to safety life level.

Keywords: chevron-braced frames, suspended zipper frames, zipper frames, zipper columns

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78 Stability Analysis of a Class of Nonlinear Systems Using Discrete Variable Structures and Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Vivekanandan C., Prabhakar .R., Prema D.

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of discrete-time variable structure control with sliding mode based on the 'reaching law' method for robust control of a 'simple inverted pendulum on moving cart' - a standard nonlinear benchmark system. The controllers designed using the above techniques are completely insensitive to parametric uncertainty and external disturbance. The controller design is carried out using pole placement technique to find state feedback gain matrix , which decides the dynamic behavior of the system during sliding mode. This is followed by feedback gain realization using the control law which is synthesized from 'Gao-s reaching law'. The model of a single inverted pendulum and the discrete variable structure control controller are developed, simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK and results are presented. The response of this simulation is compared with that of the discrete linear quadratic regulator (DLQR) and the advantages of sliding mode controller over DLQR are also presented

Keywords: Inverted pendulum, Variable Structure, Sliding mode control, Discrete-time systems, Nonlinear systems.

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77 Fall Avoidance Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Type Robotic Wheelchair While Climbing Stairs

Authors: Nan Ding, Motoki Shino, Nobuyasu Tomokuni, Genki Murata

Abstract:

The wheelchair is the major means of transport for physically disabled people. However, it cannot overcome architectural barriers such as curbs and stairs. In this paper, the authors proposed a method to avoid falling down of a wheeled inverted pendulum type robotic wheelchair for climbing stairs. The problem of this system is that the feedback gain of the wheels cannot be set high due to modeling errors and gear backlash, which results in the movement of wheels. Therefore, the wheels slide down the stairs or collide with the side of the stairs, and finally the wheelchair falls down. To avoid falling down, the authors proposed a slider control strategy based on skyhook model in order to decrease the movement of wheels, and a rotary link control strategy based on the staircase dimensions in order to avoid collision or slide down. The effectiveness of the proposed fall avoidance control strategy was validated by ODE simulations and the prototype wheelchair.

Keywords: EPW, fall avoidance control, skyhook, wheeled inverted pendulum.

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76 Dynamic Inverted Index Maintenance

Authors: Leo Galambos

Abstract:

The majority of today's IR systems base the IR task on two main processes: indexing and searching. There exists a special group of dynamic IR systems where both processes (indexing and searching) happen simultaneously; such a system discards obsolete information, simultaneously dealing with the insertion of new in¬formation, while still answering user queries. In these dynamic, time critical text document databases, it is often important to modify index structures quickly, as documents arrive. This paper presents a method for dynamization which may be used for this task. Experimental results show that the dynamization process is possible and that it guarantees the response time for the query operation and index actualization.

Keywords: Search engine, inverted file, index management.

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75 Efficient and Effective Gabor Feature Representation for Face Detection

Authors: Yasuomi D. Sato, Yasutaka Kuriya

Abstract:

We here propose improved version of elastic graph matching (EGM) as a face detector, called the multi-scale EGM (MS-EGM). In this improvement, Gabor wavelet-based pyramid reduces computational complexity for the feature representation often used in the conventional EGM, but preserving a critical amount of information about an image. The MS-EGM gives us higher detection performance than Viola-Jones object detection algorithm of the AdaBoost Haar-like feature cascade. We also show rapid detection speeds of the MS-EGM, comparable to the Viola-Jones method. We find fruitful benefits in the MS-EGM, in terms of topological feature representation for a face.

Keywords: Face detection, Gabor wavelet based pyramid, elastic graph matching, topological preservation, redundancy of computational complexity.

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74 Optimizing PID Parameters Using Harmony Search

Authors: N. Arulanand, P. Dhara

Abstract:

Optimizing the parameters in the controller plays a vital role in the control theory and its applications. Optimizing the PID parameters is finding out the best value from the feasible solutions. Finding the optimal value is an optimization problem. Inverted Pendulum is a very good platform for control engineers to verify and apply different logics in the field of control theory. It is necessary to find an optimization technique for the controller to tune the values automatically in order to minimize the error within the given bounds. In this paper, the algorithmic concepts of Harmony search (HS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been analyzed for the given range of values. The experimental results show that HS performs well than GA.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Harmony Search Algorithm, Inverted Pendulum, PID Controller.

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73 Image Compression Using Hybrid Vector Quantization

Authors: S.Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P.Navaneethan

Abstract:

In this paper, image compression using hybrid vector quantization scheme such as Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) and Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) are introduced. A combined MSVQ and PVQ are utilized to take advantages provided by both of them. In the wavelet decomposition of the image, most of the information often resides in the lowest frequency subband. MSVQ is applied to significant low frequency coefficients. PVQ is utilized to quantize the coefficients of other high frequency subbands. The wavelet coefficients are derived using lifting scheme. The main aim of the proposed scheme is to achieve high compression ratio without much compromise in the image quality. The results are compared with the existing image compression scheme using MSVQ.

Keywords: Lifting Scheme, Multistage Vector Quantization and Pyramid Vector Quantization.

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