Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1972

Search results for: multi resolution pyramid

1972 Dual Pyramid of Agents for Image Segmentation

Authors: K. Idir, H. Merouani, Y. Tlili.

Abstract:

An effective method for the early detection of breast cancer is the mammographic screening. One of the most important signs of early breast cancer is the presence of microcalcifications. For the detection of microcalcification in a mammography image, we propose to conceive a multiagent system based on a dual irregular pyramid. An initial segmentation is obtained by an incremental approach; the result represents level zero of the pyramid. The edge information obtained by application of the Canny filter is taken into account to affine the segmentation. The edge-agents and region-agents cooper level by level of the pyramid by exploiting its various characteristics to provide the segmentation process convergence.

Keywords: Dual Pyramid, Image Segmentation, Multi-agent System, Region/Edge Cooperation.

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1971 Automatic 2D/2D Registration using Multiresolution Pyramid based Mutual Information in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

Authors: Jing Jia, Shanqing Huang, Fang Liu, Qiang Ren, Gui Li, Mengyun Cheng, Chufeng Jin, Yican Wu

Abstract:

Medical image registration is the key technology in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) systems. On the basis of the previous work on our IGRT prototype with a biorthogonal x-ray imaging system, we described a method focused on the 2D/2D rigid-body registration using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information in this paper. Three key steps were involved in the method : firstly, four 2D images were obtained including two x-ray projection images and two digital reconstructed radiographies(DRRs ) as the input for the registration ; Secondly, each pair of the corresponding x-ray image and DRR image were matched using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information under the ITK registration framework ; Thirdly, we got the final couch offset through a coordinate transformation by calculating the translations acquired from the two pairs of the images. A simulation example of a parotid gland tumor case and a clinical example of an anthropomorphic head phantom were employed in the verification tests. In addition, the influence of different CT slice thickness were tested. The simulation results showed that the positioning errors were 0.068±0.070, 0.072±0.098, 0.154±0.176mm along three axes which were lateral, longitudinal and vertical. The clinical test indicated that the positioning errors of the planned isocenter were 0.066, 0.07, 2.06mm on average with a CT slice thickness of 2.5mm. It can be concluded that our method with its verified accuracy and robustness can be effectively used in IGRT systems for patient setup.

Keywords: 2D/2D registration, image guided radiation therapy, multi resolution pyramid, mutual information.

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1970 A New Technique for Multi Resolution Characterization of Epileptic Spikes in EEG

Authors: H. N. Suresh, Dr. V. Udaya Shankara

Abstract:

A technique proposed for the automatic detection of spikes in electroencephalograms (EEG). A multi-resolution approach and a non-linear energy operator are exploited. The signal on each EEG channel is decomposed into three sub bands using a non-decimated wavelet transform (WT). The WT is a powerful tool for multi-resolution analysis of non-stationary signal as well as for signal compression, recognition and restoration. Each sub band is analyzed by using a non-linear energy operator, in order to detect spikes. A decision rule detects the presence of spikes in the EEG, relying upon the energy of the three sub-bands. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was confirmed by analyzing both test signals and EEG layouts.

Keywords: EEG, Spike, SNEO, Wavelet Transform

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1969 Enhancing Multi-Frame Images Using Self-Delaying Dynamic Networks

Authors: Lewis E. Hibell, Honghai Liu, David J. Brown

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of a newly created network structure known as a Self-Delaying Dynamic Network (SDN) to create a high resolution image from a set of time stepped input frames. These SDNs are non-recurrent temporal neural networks which can process time sampled data. SDNs can store input data for a lifecycle and feature dynamic logic based connections between layers. Several low resolution images and one high resolution image of a scene were presented to the SDN during training by a Genetic Algorithm. The SDN was trained to process the input frames in order to recreate the high resolution image. The trained SDN was then used to enhance a number of unseen noisy image sets. The quality of high resolution images produced by the SDN is compared to that of high resolution images generated using Bi-Cubic interpolation. The SDN produced images are superior in several ways to the images produced using Bi-Cubic interpolation.

Keywords: Image Enhancement, Neural Networks, Multi-Frame.

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1968 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, W. Liu, A. Abas, J. Yu, S. Li, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker

Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured, reflection, solar cells.

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1967 Evaluation of a Multi-Resolution Dyadic Wavelet Transform Method for usable Speech Detection

Authors: Wajdi Ghezaiel, Amel Ben Slimane Rahmouni, Ezzedine Ben Braiek

Abstract:

Many applications of speech communication and speaker identification suffer from the problem of co-channel speech. This paper deals with a multi-resolution dyadic wavelet transform method for usable segments of co-channel speech detection that could be processed by a speaker identification system. Evaluation of this method is performed on TIMIT database referring to the Target to Interferer Ratio measure. Co-channel speech is constructed by mixing all possible gender speakers. Results do not show much difference for different mixtures. For the overall mixtures 95.76% of usable speech is correctly detected with false alarms of 29.65%.

Keywords: Co-channel speech, usable speech, multi-resolutionanalysis, speaker identification

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1966 A Sub Pixel Resolution Method

Authors: S. Khademi, A. Darudi, Z. Abbasi

Abstract:

One of the main limitations for the resolution of optical instruments is the size of the sensor-s pixels. In this paper we introduce a new sub pixel resolution algorithm to enhance the resolution of images. This method is based on the analysis of multiimages which are fast recorded during the fine relative motion of image and pixel arrays of CCDs. It is shown that by applying this method for a sample noise free image one will enhance the resolution with 10-14 order of error.

Keywords: Sub Pixel Resolution, Moving Pixels, CCD, Image, Optical Instrument.

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1965 The Relationship of the Dentate Nucleus with the Pyramid of Vermis: A Microneurosurgical Anatomical Study

Authors: Santhosh K. S. Annayappa, Nupur Pruthi

Abstract:

The region of dentate nucleus is a common site for various pathologies like hematomas, tumours, etc. We aimed to study in detail the relationship of this region with the vermis, especially the pyramid using microscopic fibre dissection technique. To achieve this aim, 20 cerebellar hemispheres were studied from the 11 cerebellums. Dissection was performed using wooden spatulas and micro dissectors under a microscope following Klingler’s preservation technique. The relationship between the pyramid of vermis and the dentate nucleus was studied in detail. A similar relationship was studied on the MRI of randomly selected trigeminal neuralgia patients and correlated with anatomical findings. Results show the mean distance of the lateral margin of the dentate nucleus from the midline on anatomic specimens was 21.4 ± 1.8 mm (19-25 mm) and 23.4 ± 3.4 mm (15-29 mm) on right and left side, respectively. Similar measurements made on the MRI were 22.97 ± 2.0 mm (20.03-26.15 mm) on the right side and 23.98 ± 2.1 mm (21.47-27.67 mm) on the left side. The amount of white matter dissection required to reach the dentate nucleus at the pyramidal attachment area was 7.3 ± 1.0 mm (6-9 mm) on the right side and 6.8 ± 1.4 mm (5-10 mm) on the left side. It was concluded that the pyramid of vermis has a constant relationship with the dentate nucleus and can be used as an excellent landmark during surgery to localise the dentate nucleus on the suboccipital surface.

Keywords: Fiber dissection, micro neurosurgery, dentate nucleus of cerebellum, pyramid of vermis.

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1964 Efficient and Effective Gabor Feature Representation for Face Detection

Authors: Yasuomi D. Sato, Yasutaka Kuriya

Abstract:

We here propose improved version of elastic graph matching (EGM) as a face detector, called the multi-scale EGM (MS-EGM). In this improvement, Gabor wavelet-based pyramid reduces computational complexity for the feature representation often used in the conventional EGM, but preserving a critical amount of information about an image. The MS-EGM gives us higher detection performance than Viola-Jones object detection algorithm of the AdaBoost Haar-like feature cascade. We also show rapid detection speeds of the MS-EGM, comparable to the Viola-Jones method. We find fruitful benefits in the MS-EGM, in terms of topological feature representation for a face.

Keywords: Face detection, Gabor wavelet based pyramid, elastic graph matching, topological preservation, redundancy of computational complexity.

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1963 Classification of Right and Left-Hand Movement Using Multi-Resolution Analysis Method

Authors: Nebi Gedik

Abstract:

The aim of the brain-computer interface studies on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals containing motor imagery is to extract the effective features that will provide the highest possible classification accuracy for the detection of the desired motor movement. However, achieving this goal is difficult as the most suitable frequency band and time frame vary from subject to subject. In this study, the classification success of the two-feature data obtained from raw EEG signals and the coefficients of the multi-resolution analysis method applied to the EEG signals were analyzed comparatively. The method was applied to several EEG channels (C3, Cz and C4) signals obtained from the EEG data set belonging to the publicly available BCI competition III.

Keywords: Motor imagery, EEG, wave atom transform, k-NN.

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1962 Effective Teaching Pyramid and Its Impact on Enhancing the Participation of Students in Swimming Classes

Authors: Salam M. H. Kareem

Abstract:

Instructional or teaching procedures and their proper sequence are essential for high-quality learning outcomes. These actions are the path that the teacher takes during the learning process after setting the learning objectives. Teachers and specialists in the education field should include teaching procedures with putting in place an effective mechanism for the procedure’s implementation to achieve a logical sequence with the desired output of overall education process. Determining the sequence of these actions may be a strategic process outlined by a strategic educational plan or drawn by teachers with a high level of experience, enabling them to determine those logical procedures. While specific actions may be necessary for a specific form, many Physical Education (PE) teachers can work out on various sports disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of using the teaching sequence of the teaching pyramid in raising the level of enjoyment in swimming classes. Four months later of teaching swimming skills to the control and experimental groups of the study, we figured that using the tools shown in the teaching pyramid with the experimental group led to statistically significant differences in the positive tendencies of students to participate in the swimming classes by using the traditional procedures of teaching and using of successive procedures in the teaching pyramid, and in favor of the teaching pyramid, The students are influenced by enhancing their tendency to participate in swimming classes when the teaching procedures followed are sensitive to individual differences and are based on the element of pleasure in learning, and less positive levels of the tendency of students when using traditional teaching procedures, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform. The level of positive tendencies of students when using successive procedures in the teaching pyramid was increased, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform, because of the high level of motivation and the desire to challenge the self-provided by the teaching pyramid.

Keywords: Physical education, swimming classes, teaching process, teaching pyramid.

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1961 Better Perception of Low Resolution Images Using Wavelet Interpolation Techniques

Authors: Tarun Gulati, Kapil Gupta, Dushyant Gupta

Abstract:

High resolution images are always desired as they contain the more information and they can better represent the original data. So, to convert the low resolution image into high resolution interpolation is done. The quality of such high resolution image depends on the interpolation function and is assessed in terms of sharpness of image. This paper focuses on Wavelet based Interpolation Techniques in which an input image is divided into subbands. Each subband is processed separately and finally combined the processed subbandsto get the super resolution image. 

Keywords: SWT, DWTSR, DWTSWT, DWCWT.

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1960 The Effect of Pyramid Structure on Firm Value

Authors: Irfah Najihah Basir Malan, Norhana Salamudin, Noryati Ahmad

Abstract:

Corporate ownership structure is an important factor influencing firm performance. This study aims to answer the question whether pyramid structure has negative effect on firm value. This study is important because the ownership of public listed companies in Malaysia is highly concentrated. The concentrated ownership such as Malaysia, agency conflict is prevalent between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders. Accordingly, the dominant role of shareholders in firms allows the controlling shareholders (including managers) to expropriate the interest of the minority shareholders for their own private advantage. This research is conducted on pyramidal firms in Malaysia. Applying the Attig Model as the underlying statistical test, it is found that firm value is negatively related to pyramid ownership of Malaysian public listed firms due to the mismatch between cash flow rights and control rights. Future research needs to focus on identifying the heterogeneous factors that improve the generalizability of research.

Keywords: Pyramid structure, Cash flow right, Control right, Firm value, Attig model.

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1959 Subjective Assessment about Super Resolution Image Resolution

Authors: Seiichi Gohshi, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Yoshiyasu Shimizu, Takeshi Ikenaga

Abstract:

Super resolution (SR) technologies are now being applied to video to improve resolution. Some TV sets are now equipped with SR functions. However, it is not known if super resolution image reconstruction (SRR) for TV really works or not. Super resolution with non-linear signal processing (SRNL) has recently been proposed. SRR and SRNL are the only methods for processing video signals in real time. The results from subjective assessments of SSR and SRNL are described in this paper. SRR video was produced in simulations with quarter precision motion vectors and 100 iterations. These are ideal conditions for SRR. We found that the image quality of SRNL is better than that of SRR even though SRR was processed under ideal conditions.

Keywords: Super Resolution Image Reconstruction, Super Resolution with Non-Linear Signal Processing, Subjective Assessment, Image Quality

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1958 Local Steerable Pyramid Binary Pattern Sequence LSPBPS for Face Recognition Method

Authors: Mohamed El Aroussi, Mohammed El Hassouni, Sanaa Ghouzali, Mohammed Rziza, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of face recognition under variable illumination conditions is considered. Most of the works in the literature exhibit good performance under strictly controlled acquisition conditions, but the performance drastically drop when changes in pose and illumination occur, so that recently number of approaches have been proposed to deal with such variability. The aim of this work is to introduce an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based steerable pyramid (SP) for face recognition. Local information is extracted from SP sub-bands using LBP(Local binary Pattern). The underlying statistics allow us to reduce the required amount of data to be stored. The experiments carried out on different face databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Face recognition (FR), Steerable pyramid (SP), localBinary Pattern (LBP).

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1957 Genetic-Based Multi Resolution Noisy Color Image Segmentation

Authors: Raghad Jawad Ahmed

Abstract:

Segmentation of a color image composed of different kinds of regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields. The decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or un stationary texture fields. A novel neighborhood-based segmentation approach is proposed. A genetic algorithm is used in the proposed segment-pass optimization process. In this pass, an energy function, which is defined based on Markov Random Fields, is minimized. In this paper we use an adaptive threshold estimation method for image thresholding in the wavelet domain based on the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) modeling of sub band coefficients. This method called Normal Shrink is computationally more efficient and adaptive because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on sub band data energy that used in the pre-stage of segmentation. A quad tree is employed to implement the multi resolution framework, which enables the use of different strategies at different resolution levels, and hence, the computation can be accelerated. The experimental results using the proposed segmentation approach are very encouraging.

Keywords: Color image segmentation, Genetic algorithm, Markov random field, Scale space filter.

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1956 An Approach Based on Statistics and Multi-Resolution Representation to Classify Mammograms

Authors: Nebi Gedik

Abstract:

One of the significant and continual public health problems in the world is breast cancer. Early detection is very important to fight the disease, and mammography has been one of the most common and reliable methods to detect the disease in the early stages. However, it is a difficult task, and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are needed to assist radiologists in providing both accurate and uniform evaluation for mass in mammograms. In this study, a multiresolution statistical method to classify mammograms as normal and abnormal in digitized mammograms is used to construct a CAD system. The mammogram images are represented by wave atom transform, and this representation is made by certain groups of coefficients, independently. The CAD system is designed by calculating some statistical features using each group of coefficients. The classification is performed by using support vector machine (SVM).

Keywords: Wave atom transform, statistical features, multi-resolution representation, mammogram.

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1955 A Novel Method Based on Monte Carlo for Simulation of Variable Resolution X-ray CT Scanner: Measurement of System Presampling MTF

Authors: H. Arabi, A.R. Kamali Asl

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is measurement of the system presampling MTF of a variable resolution x-ray (VRX) CT scanner. In this paper, we used the parameters of an actual VRX CT scanner for simulation and study of effect of different focal spot sizes on system presampling MTF by Monte Carlo method (GATE simulation software). Focal spot size of 0.6 mm limited the spatial resolution of the system to 5.5 cy/mm at incident angles of below 17º for cell#1. By focal spot size of 0.3 mm the spatial resolution increased up to 11 cy/mm and the limiting effect of focal spot size appeared at incident angles of below 9º. The focal spot size of 0.3 mm could improve the spatial resolution to some extent but because of magnification non-uniformity, there is a 10 cy/mm difference between spatial resolution of cell#1 and cell#256. The focal spot size of 0.1 mm acted as an ideal point source for this system. The spatial resolution increased to more than 35 cy/mm and at all incident angles the spatial resolution was a function of incident angle. By the way focal spot size of 0.1 mm minimized the effect of magnification nonuniformity.

Keywords: Focal spot, Spatial resolution, Monte Carlosimulation, Variable resolution x-ray (VRX) CT.

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1954 Improved Wi-Fi Backscatter System for Multi-to-Multi Communication

Authors: Chang-Bin Ha, Yong-Jun Kim, Dong-Hyun Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

The conventional Wi-Fi backscatter system can only process one-to-one communication between the Wi-Fi reader and the Wi-Fi tag. For improvement of throughput of the conventional system, this paper proposes the multi-to-multi communication system. In the proposed system, the interference by the multi-to-multi communication is effectively cancelled by the orthogonal multiple access based on the identification code of the tag. Although the overhead is generated by the procedure for the multi-to-multi communication, because the procedure is processed by the Wi-Fi protocol, the overhead is insignificant for the entire communication procedure. From the numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed system has nearly proportional increased throughput in according to the number of the tag that simultaneously participates in communication.

Keywords: Backscatter, Multi-to-multi communication, Orthogonality, Wi-Fi.

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1953 MAP-Based Image Super-resolution Reconstruction

Authors: Xueting Liu, Daojin Song, Chuandai Dong, Hongkui Li

Abstract:

From a set of shifted, blurred, and decimated image , super-resolution image reconstruction can get a high-resolution image. So it has become an active research branch in the field of image restoration. In general, super-resolution image restoration is an ill-posed problem. Prior knowledge about the image can be combined to make the problem well-posed, which contributes to some regularization methods. In the regularization methods at present, however, regularization parameter was selected by experience in some cases and other techniques have too heavy computation cost for computing the parameter. In this paper, we construct a new super-resolution algorithm by transforming the solving of the System stem Є=An into the solving of the equations X+A*X-1A=I , and propose an inverse iterative method.

Keywords: High-resolution MAP image, Reconstruction, Image interpolation, Motion Estimation, Hermitian positive definite solutions.

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1952 A proposed High-Resolution Time-Frequency Distribution for the Analysis of Multicomponent and Speech Signals

Authors: D. Boutana, B. Barkat , F. Marir

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel time-frequency distribution (TFD) for the analysis of multi-component signals. In particular, we use synthetic as well as real-life speech signals to prove the superiority of the proposed TFD in comparison to some existing ones. In the comparison, we consider the cross-terms suppression and the high energy concentration of the signal around its instantaneous frequency (IF).

Keywords: Cohen's Class, Multicomponent signal, SeparableKernel, Speech signal, Time- frequency resolution.

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1951 Automatic Change Detection for High-Resolution Satellite Images of Urban and Suburban Areas

Authors: Antigoni Panagiotopoulou, Lemonia Ragia

Abstract:

High-resolution satellite images can provide detailed information about change detection on the earth. In the present work, QuickBird images of spatial resolution 60 cm/pixel and WorldView images of resolution 30 cm/pixel are utilized to perform automatic change detection in urban and suburban areas of Crete, Greece. There is a relative time difference of 13 years among the satellite images. Multiindex scene representation is applied on the images to classify the scene into buildings, vegetation, water and ground. Then, automatic change detection is made possible by pixel-per-pixel comparison of the classified multi-temporal images. The vegetation index and the water index which have been developed in this study prove effective. Furthermore, the proposed change detection approach not only indicates whether changes have taken place or not but also provides specific information relative to the types of changes. Experimentations with other different scenes in the future could help optimize the proposed spectral indices as well as the entire change detection methodology.

Keywords: Change detection, multiindex scene representation, spectral index, QuickBird, WorldView.

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1950 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, tungsten oxide, WO3, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer.

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1949 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

Abstract:

Preference for different conflict resolution styles is influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese Owner and Contractor, Conflict, Construction Project, Conflict Resolution Styles.

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1948 A Hybrid Image Fusion Model for Generating High Spatial-Temporal-Spectral Resolution Data Using OLI-MODIS-Hyperion Satellite Imagery

Authors: Yongquan Zhao, Bo Huang

Abstract:

Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Resolution (STSR) are three key characteristics of Earth observation satellite sensors; however, any single satellite sensor cannot provide Earth observations with high STSR simultaneously because of the hardware technology limitations of satellite sensors. On the other hand, a conflicting circumstance is that the demand for high STSR has been growing with the remote sensing application development. Although image fusion technology provides a feasible means to overcome the limitations of the current Earth observation data, the current fusion technologies cannot enhance all STSR simultaneously and provide high enough resolution improvement level. This study proposes a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal-Spectral image Fusion Model (HSTSFM) to generate synthetic satellite data with high STSR simultaneously, which blends the high spatial resolution from the panchromatic image of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), the high temporal resolution from the multi-spectral image of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the high spectral resolution from the hyper-spectral image of Hyperion to produce high STSR images. The proposed HSTSFM contains three fusion modules: (1) spatial-spectral image fusion; (2) spatial-temporal image fusion; (3) temporal-spectral image fusion. A set of test data with both phenological and land cover type changes in Beijing suburb area, China is adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that HSTSFM can produce fused image that has good spatial and spectral fidelity to the reference image, which means it has the potential to generate synthetic data to support the studies that require high STSR satellite imagery.

Keywords: Hybrid spatial-temporal-spectral fusion, high resolution synthetic imagery, least square regression, sparse representation, spectral transformation.

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1947 Energy Distribution of EEG Signals: EEG Signal Wavelet-Neural Network Classifier

Authors: I. Omerhodzic, S. Avdakovic, A. Nuhanovic, K. Dizdarevic

Abstract:

In this paper, a wavelet-based neural network (WNN) classifier for recognizing EEG signals is implemented and tested under three sets EEG signals (healthy subjects, patients with epilepsy and patients with epileptic syndrome during the seizure). First, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with the Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) is applied to decompose EEG signal at resolution levels of the components of the EEG signal (δ, θ, α, β and γ) and the Parseval-s theorem are employed to extract the percentage distribution of energy features of the EEG signal at different resolution levels. Second, the neural network (NN) classifies these extracted features to identify the EEGs type according to the percentage distribution of energy features. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using in total 300 EEG signals. The results showed that the proposed classifier has the ability of recognizing and classifying EEG signals efficiently.

Keywords: Epilepsy, EEG, Wavelet transform, Energydistribution, Neural Network, Classification.

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1946 Super Resolution Blind Reconstruction of Low Resolution Images using Wavelets based Fusion

Authors: Liyakathunisa, V. K. Ananthashayana

Abstract:

Crucial information barely visible to the human eye is often embedded in a series of low resolution images taken of the same scene. Super resolution reconstruction is the process of combining several low resolution images into a single higher resolution image. The ideal algorithm should be fast, and should add sharpness and details, both at edges and in regions without adding artifacts. In this paper we propose a super resolution blind reconstruction technique for linearly degraded images. In our proposed technique the algorithm is divided into three parts an image registration, wavelets based fusion and an image restoration. In this paper three low resolution images are considered which may sub pixels shifted, rotated, blurred or noisy, the sub pixel shifted images are registered using affine transformation model; A wavelet based fusion is performed and the noise is removed using soft thresolding. Our proposed technique reduces blocking artifacts and also smoothens the edges and it is also able to restore high frequency details in an image. Our technique is efficient and computationally fast having clear perspective of real time implementation.

Keywords: Affine Transforms, Denoiseing, DWT, Fusion, Image registration.

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1945 A Robust TVD-WENO Scheme for Conservation Laws

Authors: A. Abdalla, A. Kaltayev

Abstract:

The ultimate goal of this article is to develop a robust and accurate numerical method for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. A hybrid numerical method, coupling a cheap fourth order total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme [1] for smooth region and a Robust seventh-order weighted non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme [2] near discontinuities, is considered. High order multi-resolution analysis is used to detect the high gradients regions of the numerical solution in order to capture the shocks with the WENO scheme, while the smooth regions are computed with fourth order total variation diminishing (TVD). For time integration, we use the third order TVD Runge-Kutta scheme. The accuracy of the resulting hybrid high order scheme is comparable with these of WENO, but with significant decrease of the CPU cost. Numerical demonstrates that the proposed scheme is comparable to the high order WENO scheme and superior to the fourth order TVD scheme. Our scheme has the added advantage of simplicity and computational efficiency. Numerical tests are presented which show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: WENO scheme, TVD schemes, smoothness indicators, multi-resolution.

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1944 Control Chart Pattern Recognition Using Wavelet Based Neural Networks

Authors: Jun Seok Kim, Cheong-Sool Park, Jun-Geol Baek, Sung-Shick Kim

Abstract:

Control chart pattern recognition is one of the most important tools to identify the process state in statistical process control. The abnormal process state could be classified by the recognition of unnatural patterns that arise from assignable causes. In this study, a wavelet based neural network approach is proposed for the recognition of control chart patterns that have various characteristics. The procedure of proposed control chart pattern recognizer comprises three stages. First, multi-resolution wavelet analysis is used to generate time-shape and time-frequency coefficients that have detail information about the patterns. Second, distance based features are extracted by a bi-directional Kohonen network to make reduced and robust information. Third, a back-propagation network classifier is trained by these features. The accuracy of the proposed method is shown by the performance evaluation with numerical results.

Keywords: Control chart pattern recognition, Multi-resolution wavelet analysis, Bi-directional Kohonen network, Back-propagation network, Feature extraction.

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1943 Mapping Paddy Rice Agriculture using Multi-temporal FORMOSAT-2 Images

Authors: Yi-Shiang Shiu, Meng-Lung Lin, Kang-Tsung Chang, Tzu-How Chu

Abstract:

Most paddy rice fields in East Asia are small parcels, and the weather conditions during the growing season are usually cloudy. FORMOSAT-2 multi-spectral images have an 8-meter resolution and one-day recurrence, ideal for mapping paddy rice fields in East Asia. To map rice fields, this study first determined the transplanting and the most active tillering stages of paddy rice and then used multi-temporal images to distinguish different growing characteristics between paddy rice and other ground covers. The unsupervised ISODATA (iterative self-organizing data analysis techniques) and supervised maximum likelihood were both used to discriminate paddy rice fields, with training areas automatically derived from ten-year cultivation parcels in Taiwan. Besides original bands in multi-spectral images, we also generated normalized difference vegetation index and experimented with object-based pre-classification and post-classification. This paper discusses results of different image classification methods in an attempt to find a precise and automatic solution to mapping paddy rice in Taiwan.

Keywords: paddy rice fields; multi-temporal; FORMOSAT-2images, normalized difference vegetation index, object-basedclassification.

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