Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: pyramid of vermis.

22 The Relationship of the Dentate Nucleus with the Pyramid of Vermis: A Microneurosurgical Anatomical Study

Authors: Santhosh K. S. Annayappa, Nupur Pruthi

Abstract:

The region of dentate nucleus is a common site for various pathologies like hematomas, tumours, etc. We aimed to study in detail the relationship of this region with the vermis, especially the pyramid using microscopic fibre dissection technique. To achieve this aim, 20 cerebellar hemispheres were studied from the 11 cerebellums. Dissection was performed using wooden spatulas and micro dissectors under a microscope following Klingler’s preservation technique. The relationship between the pyramid of vermis and the dentate nucleus was studied in detail. A similar relationship was studied on the MRI of randomly selected trigeminal neuralgia patients and correlated with anatomical findings. Results show the mean distance of the lateral margin of the dentate nucleus from the midline on anatomic specimens was 21.4 ± 1.8 mm (19-25 mm) and 23.4 ± 3.4 mm (15-29 mm) on right and left side, respectively. Similar measurements made on the MRI were 22.97 ± 2.0 mm (20.03-26.15 mm) on the right side and 23.98 ± 2.1 mm (21.47-27.67 mm) on the left side. The amount of white matter dissection required to reach the dentate nucleus at the pyramidal attachment area was 7.3 ± 1.0 mm (6-9 mm) on the right side and 6.8 ± 1.4 mm (5-10 mm) on the left side. It was concluded that the pyramid of vermis has a constant relationship with the dentate nucleus and can be used as an excellent landmark during surgery to localise the dentate nucleus on the suboccipital surface.

Keywords: Fiber dissection, micro neurosurgery, dentate nucleus of cerebellum, pyramid of vermis.

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21 Dual Pyramid of Agents for Image Segmentation

Authors: K. Idir, H. Merouani, Y. Tlili.

Abstract:

An effective method for the early detection of breast cancer is the mammographic screening. One of the most important signs of early breast cancer is the presence of microcalcifications. For the detection of microcalcification in a mammography image, we propose to conceive a multiagent system based on a dual irregular pyramid. An initial segmentation is obtained by an incremental approach; the result represents level zero of the pyramid. The edge information obtained by application of the Canny filter is taken into account to affine the segmentation. The edge-agents and region-agents cooper level by level of the pyramid by exploiting its various characteristics to provide the segmentation process convergence.

Keywords: Dual Pyramid, Image Segmentation, Multi-agent System, Region/Edge Cooperation.

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20 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, W. Liu, A. Abas, J. Yu, S. Li, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker

Abstract:

We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured, reflection, solar cells.

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19 Effective Teaching Pyramid and Its Impact on Enhancing the Participation of Students in Swimming Classes

Authors: Salam M. H. Kareem

Abstract:

Instructional or teaching procedures and their proper sequence are essential for high-quality learning outcomes. These actions are the path that the teacher takes during the learning process after setting the learning objectives. Teachers and specialists in the education field should include teaching procedures with putting in place an effective mechanism for the procedure’s implementation to achieve a logical sequence with the desired output of overall education process. Determining the sequence of these actions may be a strategic process outlined by a strategic educational plan or drawn by teachers with a high level of experience, enabling them to determine those logical procedures. While specific actions may be necessary for a specific form, many Physical Education (PE) teachers can work out on various sports disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of using the teaching sequence of the teaching pyramid in raising the level of enjoyment in swimming classes. Four months later of teaching swimming skills to the control and experimental groups of the study, we figured that using the tools shown in the teaching pyramid with the experimental group led to statistically significant differences in the positive tendencies of students to participate in the swimming classes by using the traditional procedures of teaching and using of successive procedures in the teaching pyramid, and in favor of the teaching pyramid, The students are influenced by enhancing their tendency to participate in swimming classes when the teaching procedures followed are sensitive to individual differences and are based on the element of pleasure in learning, and less positive levels of the tendency of students when using traditional teaching procedures, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform. The level of positive tendencies of students when using successive procedures in the teaching pyramid was increased, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform, because of the high level of motivation and the desire to challenge the self-provided by the teaching pyramid.

Keywords: Physical education, swimming classes, teaching process, teaching pyramid.

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18 The Effect of Pyramid Structure on Firm Value

Authors: Irfah Najihah Basir Malan, Norhana Salamudin, Noryati Ahmad

Abstract:

Corporate ownership structure is an important factor influencing firm performance. This study aims to answer the question whether pyramid structure has negative effect on firm value. This study is important because the ownership of public listed companies in Malaysia is highly concentrated. The concentrated ownership such as Malaysia, agency conflict is prevalent between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders. Accordingly, the dominant role of shareholders in firms allows the controlling shareholders (including managers) to expropriate the interest of the minority shareholders for their own private advantage. This research is conducted on pyramidal firms in Malaysia. Applying the Attig Model as the underlying statistical test, it is found that firm value is negatively related to pyramid ownership of Malaysian public listed firms due to the mismatch between cash flow rights and control rights. Future research needs to focus on identifying the heterogeneous factors that improve the generalizability of research.

Keywords: Pyramid structure, Cash flow right, Control right, Firm value, Attig model.

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17 Local Steerable Pyramid Binary Pattern Sequence LSPBPS for Face Recognition Method

Authors: Mohamed El Aroussi, Mohammed El Hassouni, Sanaa Ghouzali, Mohammed Rziza, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of face recognition under variable illumination conditions is considered. Most of the works in the literature exhibit good performance under strictly controlled acquisition conditions, but the performance drastically drop when changes in pose and illumination occur, so that recently number of approaches have been proposed to deal with such variability. The aim of this work is to introduce an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based steerable pyramid (SP) for face recognition. Local information is extracted from SP sub-bands using LBP(Local binary Pattern). The underlying statistics allow us to reduce the required amount of data to be stored. The experiments carried out on different face databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Face recognition (FR), Steerable pyramid (SP), localBinary Pattern (LBP).

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16 Automatic 2D/2D Registration using Multiresolution Pyramid based Mutual Information in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

Authors: Jing Jia, Shanqing Huang, Fang Liu, Qiang Ren, Gui Li, Mengyun Cheng, Chufeng Jin, Yican Wu

Abstract:

Medical image registration is the key technology in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) systems. On the basis of the previous work on our IGRT prototype with a biorthogonal x-ray imaging system, we described a method focused on the 2D/2D rigid-body registration using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information in this paper. Three key steps were involved in the method : firstly, four 2D images were obtained including two x-ray projection images and two digital reconstructed radiographies(DRRs ) as the input for the registration ; Secondly, each pair of the corresponding x-ray image and DRR image were matched using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information under the ITK registration framework ; Thirdly, we got the final couch offset through a coordinate transformation by calculating the translations acquired from the two pairs of the images. A simulation example of a parotid gland tumor case and a clinical example of an anthropomorphic head phantom were employed in the verification tests. In addition, the influence of different CT slice thickness were tested. The simulation results showed that the positioning errors were 0.068±0.070, 0.072±0.098, 0.154±0.176mm along three axes which were lateral, longitudinal and vertical. The clinical test indicated that the positioning errors of the planned isocenter were 0.066, 0.07, 2.06mm on average with a CT slice thickness of 2.5mm. It can be concluded that our method with its verified accuracy and robustness can be effectively used in IGRT systems for patient setup.

Keywords: 2D/2D registration, image guided radiation therapy, multi resolution pyramid, mutual information.

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15 Efficient and Effective Gabor Feature Representation for Face Detection

Authors: Yasuomi D. Sato, Yasutaka Kuriya

Abstract:

We here propose improved version of elastic graph matching (EGM) as a face detector, called the multi-scale EGM (MS-EGM). In this improvement, Gabor wavelet-based pyramid reduces computational complexity for the feature representation often used in the conventional EGM, but preserving a critical amount of information about an image. The MS-EGM gives us higher detection performance than Viola-Jones object detection algorithm of the AdaBoost Haar-like feature cascade. We also show rapid detection speeds of the MS-EGM, comparable to the Viola-Jones method. We find fruitful benefits in the MS-EGM, in terms of topological feature representation for a face.

Keywords: Face detection, Gabor wavelet based pyramid, elastic graph matching, topological preservation, redundancy of computational complexity.

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14 Image Compression Using Hybrid Vector Quantization

Authors: S.Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, P.Navaneethan

Abstract:

In this paper, image compression using hybrid vector quantization scheme such as Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) and Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) are introduced. A combined MSVQ and PVQ are utilized to take advantages provided by both of them. In the wavelet decomposition of the image, most of the information often resides in the lowest frequency subband. MSVQ is applied to significant low frequency coefficients. PVQ is utilized to quantize the coefficients of other high frequency subbands. The wavelet coefficients are derived using lifting scheme. The main aim of the proposed scheme is to achieve high compression ratio without much compromise in the image quality. The results are compared with the existing image compression scheme using MSVQ.

Keywords: Lifting Scheme, Multistage Vector Quantization and Pyramid Vector Quantization.

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13 An Evaluation Method for Two-Dimensional Position Errors and Assembly Errors of a Rotational Table on a 4 Axis Machine Tool

Authors: Jooho Hwang, Chang-Kyu Song, Chun-Hong Park

Abstract:

This paper describes a method to measure and compensate a 4 axes ultra-precision machine tool that generates micro patterns on the large surfaces. The grooving machine is usually used for making a micro mold for many electrical parts such as a light guide plate for LCD and fuel cells. The ultra precision machine tool has three linear axes and one rotational table. Shaping is usually used to generate micro patterns. In the case of 50 μm pitch and 25 μm height pyramid pattern machining with a 90° wedge angle bite, one of linear axis is used for long stroke motion for high cutting speed and other linear axis are used for feeding. The triangular patterns can be generated with many times of long stroke of one axis. Then 90° rotation of work piece is needed to make pyramid patterns with superposition of machined two triangular patterns. To make a two dimensional positioning error, straightness of two axes in out of plane, squareness between the each axis are important. Positioning errors, straightness and squarness were measured by laser interferometer system. Those were compensated and confirmed by ISO230-6. One of difficult problem to measure the error motions is squareness or parallelism of axis between the rotational table and linear axis. It was investigated by simultaneous moving of rotary table and XY axes. This compensation method is introduced in this paper.

Keywords: Ultra-precision machine tool, muti-axis errors, squraness, positioning errors.

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12 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

Authors: Kiyoshi Sawada, Takashi Mitsuishi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes.

Keywords: complete K-ary tree, organization structure, shortest path

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11 A Theoretical Hypothesis on Ferris Wheel Model of University Social Responsibility

Authors: Le Kang

Abstract:

According to the nature of the university, as a free and responsible academic community, USR is based on a different foundation —academic responsibility, so the Pyramid and the IC Model of CSR could not fully explain the most distinguished feature of USR. This paper sought to put forward a new model— Ferris Wheel Model, to illustrate the nature of USR and the process of achievement. The Ferris Wheel Model of USR shows the university creates a balanced, fairness and neutrality systemic structure to afford social responsibilities; that makes the organization could obtain a synergistic effect to achieve more extensive interests of stakeholders and wider social responsibilities.

Keywords: USR, Achievement model, Ferris wheel model.

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10 Object Detection based Weighted-Center Surround Difference

Authors: Seung-Hun Kim, Kye-Hoon Jeon, Byoung-Doo Kang, I1-Kyun Jung

Abstract:

Intelligent traffic surveillance technology is an issue in the field of traffic data analysis. Therefore, we need the technology to detect moving objects in real-time while there are variations in background and natural light. In this paper, we proposed a Weighted-Center Surround Difference method for object detection in outdoor environments. The proposed system detects objects using the saliency map that is obtained by analyzing the weight of each layers of Gaussian pyramid. In order to validate the effectiveness of our system, we implemented the proposed method using a digital signal processor, TMS320DM6437. Experimental results show that blurred noisy around objects was effectively eliminated and the object detection accuracy is improved.

Keywords: Saliency Map, Center Surround Difference, Object Detection, Surveillance System

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9 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, MLPNN, base station, prediction, best effort, real time.

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8 A Novel Multiresolution based Optimization Scheme for Robust Affine Parameter Estimation

Authors: J.Dinesh Peter

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method for affine parameter estimation between image sequences. Usually, the parameter estimation techniques can be done by least squares in a quadratic way. However, this technique can be sensitive to the presence of outliers. Therefore, parameter estimation techniques for various image processing applications are robust enough to withstand the influence of outliers. Progressively, some robust estimation functions demanding non-quadratic and perhaps non-convex potentials adopted from statistics literature have been used for solving these. Addressing the optimization of the error function in a factual framework for finding a global optimal solution, the minimization can begin with the convex estimator at the coarser level and gradually introduce nonconvexity i.e., from soft to hard redescending non-convex estimators when the iteration reaches finer level of multiresolution pyramid. Comparison has been made to find the performance of the results of proposed method with the results found individually using two different estimators.

Keywords: Image Processing, Affine parameter estimation, Outliers, Robust Statistics, Robust M-estimators

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7 Baby Boom Generation in Singapore and Its Impact on Ageing

Authors: Sharmistha Roy

Abstract:

In Singapore, there are about 1 million baby boomers, defined as those born between 1947 and 1964. They constitute a sizeable proportion (about 30 per cent) of the resident population comprising Singapore citizens and permanent residents. The first batches of these baby boomers have already 65 years old by 2012. Thereafter, baby boomers will swell the ranks of the elderly population in Singapore until 2030. The baby boomers in this study are divided into broad groups, namely, the early baby boomers (born 1947-54) and late baby boomers (1955-64). Continuing decline in fertility and mortality rates in the past three decades as well as improvements in health care facilities and services have changed the demography of Singapore from a “pyramid-shape” young, post war baby boomers population to a rapidly ageing population. With the ageing of the baby boom generation, the population of Singapore is about to grey rapidly over the next three decades. As such, there is a need for Singapore to understand the profile, perceptions and aspirations of this group, and devise strategies to address the needs and concerns as well as opportunities that arise with the ageing of baby boomers are discussed and presented in this work.

Keywords: Ageing index, Baby boomers, Demographic dependency ratio (DDR), Fertility and mortality rate, Life expectancy, Singapore.

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6 Fingerprint Compression Using Contourlet Transform and Multistage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, R. Sudhakar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new fingerprint coding technique based on contourlet transform and multistage vector quantization. Wavelets have shown their ability in representing natural images that contain smooth areas separated with edges. However, wavelets cannot efficiently take advantage of the fact that the edges usually found in fingerprints are smooth curves. This issue is addressed by directional transforms, known as contourlets, which have the property of preserving edges. The contourlet transform is a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks. The computation and storage requirements are the major difficulty in implementing a vector quantizer. In the full-search algorithm, the computation and storage complexity is an exponential function of the number of bits used in quantizing each frame of spectral information. The storage requirement in multistage vector quantization is less when compared to full search vector quantization. The coefficients of contourlet transform are quantized by multistage vector quantization. The quantized coefficients are encoded by Huffman coding. The results obtained are tabulated and compared with the existing wavelet based ones.

Keywords: Contourlet Transform, Directional Filter bank, Laplacian Pyramid, Multistage Vector Quantization

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5 Critical Factors Affecting the Implementation of Total Quality Management in the Construction Industry in U.A.E

Authors: Firas Mohamad Al-Sabek

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to examine the most critical and important factor which will affect the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the construction industry in the United Arab Emirates. It also examines the most effected Project outcome from implementing TQM. A framework was also proposed depending on the literature studies. The method used in this paper is a quantitative study. A survey with a sample of 60 respondents was created and distributed in a construction company in Abu Dhabi, which includes 15 questions to examine the most critical factor that will affect the implementation of TQM in addition to the most effected project outcome from implementing TQM. The survey showed that management commitment is the most important factor in implementing TQM in a construction company. Also it showed that Project cost is most effected outcome from the implementation of TQM. Management commitment is very important for implementing TQM in any company. If the management loose interest in quality then everyone in the organization will do so. The success of TQM will depend mostly on the top of the pyramid. Also cost is reduced and money is saved when the project team implement TQM. While if no quality measures are present within the team, the project will suffer a commercial failure. Based on literature, more factors can be examined and added to the model. In addition, more construction companies could be surveyed in order to obtain more accurate results. Also this study could be conducted outside the United Arab Emirates for further enchantment.

Keywords: Construction project, total quality management, management commitment, cost, theoretical framework.

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4 Faster Pedestrian Recognition Using Deformable Part Models

Authors: Alessandro Preziosi, Antonio Prioletti, Luca Castangia

Abstract:

Deformable part models achieve high precision in pedestrian recognition, but all publicly available implementations are too slow for real-time applications. We implemented a deformable part model algorithm fast enough for real-time use by exploiting information about the camera position and orientation. This implementation is both faster and more precise than alternative DPM implementations. These results are obtained by computing convolutions in the frequency domain and using lookup tables to speed up feature computation. This approach is almost an order of magnitude faster than the reference DPM implementation, with no loss in precision. Knowing the position of the camera with respect to horizon it is also possible prune many hypotheses based on their size and location. The range of acceptable sizes and positions is set by looking at the statistical distribution of bounding boxes in labelled images. With this approach it is not needed to compute the entire feature pyramid: for example higher resolution features are only needed near the horizon. This results in an increase in mean average precision of 5% and an increase in speed by a factor of two. Furthermore, to reduce misdetections involving small pedestrians near the horizon, input images are supersampled near the horizon. Supersampling the image at 1.5 times the original scale, results in an increase in precision of about 4%. The implementation was tested against the public KITTI dataset, obtaining an 8% improvement in mean average precision over the best performing DPM-based method. By allowing for a small loss in precision computational time can be easily brought down to our target of 100ms per image, reaching a solution that is faster and still more precise than all publicly available DPM implementations.

Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, deformable part model, dpm, pedestrian recognition.

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3 An Overall Approach to the Communication of Organizations in Conventional and Virtual Offices

Authors: Mehmet Altınöz

Abstract:

Organizational communication is an administrative function crucial especially for executives in the implementation of organizational and administrative functions. Executives spend a significant part of their time on communicative activities. Doing his or her daily routine, arranging meeting schedules, speaking on the telephone, reading or replying to business correspondence, or fulfilling the control functions within the organization, an executive typically engages in communication processes. Efficient communication is the principal device for the adequate implementation of administrative and organizational activities. For this purpose, management needs to specify the kind of communication system to be set up and the kind of communication devices to be used. Communication is vital for any organization. In conventional offices, communication takes place within the hierarchical pyramid called the organizational structure, and is known as formal or informal communication. Formal communication is the type that works in specified structures within the organizational rules and towards the organizational goals. Informal communication, on the other hand, is the unofficial type taking place among staff as face-to-face or telephone interaction. Communication in virtual as well as conventional offices is essential for obtaining the right information in administrative activities and decision-making. Virtual communication technologies increase the efficiency of communication especially in virtual teams. Group communication is strengthened through an inter-group central channel. Further, ease of information transmission makes it possible to reach the information at the source, allowing efficient and correct decisions. Virtual offices can present as a whole the elements of information which conventional offices produce in different environments. At present, virtual work has become a reality with its pros and cons, and will probably spread very rapidly in coming years, in line with the growth in information technologies.

Keywords: Organization, conventional office, virtual office, communication, communication model, communication functions, communication methods, vertical communication, linear communication, diagonal communication

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2 Appropriate Technology: Revisiting the Movement in Developing Countries for Sustainability

Authors: Jayshree Patnaik, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

The economic growth of any nation is steered and dependent on innovation in technology. It can be preferably argued that technology has enhanced the quality of life. Technology is linked both with an economic and a social structure. But there are some parts of the world or communities which are yet to reap the benefits of technological innovation. Business and organizations are now well equipped with cutting-edge innovations that improve the firm performance and provide them with a competitive edge, but rarely does it have a positive impact on any community which is weak and marginalized. In recent times, it is observed that communities are actively handling social or ecological issues with the help of indigenous technologies. Thus, "Appropriate Technology" comes into the discussion, which is quite prevalent in the rural third world. Appropriate technology grew as a movement in the mid-1970s during the energy crisis, but it lost its stance in the following years when people started it to describe it as an inferior technology or dead technology. Basically, there is no such technology which is inferior or sophisticated for a particular region. The relevance of appropriate technology lies in penetrating technology into a larger and weaker section of community where the “Bottom of the pyramid” can pay for technology if they find the price is affordable. This is a theoretical paper which primarily revolves around how appropriate technology has faded and again evolved in both developed and developing countries. The paper will try to focus on the various concepts, history and challenges faced by the appropriate technology over the years. Appropriate technology follows a documented approach but lags in overall design and diffusion. Diffusion of technology into the poorer sections of community remains unanswered until the present time. Appropriate technology is multi-disciplinary in nature; therefore, this openness allows having a varied working model for different problems. Appropriate technology is a friendly technology that seeks to improve the lives of people in a constraint environment by providing an affordable and sustainable solution. Appropriate technology needs to be defined in the era of modern technological advancement for sustainability.

Keywords: Appropriate technology, community, developing country, sustainability.

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1 Embedded Semantic Segmentation Network Optimized for Matrix Multiplication Accelerator

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Autonomous driving systems require high reliability to provide people with a safe and comfortable driving experience. However, despite the development of a number of vehicle sensors, it is difficult to always provide high perceived performance in driving environments that vary from time to season. The image segmentation method using deep learning, which has recently evolved rapidly, provides high recognition performance in various road environments stably. However, since the system controls a vehicle in real time, a highly complex deep learning network cannot be used due to time and memory constraints. Moreover, efficient networks are optimized for GPU environments, which degrade performance in embedded processor environments equipped simple hardware accelerators. In this paper, a semantic segmentation network, matrix multiplication accelerator network (MMANet), optimized for matrix multiplication accelerator (MMA) on Texas instrument digital signal processors (TI DSP) is proposed to improve the recognition performance of autonomous driving system. The proposed method is designed to maximize the number of layers that can be performed in a limited time to provide reliable driving environment information in real time. First, the number of channels in the activation map is fixed to fit the structure of MMA. By increasing the number of parallel branches, the lack of information caused by fixing the number of channels is resolved. Second, an efficient convolution is selected depending on the size of the activation. Since MMA is a fixed, it may be more efficient for normal convolution than depthwise separable convolution depending on memory access overhead. Thus, a convolution type is decided according to output stride to increase network depth. In addition, memory access time is minimized by processing operations only in L3 cache. Lastly, reliable contexts are extracted using the extended atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP). The suggested method gets stable features from an extended path by increasing the kernel size and accessing consecutive data. In addition, it consists of two ASPPs to obtain high quality contexts using the restored shape without global average pooling paths since the layer uses MMA as a simple adder. To verify the proposed method, an experiment is conducted using perfsim, a timing simulator, and the Cityscapes validation sets. The proposed network can process an image with 640 x 480 resolution for 6.67 ms, so six cameras can be used to identify the surroundings of the vehicle as 20 frame per second (FPS). In addition, it achieves 73.1% mean intersection over union (mIoU) which is the highest recognition rate among embedded networks on the Cityscapes validation set.

Keywords: Edge network, embedded network, MMA, matrix multiplication accelerator and semantic segmentation network.

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