Search results for: nanostructured catalysts
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 150

Search results for: nanostructured catalysts

150 Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured Catalysts for Pyrolysis of Biomass

Authors: Phuong T. Dang, Hy G. Le, Giang T. Pham, Hong T. M. Vu, Kien T, Nguyen, Canh D. Dao, Giang H. Le, Hoa T. K. Tran, Quang K. Nguyen, Tuan A. Vu

Abstract:

Nanostructured catalysts were successfully prepared by acidification of diatomite and regeneration of FCC spent catalysts. The obtained samples were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, EDX, MAS-NMR (27Al and 29Si), NH3-TPD and tested in catalytic pyrolysis of biomass (rice straw). The results showed that the similar bio-oil yield of 41.4% can be obtained by pyrolysis with catalysts at 450oC as compared to that of the pyrolysis without catalyst at 550oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 42.55% at the pyrolysis temperature of 500oC with catalytic content of 20%. Moreover, by catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil quality was better as reflected in higher ratio of H/C, lower ratio of O/C. This clearly indicated high application potential of these new nanostructured catalysts in the production of bio-oil with low oxygenated compounds.

Keywords: Acidified diatomite, biomass, catalytic pyrolysis, bio-oil, nanostructured catalysts, regenerated FCC catalyst.

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149 Doping of Conveyor Belt Materials with Nanostructured Fillers to Adapt Innovative Performance Characteristics

Authors: S. Falkenberg, L. Overmeyer

Abstract:

The “conveyor belt" as a product represents a complex high performance component with a wide range of different applications. Further development of these highly complex components demands an integration of new technologies and new enhanced materials. In this context nanostructured fillers appear to have a more promising effect on the performance of the conveyor belt composite than conventional micro-scaled fillers. Within the project “DotTrans" nanostructured fillers, for example silicon dioxide, are used to optimize performance parameters of conveyor belt systems. The objective of the project includes operating parameters like energy consumption or friction characteristics as well as adaptive parameters like cut or wear resistance.

Keywords: Conveyor belt, nanostructured fillers, wear resistance, friction characteristics.

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148 Development of Fen4/C And Fen2/C Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrodearomitization of Model Compounds of Heavy Oil

Authors: Chaojie Song, Lianhui Ding, Craig Fairbridge, Hansan Liu, Rob Hui, Jiujun Zhang

Abstract:

Two novel hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts: FeN4/C and FeN2/C, were prepared using an impregnation-pyrolysis method. The two materials were investigated as catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomitization (HDA) of model compounds. The turnover frequency of the two FeN catalysts is comparable to (FeN4/C) or even higher (FeN2/C) than that of MoNi/Al2O3. The FeN4/C catalyst also exhibited catalytic activity toward HDA.

Keywords: catalyst, FeN2/C, FeN4/C, HDS, HDA

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147 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber.

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146 La promoted Ni/α-Al2O3 Catalysts for Syngas Methanation

Authors: Anmin Zhao, Weiyong Yingı , Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The Ni/α-Al2O3 catalysts with different amounts of La as promoter from 0 to 4 wt % were prepared, characterized and their catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Effects of reaction temperature and lanthanum loading on carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity were also studied. Adding certain amount of lanthanum to 10Ni /α-Al2O3 catalysts can decrease the average NiO crystallite diameter which leads to higher activity and stability while excessive addition would cause deactivation quickly. Stability on stream towards deactivation was observed up to 800 min at 500 °C, 0.1MPa and 600000 mL·g-1·h-1.

Keywords: Methanation; Nickel catalysts; Syngas methanation

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145 The Different Roles between Sodium and Potassium Ions in Ion Exchange of WO3/SiO2 Catalysts

Authors: K. Pipitthapan, S. Maksasithorn, P. Praserthdam, J. Panpranot, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya

Abstract:

WO3/SiO2 catalysts were modified by an ion exchange method with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution. The performance of the modified catalysts was tested in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene to propylene. During ion exchange, sodium and potassium ions played different roles. Sodium modified catalysts revealed constant trans-2-butene conversion and propylene selectivity when the concentrations of sodium in the solution were varied. In contrast, potassium modified catalysts showed reduction of the conversion and increase of the selectivity. From these results, potassium hydroxide may affect the transformation of tungsten oxide active species, resulting in the decrease in conversion whereas sodium hydroxide did not. Moreover, the modification of catalysts by this method improved the catalyst stability by lowering the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface.

Keywords: Acid sites, alkali metals, isomerization, metathesis.

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144 Deactivation of Cu - Cr/γ-alumina Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Dimitar Dimitrov, Boyan Boyanov

Abstract:

The paper relates to a catalyst, comprising copperchromium spinel, coated on carrier γ-Al2O3. The effect of preparation conditions on the active component composition and activity behavior of the catalysts is discussed. It was found that the activity of carbon monoxide, DME, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation reaches a maximum at an active component content of 20 – 30 wt. %. Temperature calcination at 500oC seems to be optimal for the γ– alumina supported CuO-Cr2O3 catalysts for CO, DME, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation. A three months industrial experiment was carried out to elucidate the changes in the catalyst composition during industrial exploitation of the catalyst and the main reasons for catalyst deactivation. It was concluded that the CuO–Cr2O3/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, DME, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation and that these catalysts are suitable for industrial application. The main reason for catalyst deactivation seems to be the deposition of iron and molybdenum, coming from the main reactor, on the active component surface.

Keywords: catalyst deactivation, CuO-Cr2O3 catalysts, deep oxidation.

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143 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima

Abstract:

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, Pt, Rh, Pd.

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142 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov

Abstract:

In this article a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes- in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, copper, ozone decomposition, TiO2.

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141 Effect of N2 Pretreatment on the Properties of Tungsten-Based Catalysts in Metathesis of Ethylene and 2-Butene

Authors: K. Aranyarat, S. Maksasithorn, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, J. Panpranot

Abstract:

The effect of N2 pretreatment on the catalytic activity of tungsten-based catalysts was investigated in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The presence of tungsten active species was confirmed by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the WO3-based catalysts treated in air, higher amount of WO4 2-tetrahedral species and lower amount of WO3 crystalline species were observed on the N2-treated ones. These contribute to the higher conversion of 2-butene and propylene selectivity during 10 h time-on-stream. Moreover, N2 treatment led to lower amount of coke formation as revealed by TPO of the spent catalysts.

Keywords: Metathesis, Pretreatment, Propylene, Tungsten.

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140 Regeneration of Spent Catalysts with Ozone

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chang-Yong Liu

Abstract:

This study investigates the in-situ regeneration of deactivated Pt-Pd catalyst in a laboratory-scale catalysis reactor. Different regeneration conditions are tested and the activity and characteristics of regenerated catalysts are analyzed. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiencies of C3H6 by different regenerated Pt-Pd catalysts were significantly improved from 77%, 55% and 41% to 86%, 98% and 99%, respectively. The best regeneration conditions was 52ppm ozone, 500oC, and 10min. Regeneration temperature has more influences than ozone concentration and regeneration time. With the comparisons of characteristics of deactivated catalyst and regenerated catalyst, the major poison species (carbon, metals, chloride, and sulfate) on the spent catalysts can be effectively removed by ozone regeneration. 

Keywords: Catalyst, deactivated, ozone, regeneration.

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139 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: Microkinetic modelling, NOx, Pt on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction.

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138 Comparative Kinetic Study on Alkylation of p-cresol with Tert-butyl Alcohol using Different SO3-H Functionalized Ionic Liquid Catalysts

Authors: Pandian Elavarasan, Kishore Kondamudi, Sreedevi Upadhyayula

Abstract:

Ionic liquids are well known as green solvents, reaction media and catalysis. Here, three different sulfonic acid functional ionic liquids prepared in the laboratory are used as catalysts in alkylation of p-cresol with tert-butyl alcohol. The kinetics on each of the catalysts was compared and a kinetic model was developed based on the product distribution over these catalysts. The kinetic parameters were estimated using Marquadt's algorithm to minimize the error function. The Arrhenius plots show a curvature which is best interpreted by the extended Arrhenius equation.

Keywords: Alkylation, p-cresol, tert-butyl alcohol, kinetics, activation parameter, extended Arrhenius equation.

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137 Adsorption of H2 and CO on Iron-based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Yongdi Liu, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The adsorption properties of CO and H2 on iron-based catalyst with addition of Zr and Ni were investigated using temperature programmed desorption process. It was found that on the carburized iron-based catalysts, molecular state and dissociative state CO existed together. The addition of Zr was preferential for the molecular state adsorption of CO on iron-based catalyst and the presence of Ni was beneficial to the dissociative adsorption of CO. On H2 reduced catalysts, hydrogen mainly adsorbs on the surface iron sites and surface oxide sites. On CO reduced catalysts, hydrogen probably existed as the most stable CH and OH species. The addition of Zr was not benefit to the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on iron-based catalyst and the presence of Ni was preferential for the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen.

Keywords: adsorption, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, iron-based catalysts

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136 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-La Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev, Diana D. Nihtianova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

Recently, copper and manganese-containing systems are recognized as active and selective catalysts in many oxidation reactions. The main idea of this study is to obtain more information about γ-Al2O3 supported Cu-La catalysts and to evaluate their activity to simultaneous oxidation of CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME). The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation of support with a mixed aqueous solution of nitrates of copper, manganese and lanthanum under different conditions. XRD, HRTEM/EDS, TPR and thermal analysis were performed to investigate catalysts’ bulk and surface properties. The texture characteristics were determined by Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e specific surface area and pore analyzer. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor in a wide temperature range. On the basis of XRD analysis and HRTEM/EDS, it was concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-La/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio and consisted of at least four compounds – CuO, La2O3, MnO2 and Cu1.5Mn1.5O4. A homogeneous distribution of the active component on the carrier surface was found. The chemical composition strongly influenced catalytic properties. This influence was quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Supported copper-manganese-lanthanum catalysts.

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135 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Georgi V. Avdeev, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why the most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best coppermanganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in two stage continuous flow equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions closest possible to the industrial. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area & pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu- Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.

Keywords: Supported copper-manganese catalysts, CO and VOCs oxidation.

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134 Nanostructured Pt/MnO2 Catalysts and Their Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Maksudur Rahman Khan, Kar Min Chan, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, Wasikur Rahman

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising technology for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Catalysts are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate at air cathode necessitates efficient electrocatalyst such as carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) which is very costly. Manganese oxide (MnO2) was a representative metal oxide which has been studied as a promising alternative electrocatalyst for ORR and has been tested in air-cathode MFCs. However the single MnO2 has poor electric conductivity and low stability. In the present work, the MnO2 catalyst has been modified by doping Pt nanoparticle. The goal of the work was to improve the performance of the MFC with minimum Pt loading. MnO2 and Pt nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol gel methods, respectively. Wet impregnation method was used to synthesize Pt/MnO2 catalyst. The catalysts were further used as cathode catalysts in air-cathode cubic MFCs, in which anaerobic sludge was inoculated as biocatalysts and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as the substrate in the anode chamber. The asprepared Pt/MnO2 was characterized comprehensively through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) where its surface morphology, crystallinity, oxidation state and electrochemical activity were examined, respectively. XPS revealed Mn (IV) oxidation state and Pt (0) nanoparticle metal, indicating the presence of MnO2 and Pt. Morphology of Pt/MnO2 observed from FESEM shows that the doping of Pt did not cause change in needle-like shape of MnO2 which provides large contacting surface area. The electrochemical active area of the Pt/MnO2 catalysts has been increased from 276 to 617 m2/g with the increase in Pt loading from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The CV results in O2 saturated neutral Na2SO4 solution showed that MnO2 and Pt/MnO2 catalysts could catalyze ORR with different catalytic activities. MFC with Pt/MnO2 (0.4 wt% Pt) as air cathode catalyst generates a maximum power density of 165 mW/m3, which is higher than that of MFC with MnO2 catalyst (95 mW/m3). The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the MFC operated with MnO2 cathode gradually decreased during 14 days of operation, whereas the MFC with Pt/MnO2 cathode remained almost constant throughout the operation suggesting the higher stability of the Pt/MnO2 catalyst. Therefore, Pt/MnO2 with 0.4 wt% Pt successfully demonstrated as an efficient and low cost electrocatalyst for ORR in air cathode MFC with higher electrochemical activity, stability and hence enhanced performance.

Keywords: Microbial fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction, Pt/MnO2, palm oil mill effluent, polarization curve.

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133 Ozone Assisted Low Temperature Catalytic Benzene Oxidation over Al2O3, SiO2, AlOOH Supported Ni/Pd Catalytic

Authors: V. Georgiev

Abstract:

Catalytic oxidation of benzene assisted by ozone, on alumina, silica, and boehmite-supported Ni/Pd catalysts was investigated at 353 K to assess the influence of the support on the reaction. Three bimetallic Ni/Pd nanosized samples with loading 4.7% of Ni and 0.17% of Pd supported on SiO2, AlOOH and Al2O3 were synthesized by the extractive-pyrolytic method. The phase composition was characterized by means of XRD and the surface area and pore size were estimated using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) methods. At the beginning of the reaction, catalysts were significantly deactivated due to the accumulation of intermediates on the catalyst surface and after 60 minutes it turned stable. Ni/Pd/AlOOH catalyst showed the highest steady-state activity in comparison with the Ni/Pd/SiO2 and Ni/Pd/Al2O3 catalysts. Their activity depends on the ozone decomposition potential of the catalysts because of generating oxidizing active species. The sample with the highest ozone decomposition ability which correlated to the surface area of the support oxidizes benzene to the highest extent.

Keywords: Ozone, catalysts, oxidation, Volatile organic compounds, VOCs.

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132 Global and Local Structure of Supported Pd Catalysts

Authors: V. Rednic, N. Aldea, P. Marginean, D. Macovei, C. M. Teodorescu, E. Dorolti, F. Matei

Abstract:

The supported Pd catalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in order to determine their global and local structure. The average particle size of the supported Pd catalysts was determined by X-ray diffraction method. One of the main purposes of the present contribution is to focus on understanding the specific role of the Pd particle size determined by X-ray diffraction and that of the support oxide. Based on X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis we consider that the whole local structure of the investigated samples are distorted concerning the atomic number but the distances between atoms are almost the same as for standard Pd sample. Due to the strong modifications of the Pd cluster local structure, the metal-support interface may influence the electronic properties of metal clusters and thus their reactivity for absorption of the reactant molecules.

Keywords: metal-support interaction, supported metal catalysts, synchrotron radiation, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-raydiffraction

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131 Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil Using Alumina-Doped Sulfated Tin Oxide as a Catalyst

Authors: Worawoot Prasitturattanachai, Kamchai Nuithitikul

Abstract:

The conventional production of biodiesel from crude palm oil which contains large amounts of free fatty acids in the presence of a homogeneous base catalyst confronts the problems of soap formation and very low yield of biodiesel. To overcome these problems, free fatty acids must be esterified to their esters in the presence of an acid catalyst prior to alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. Sulfated metal oxides are a promising group of catalysts due to their very high acidity. In this research, aluminadoped sulfated tin oxide (SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2) catalysts were prepared and used for esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil in a batch reactor. The SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts were prepared from different Al precursors. The results showed that different Al precursors gave different activities of the SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts. The esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil with methanol in the presence of SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts followed first-order kinetics.

Keywords: Methyl ester, Biodiesel, Esterification, Sulfated tin oxide, Fatty acid.

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130 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Effect of Preparation Method

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov

Abstract:

The development of active and stable catalysts without noble metals for low temperature oxidation of exhaust gases remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the preparation method on the catalytic activity of the supported copper-manganese mixed oxides in terms of VOCs oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ- Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and acetates and the possibilities for CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Effect of the support, Cu/Mn mole ratio, heat treatment of the precursor and active component loading were investigated. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation were synthesized. The effect of preparation conditions on the activity behavior of the catalysts was discussed. The synergetic interaction between copper and manganese species increases the activity for complete oxidation over mixed catalysts. Type of support, calcination temperature and active component loading along with catalyst composition are important factors, determining catalytic activity. Cu/Mn molar ratio of 1:5, heat treatment at 450oC and 20 % active component loading are the best compromise for production of active catalyst for simultaneous combustion of CO, CH3OH and DME.

Keywords: Copper-manganese catalysts, Preparation methods, Exhaust gases oxidation.

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129 Production of Spherical Ag/ZnO Nanocomposite Particles for Photocatalytic Applications

Authors: K. B. Dermenci, B. Ebin, S.Gürmen

Abstract:

Noble metal participation in nanostructured semiconductor catalysts has drawn much interest because of their improved properties. Recently, it has been discussed by many researchers that Ag participation in TiO2, CuO, ZnO semiconductors showed improved photocatalytic and optical properties. In this research, Ag/ZnO nanocomposite particles were prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis(USP) Method. 0.1M silver and zinc nitrate aqueous solutions were used as precursor solutions. The Ag:Zn atomic ratio of the solution was selected 1:1. Experiments were taken place under constant air flow of 400 mL/min at 800°C furnace temperature. Particles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The crystallite sizes of Ag and ZnO in composite particles are 24.6 nm, 19.7 nm respectively. Although, spherical nanocomposite particles are in a range of 300- 800 nm, these particles are formed by the aggregation of primary particles which are in a range of 20-60 nm.

Keywords: Ag/ZnO nanocatalysts, Nanotechnology, USP

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128 Structure and Activity Research of Hydrocarbons Refining Catalysts Based on Wastes of Ferroalloy Production

Authors: Zhanat Shomanova, Ruslan Safarov, Yuri Nosenko, Zheneta Tashmuchambetova, Alima Zharmagambetova

Abstract:

An effective way of utilization of ferroalloy production wastes is preparing hydrocarbon refining catalysts from them. It is possible due to accordable transition metals containing in the wastes. In the work, we are presenting the results on elemental analysis of sludge samples from Aksu ferroalloy plant (Aksu, Kazakhstan), method of catalysts preparing, results of physical-chemical analysis of obtained catalysts (X-ray analysis, electron microscopy, the BET method etc.), results of using the catalysts in some hydrocarbons refining processes such as hydrocracking of rubber waste, cracking of gasoil, oxidation of cyclohexane. The main results of catalytic activity research are: a) In hydrocracking of rubber waste 64.9% of liquid products were fuel fractions; b) In cracking of gasoil conversion was 51% and selectivity by liquid products was 99%; c) In oxidation of cyclohexane the maximal product yield 87.9% and selectivity by cyclohexanol 93.0% were achieved.

Keywords: Catalyst, cyclohexane oxidation, ferroalloy production waste, gasoil cracking.

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127 Effect of Catalyst Preparation on the Performance of CaO-ZnO Catalysts for Transesterification

Authors: Pathravut Klinklom, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Samai Jai-In

Abstract:

In this research, CaO-ZnO catalysts (with various Ca:Zn atomic ratios of 1:5, 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1) prepared by incipientwetness impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods were used as a catalyst in the transesterification of palm oil with methanol for biodiesel production. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques, including BET method, CO2-TPD, and Hemmett Indicator. The effects of precursor concentration, and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were studied under reaction conditions of a 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 6 wt% catalyst, reaction temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 8 h. At Ca:Zn atomic ratio of 1:3 gave the highest FAME value owing to a basic properties and surface area of the prepared catalyst.

Keywords: CaO, ZnO, Biodiesel, Impregnation, Coprecipitation.

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126 Na Promoted Ni/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts Prepared by Solution Combustion Method for Syngas Methanation

Authors: Yan Zeng, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Ni-based catalysts with different amounts of Na as promoter from 2 to 6 wt % were prepared by solution combustion method. The catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity are greatly influenced by sodium loading. Adding 2 wt% Na remarkably improves catalytic activity and long-term stability, attributed to its smaller mean NiO particle size, better distribution, and milder metal-support interaction. However, excess addition of Na results in deactivation distinctly due to the blockage of active sites.

Keywords: Nickel catalysts, Syngas methanation, Sodium, Solution combustion method.

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125 Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts

Authors: Ke Zhang, Fang Li, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1, pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of 0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the variation of reaction conditions.

Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, Pt-Sn catalysts, ethanol.

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124 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt catalyst, support shape, heavy hydrocarbons.

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123 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Ts. Petrova, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of chemical composition on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/ MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by means of on-line gas chromatographs. On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes. The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of chromium content in the active component while for the DME was observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.

Keywords: Copper-manganese-chromium oxide catalysts, CO, deep oxidation, volatile organic compounds.

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122 Propane Dehydrogenation over Pt-Sn Supported on Magnesium Aluminate Material

Authors: Deepa Govindarajan, Debdut Roy

Abstract:

Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared using magnesium aluminate as a support with two different Mg/Al ratio. The supports/catalysts have been characterized by N2-adsorption, XRD, and temperature programmed desorption of NH3 and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The catalysts have been evaluated at 595 0C for the propane dehydrogenation reaction at 0.5 barg pressure using a feed containing pure propane with steam to hydrocarbon ratio of 1 mol/mol and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) 0.9 h-1. Chlorine quantification studies have been developed using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulphur (CHNS) analyzer. The dechlorinated catalyst with higher alumina content showed better performance (38-43% propane conversion, 91-94% propylene selectivity) in propane conversion and propylene selectivity than Pt-Sn-MG-AL-DC-1 (30-18% propane conversion, 83-90% propylene selectivity).

Keywords: Dehydrogenation, alumina, platinum-tin catalyst, dechlorination.

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121 Structural and Electronic Characterization of Supported Ni and Au Catalysts used in Environment Protection Determined by XRD,XAS and XPS methods

Authors: N. Aldea, V. Rednic, F. Matei, Tiandou Hu, M. Neumann

Abstract:

The nickel and gold nanoclusters as supported catalysts were analyzed by XAS, XRD and XPS in order to determine their local, global and electronic structure. The present study has pointed out a strong deformation of the local structure of the metal, due to its interaction with oxide supports. The average particle size, the mean squares of the microstrain, the particle size distribution and microstrain functions of the supported Ni and Au catalysts were determined by XRD method using Generalized Fermi Function for the X-ray line profiles approximation. Based on EXAFS analysis we consider that the local structure of the investigated systems is strongly distorted concerning the atomic number pairs. Metal-support interaction is confirmed by the shape changes of the probability densities of electron transitions: Ni K edge (1s → continuum and 2p), Au LIII-edge (2p3/2 → continuum, 6s, 6d5/2 and 6d3/2). XPS investigations confirm the metal-support interaction at their interface.

Keywords: local and global structure, metal-support interaction, supported metal catalysts, synchrotron radiation, X-ray absorptionspectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

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