Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: adhesion

89 Adhesion Properties of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 and Bifidobacterium Longum BB536 on HT-29 Human Epithelium Cell Line at Different Times and pH

Authors: Ali Q. S., Farid A. J., Kabeir B. M., Zamberi S., Shuhaimi M., Ghazali H. M., Yazid A. M.

Abstract:

Adhesion to the human intestinal cell is considered as one of the main selection criteria of lactic acid bacteria for probiotic use. The adhesion ability of two Bifidobacteriums strains Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Bifidobacterium psudocatenulatum G4 was done using HT-29 human epithelium cell line as in vitro study. Four different level of pH were used 5.6, 5.7, 6.6, and 6.8 with four different times 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. Adhesion was quantified by counting the adhering bacteria after Gram staining. The adhesion of B. longum BB536 was higher than B. psudocatenulatum G4. Both species showed significant different in the adhesion properties at the factors tested. The highest adhesion for both Bifidobacterium was observed at 120 min and the low adhesion was in 15 min. The findings of this study will contribute to the introduction of new effective probiotic strain for future utilization.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium, Adhesion, HT-29 human epithelium cells.

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88 Comparative Evaluation of Ice Adhesion Behavior

Authors: T. Strobl, D. Raps, M. Hornung

Abstract:

In this study, the adhesion of ice to solid substrates with different surface properties is compared. Clear ice, similar to atmospheric in-flight icing encounters, is accreted on the different substrates under controlled conditions. The ice adhesion behavior is investigated by means of a dynamic vibration testing technique with an electromagnetic shaker initiating ice de-bonding in the interface between the substrate and the ice. The results of the experiments reveal that the affinity for ice accretion is significantly influenced by the water contact angle of the respective sample.

Keywords: Contact angle, dynamic vibration measurement, ice adhesion, interfacial shear stress.

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87 Influence of S. carnosus Bacteria as Biocollector for the Recovery Organic Matter in the Flotation Process

Authors: G. T. Ramos-Escobedo, E. T. Pecina-Treviño, L. F. Camacho-Ortegon, E. Orrantia-Borunda

Abstract:

The mineral bioflotation represents a viable alternative for the evaluation of new processes benefit alternative. The adsorption bacteria on minerals surfaces will depend mainly on the type of the microorganism as well as of the studied mineral surface. In the current study, adhesion of S. carnosus on coal was studied. Several methods were used as: DRX, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) adhesion isotherms and kinetic. The main goal is to recovery of organic matter by the microflotation process on coal particles with biological reagent (S. carnosus). Adhesion tests revealed that adhesion took place after of 8 h at pH 9. The results suggest that the adhesion of bacteria to solid substrates can be considered an abiotic physicochemical process that is consequently governed by bacterial surface properties such as their specific surface area, hydrophobicity and surface functionalities. The greatest coal fine flotability was of 75%, after 5 min of flotation.

Keywords: Fine Coal, Bacteria, Adhesion, recovery matter organic.

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86 Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile

Authors: Jungbhin You, Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, it may lead to reduction of durability and safety due to corrosion of reinforcement steels according to damage of concrete surface. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the number of lateral reinforcement, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement spacing. As a result, the number of lateral reinforcement and the lateral reinforcement length did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement spacing are affected.

Keywords: Adhesion performance, lateral reinforcement, pull-out test, textile.

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85 The Effects of Shot and Grit Blasting Process Parameters on Steel Pipes Coating Adhesion

Authors: Saeed Khorasanizadeh

Abstract:

Adhesion strength of exterior or interior coating of steel pipes is too important. Increasing of coating adhesion on surfaces can increase the life time of coating, safety factor of transmitting line pipe and decreasing the rate of corrosion and costs. Preparation of steel pipe surfaces before doing the coating process is done by shot and grit blasting. This is a mechanical way to do it. Some effective parameters on that process, are particle size of abrasives, distance to surface, rate of abrasive flow, abrasive physical properties, shapes, selection of abrasive, kind of machine and its power, standard of surface cleanness degree, roughness, time of blasting and weather humidity. This search intended to find some better conditions which improve the surface preparation, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of coating. So, this paper has studied the effect of varying abrasive flow rate, changing the abrasive particle size, time of surface blasting on steel surface roughness and over blasting on it by using the centrifugal blasting machine. After preparation of numbers of steel samples (according to API 5L X52) and applying epoxy powder coating on them, to compare strength adhesion of coating by Pull-Off test. The results have shown that, increasing the abrasive particles size and flow rate, can increase the steel surface roughness and coating adhesion strength but increasing the blasting time can do surface over blasting and increasing surface temperature and hardness too, change, decreasing steel surface roughness and coating adhesion strength.

Keywords: surface preparation, abrasive particles, adhesionstrength

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84 Select-Low and Select-High Methods for the Wheeled Robot Dynamic States Control

Authors: Bogusław Schreyer

Abstract:

The paper enquires on the two methods of the wheeled robot braking torque control. Those two methods are applied when the adhesion coefficient under left side wheels is different from the adhesion coefficient under the right side wheels. In case of the select-low (SL) method the braking torque on both wheels is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the lower adhesion. In the select-high (SH) method the torque is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the higher adhesion. The SL method is securing stable and secure robot behaviors during the braking process. However, the efficiency of this method is relatively low. The SH method is more efficient in terms of time and braking distance but in some situations may cause wheels blocking. It is important to monitor the velocity of all wheels and then take a decision about the braking torque distribution accordingly. In case of the SH method the braking torque slope may require significant decrease in order to avoid wheel blocking.

Keywords: Select-high method, select-low method, torque distribution, wheeled robot.

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83 Adhesion Strength Evaluation Methods in Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M.Jalali Azizpour, H.Mohammadi majd, Milad Jalali, H.Fasihi

Abstract:

The techniques for estimating the adhesive and cohesive strength in high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings have been discussed and compared. The development trend and the last investigation have been studied. We will focus on benefits and limitations of these methods in different process and materials.

Keywords: Adhesion, Bonding strength, Cohesion, HVOF Thermal spray

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82 Multi-Functional Insect Cuticles: Informative Designs for Man-Made Surfaces

Authors: Hsuan-Ming S Hu, Jolanta A Watson, Bronwen W Cribb, Gregory S Watson

Abstract:

Biomimicry has many potential benefits as many technologies found in nature are superior to their man-made counterparts. As technological device components approach the micro and nanoscale, surface properties such as surface adhesion and friction may need to be taken into account. Lowering surface adhesion by manipulating chemistry alone might no longer be sufficient for such components and thus physical manipulation may be required. Adhesion reduction is only one of the many surface functions displayed by micro/nano-structured cuticles of insects. Here, we present a mini review of our understanding of insect cuticle structures and the relationship between the structure dimensions and the corresponding functional mechanisms. It may be possible to introduce additional properties to material surfaces (indeed multi-functional properties) based on the design of natural surfaces.

Keywords: Biomimicry, micro/nanostructures, self-cleaning surfaces, superhydrophobicity

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81 Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination

Authors: Iris Käppler, Paul Matthäi, Chokri Cherif

Abstract:

In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non- Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitchfree method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxy-fluorination was used. The modification of carbonfibres by oxy-fluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.

Keywords: Non-Crimp Fabric, adhesive, stitch-free, high-performance fibre.

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80 Polyisoprene-coated Silica/Natural Rubber Composite

Authors: Chatwarin Poochai, Puttichai Pae-on, Thirawudh Pongpayoon

Abstract:

The commercial white tyres are usually used for forklifts in food and medicine industries. Conventionally, silica is used as reinforcement in the tyres. However, the adhesion between silica particles and rubber is remarkably poor. To improve the problem of adhesion and hence enhance wear resistance, modification of silica surface is one of the solutions. In this work, the natural rubber compound blending with polyisoprene-coated silica prepared by admicellar polymerization technique was studied to compare with the natural rubber compound of unmodified silica. The surface characterization of modified silica was also examined by SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The results show that polyisoprene-coated silica/natural rubber compound gave better overall mechanical properties, especially wear resistance with the improvement of the adhesion between silica and natural rubber matrix that can be seen in the SEM micrograph.

Keywords: White tyre, admicellar polymerization, modified silica, wear resistance.

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79 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: Alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate.

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78 Adherence of Alveolar Fibroblasts and Microorganisms on Titanium Implants

Authors: J. Franková, V. Pivodová, F. Růžička, J. Ulrichová

Abstract:

An implant elicits a biological response in the surrounding tissue which determines the acceptance and long-term function of the implant. Dental implants have become one of the main therapy methods in clinic after teeth lose. A successful implant is in contact with bone and soft tissue represent by fibroblasts. In our study we focused on the interaction between six different chemically and physically modified titanium implants (Tis-MALP, Tis-O, Tis- OA, Tis-OPAAE, Tis-OZ, Tis-OPAE) with alveolar fibroblasts as well as with five type of microorganisms (S. epidermis, S.mutans, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, C.albicans). The analysis of microorganism adhesion was determined by CFU (colony forming unite) and biofilm formation. The presence of α3β1 and vinculin expression on alveolar fibroblasts was demonstrated using phospho specific cell based ELISA (PACE). Alveolar fibroblasts have the highest expression of these proteins on Tis-OPAAE and Tis-OPAE. It corresponds with results from bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation and it was related to the lowest production of collagen I by alveolar fibroblasts on Tis-OPAAE titanium disc.

Keywords: titanium disc, alveolar fibroblasts, microorganisms, adhesion

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77 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers

Abstract:

Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: Turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels.

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76 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

This paper contains 2 main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three types of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: Electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, Electroadhesive grippers.

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75 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: M. Z. Fathiah, R. G. Edyvean

Abstract:

Electrostatic interaction energy (ΔEEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (ΔEVDW) and acid base (ΔEAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential; however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focusses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: XDLVO, Electrostatic interaction energy, zeta potential, P. putida, mineral.

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74 Preparation and Characterization of Newly Developed Trabecular Structures in Titanium Alloy to Optimize Osteointegration

Authors: M. Regis, E. Marin, S. Fusi, M. Pressacco, L. Fedrizzi

Abstract:

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process was used to prepare porous scaffolds with controlled porosity to ensure optimal levels of osteointegration for different trabeculae sizes. Morphological characterization by means of SEM analyses was carried out to assess pore dimensions; tensile, compression and adhesion tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical behavior. The results indicate that EBM process allows the creation of regular and repeatable porous scaffolds. Mechanical properties greatly depend on pore dimension and on bulk-pore ratio. Adhesion resistance meets the normative requirements, and the overall performance of the produced structures is compatible with potential orthopaedic applications.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, orthopaedic implants, osteointegration, trabecular structures

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73 Repair of Concrete Structures with SCC

Authors: F. Kharchi, M. Benhadji, O. Bouksani

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the influence of the properties of the substrate on the retrofit (thin repair) of damaged concrete elements, with the SCC. Fluidity, principal characteristic of the SCC, would enable it to cover and adhere to the concrete to be repaired. Two aspects of repair are considered, the bond (Adhesion) and the tensile strength and the cracking. The investigation is experimental; It was conducted over test specimens made up of ordinary concrete prepared and hardened in advance (the material to be repaired) over which a self compacting concrete layer is cast. Three alternatives of SC concrete and one ordinary concrete (comparison) were tested. It appears that the self-compacting concrete constitutes a good material for repairing. It follows perfectly the surfaces- forms to be repaired and allows a perfect bond. Fracture tests made on specimens of self-compacting concrete show a brittle behaviour. However when a small percentage of fibres is added, the resistance to cracking is very much improve.

Keywords: Adhesion, concrete, experimental, repair, self-compacting.

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72 Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface

Authors: P. Abachi, T. W. Coyle, P. S. Musavi Gharavi

Abstract:

By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

Keywords: Bonding strength, four-point bend test, interfacial fracture toughness, modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen, plasma sprayed coating.

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71 Stroma-Providing Activity of Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Tissue-Related O2 Microenvironment

Authors: P. I. Bobyleva, E. R. Andreeva, I. V. Andrianova, E. V. Maslova, L.B. Buravkova

Abstract:

This work studied the ability of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to form stroma for expansion of cord blood hematopoietic cells. We showed that 72-hour interaction of MSCs with cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in vitro at atmospheric (20%) and low (5%) O2 conditions increased the expression of ICAM-1, HCAM (at the beginning of interaction) on MSCs. Viability of MSCs and MNCs were maintained at high level. Adhesion of MNCs to MSCs was faster at 20% O2. MSCs promoted the proliferation of adhered MNCs to form the suspension containing great number of hematopoietic colony-forming units, and this effect was more pronounced at 5% O2. Thus, adipose-derived MSCs supplied sufficient stromal support to cord blood MNCs both at 20% and 5% О2, providing their adhesion with further expansion of new generation of different hematopoietic lineages.

Keywords: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, tissue-related oxygen.

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70 Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology

Authors: Ravinu Garg, Naresh V. Datla

Abstract:

We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.

Keywords: Debonding, fracture mechanics, surface topology, thin film adhesion.

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69 Capsule-substrate Adhesion in the Presence of Osmosis by the Immersed Interface Method

Authors: P.G. Jayathilake, B.C. Khoo, Zhijun Tan

Abstract:

A two-dimensional thin-walled capsule of a flexible semi-permeable membrane is adhered onto a rigid planar substrate under adhesive forces (derived from a potential function) in the presence of osmosis across the membrane. The capsule is immersed in a hypotonic and diluted binary solution of a non-electrolyte solute. The Stokes flow problem is solved by the immersed interface method (IIM) with equal viscosities for the enclosed and surrounding fluid of the capsule. The numerical results obtained are verified against two simplified theoretical solutions and the agreements are good. The osmotic inflation of the adhered capsule is studied as a function of the solute concentration field, hydraulic conductivity, and the initial capsule shape. Our findings indicate that the contact length shrinks in dimension as capsule inflates in the hypotonic medium, and the equilibrium contact length does not depend on the hydraulic conductivity of the membrane and the initial shape of the capsule.

Keywords: Capsule-substrate adhesion, Fluid mechanics, Immersed interface method, Osmosis, Mass transfer.

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68 Alignment of MG-63 Osteoblasts on Fibronectin-Coated Phosphorous Doping Lattices in Silicon

Authors: Andreas Körtge, Susanne Stählke, Regina Lange, Mario Birkholz, Mirko Fraschke, Katrin Schulz, Barbara Nebe, Patrick Elter

Abstract:

A major challenge in biomaterials research is the regulation of protein adsorption which is a key factor for controlling the subsequent cell adhesion at implant surfaces. The aim of the present study was to control the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) and the attachment of MG-63 osteoblasts with an electronic nanostructure. Shallow doping line lattices with a period of 260 nm were produced for this purpose by implantation of phosphorous in silicon wafers. Protein coverage was determined after incubating the substrate with FN by means of an immunostaining procedure and the measurement of the fluorescence intensity with a TECAN analyzer. We observed an increased amount of adsorbed FN on the nanostructure compared to control substrates. MG-63 osteoblasts were cultivated for 24h on FN-incubated substrates and their morphology was assessed by SEM. Preferred orientation and elongation of the cells in direction of the doping lattice lines was observed on FN-coated nanostructures.

Keywords: Cell adhesion, electronic nanostructures, doping lattice, fibronectin, MG-63 osteoblasts, protein adsorption.

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67 An Investigation on the Sandwich Panels with Flexible and Toughened Adhesives under Flexural Loading

Authors: Emre Kara, Şura Karakuzu, Ahmet F. Geylan, Metehan Demir, Kadir Koç, Halil Aykul

Abstract:

The material selection in the design of the sandwich structures is very crucial aspect because of the positive or negative influences of the base materials to the mechanical properties of the entire panel. In the literature, it was presented that the selection of the skin and core materials plays very important role on the behavior of the sandwich. Beside this, the use of the correct adhesive can make the whole structure to show better mechanical results and behavior. In the present work, the static three-point bending tests were performed on the sandwiches having an aluminum alloy foam core, the skins made of three different types of fabrics and two different commercial adhesives (flexible polyurethane and toughened epoxy based) at different values of support span distances by aiming the analyses of their flexural performance in terms of absorbed energy, peak force values and collapse mechanisms. The main results of the flexural loading are: force-displacement curves obtained after the bending tests, peak force and absorbed energy values, collapse mechanisms and adhesion quality. The experimental results presented that the sandwiches with epoxy based toughened adhesive and the skins made of S-Glass Woven fabrics indicated the best adhesion quality and mechanical properties. The sandwiches with toughened adhesive exhibited higher peak force and energy absorption values compared to the sandwiches with flexible adhesive. The use of these sandwich structures can lead to a weight reduction of the transport vehicles, providing an adequate structural strength under operating conditions.

Keywords: Adhesive and adhesion, Aluminum foam, Bending, Collapse mechanisms.

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66 Impact of Welding Wire Nickel Plating Process Parameters on Ni Layer Thickness

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

Abstract:

The article presents part of research on the development of nickel plated welding wire production technology, whose application will enable the elimination of the flaws of currently manufactured welding wires. The nickel plated welding wire will be distinguished by high quality, because the Ni layer which is deposited electrochemically onto it from acid baths is characterized by very good adhesion to the steel wire surface, while the ductile nickel well deforms plastically in the drawing process and the adhesion of the Ni layer increases in the drawing process due to the occurring process of diffusion between the Ni and the steel. The Ni layer obtained in the proposed technology, despite a smaller thickness than when the wire is coated with copper, is continuous and tight, thus ensuring high corrosion resistance, as well as unsusceptible to scaling, which should provide a product that meets requirements imposed by the market. The product will also reduce, to some extent, the amount of copper brought in to steel through recycling, while the wire coating nickel introduced to the weld in the welding process is expected, to a degree, to favorably influence its mechanical properties. The paper describes the tests of the process of nickel plating of f1.96 mm-diameter wires using various nickel plating baths with different process parameters.

Keywords: Steel wire, plating baths, welding process, coatings.

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65 Effect of Out-of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: Stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis.

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64 Investigation of Titanium Oxide Layer in Thermal-Electrochemical Anodizing of Ti6Al4V Alloy

Authors: Z. Abdolldhi, A. A. Ziaee M., A. Afshar

Abstract:

In this paper the combination of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes is used to produce titanium oxide layers. The response of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V to oxidation processes at various temperatures and electrochemical anodizing in various voltages are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and porosity determination have been used to characterize the oxide layer thickness, surface morphology, oxide layer-substrate adhesion and porosity. In the first experiment, samples modified by thermal oxidation process then followed by electrochemical anodizing. Second experiment consists of surfaces modified by electrochemical anodizing process and then followed by thermal oxidation. The first method shows better properties than other one. In second experiment, Surfaces modified were achieved by thicker and more adherent thick oxide layers on titanium surface. The existence of an electrochemical anodized oxide layer did not improve the adhesion of thermal oxide layer. The high temperature, thermal formation of an oxide layer leads to a coarse oxide grain morphology and a complete oxidative particle. In addition, in high temperature oxidation porosity content is increased. The oxide layer of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes; on Ti–6Al–4V substrate was covered with different colored oxide layers.

Keywords: Electrochemically anodizing, Porosity, Thermaloxidation, Ti6Al4 alloy.

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63 Surface Characteristics of Bacillus megaterium and Its Adsorption Behavior onto Dolomite

Authors: Mohsen Farahat, Tsuyoshi Hirajima

Abstract:

Surface characteristics of Bacillus megaterium strain were investigated; zeta potential, FTIR and contact angle were measured. Surface energy components including Lifshitz-van der Waals, Hamaker constant, and acid/base components (Lewis acid/Lewis base) were calculated from the contact angle data. The results showed that the microbial cells were negatively charged over all pH regions with high values at alkaline region. A hydrophilic nature for the strain was confirmed by contact angle and free energy of adhesion between microbial cells. Adsorption affinity of the strain toward dolomite was studied at different pH values. The results showed that the cells had a high affinity to dolomite at acid pH comparing to neutral and alkaline pH. Extended DLVO theory was applied to calculate interaction energy between B. megaterium cells and dolomite particles. The adsorption results were in agreement with the results of Extended DLVO approach. Surface changes occurred on dolomite surface after the bio-treatment were monitored; contact angle decreased from 69° to 38° and the mineral’s floatability decreased from 95% to 25% after the treatment.

Keywords: Bacillus megaterium, surface modification, flotation, dolomite, adhesion energy.

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62 Interactions between Cells and Nanoscale Surfaces of Oxidized Silicon Substrates

Authors: Chung-Yao Yang, Lin-Ya Huang, Tang-Long Shen, J. Andrew Yeh

Abstract:

The importance for manipulating an incorporated scaffold and directing cell behaviors is well appreciated for tissue engineering. Here, we developed newly nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges capable of being various chemical modifications to provide much insight into the fundamental biology of how cells interact with their surrounding environment in vitro. A wet etching technique is exerted to allow us fabricated the silicon nanosponges in a high-throughput manner. Furthermore, various organo-silane chemicals enabled self-assembled on the surfaces by vapor deposition. We have found that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells displayed certain distinguishable morphogenesis, adherent responses, and biochemical properties while cultured on these chemical modified nano-topographic structures in compared with the planar oxidized silicon counterparts, indicating that cell behaviors can be influenced by certain physical characteristic derived from nano-topography in addition to the hydrophobicity of contact surfaces crucial for cell adhesion and spreading. Of particular, there were predominant nano-actin punches and slender protrusions formed while cells were cultured on the nano-topographic structures. This study shed potential applications of these nano-topographic biomaterials for controlling cell development in tissue engineering or basic cell biology research.

Keywords: Nanosponge, Cell adhesion, Cell morphology

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61 Gene Expressions Associated with Ultrastructural Changes in Vascular Endothelium of Atherosclerotic Lesion

Authors: M. Maimunah, G.A. Froemming, H. Nawawi, M.I. Nafeeza, O. Effat, M.R. Rohayu Izanwati, M.S. Mohamed Saifulaman

Abstract:

Attachment of the circulating monocytes to the endothelium is the earliest detectable events during formation of atherosclerosis. The adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix proteases genes were identified to be expressed in atherogenesis. Expressions of these genes may influence structural integrity of the luminal endothelium. The aim of this study is to relate changes in the ultrastructural morphology of the aortic luminal surface and gene expressions of the endothelial surface, chemokine and MMP-12 in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Luminal endothelial surface from rabbit aortic tissue was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using low vacuum mode to ascertain ultrastructural changes in development of atherosclerotic lesion. Gene expression of adhesion molecules, MCP-1 and MMP-12 were studied by Real-time PCR. Ultrastructural observations of the aortic luminal surface exhibited changes from normal regular smooth intact endothelium to irregular luminal surface including marked globular appearance and ruptures of the membrane layer. Real-time PCR demonstrated differentially expressed of studied genes in atherosclerotic tissues. The appearance of ultrastructural changes in aortic tissue of hypercholesterolemic rabbits is suggested to have relation with underlying changes of endothelial surface molecules, chemokine and MMP-12 gene expressions.

Keywords: Ultrastructure of luminal endothelial surface, Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), Real-time PCR.

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60 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati

Abstract:

In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system.

Keywords: Cascade control, dynamic braking system, DC traction motors, slip control.

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