Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: Isolation

166 Study of Base-Isolation Building System

Authors: G. W. Ni, Y. M. Zhang, D. L. Jiang, J. N. Chen, B. Liu

Abstract:

In order to improve the effect of isolation structure, the principles and behaviours of the base-isolation system are studied, and the types and characteristics of the base-isolation are also discussed. Compared to the traditional aseismatic structures, the base isolation structures decrease the seismic response obviously: the total structural aseismatic value decreases to 1/4-1/32 and the seismic shear stress in the upper structure decreases to 1/14-1/23. In the huge seism, the structure can have an obvious aseismatic effect.

Keywords: Base-isolation, earthquake wave, dynamic response.

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165 Technologies of Isolation and Separation of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of extraction, separation and purification of natural and modify anthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of an isolation process is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, and polarity of extragent, catalysts and other factors on an isolation process is revealed.

Keywords: Anthraquinones, chromatography, extraction, phytopreparation, precipitation.

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164 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Carlos Roberto Valˆencio, F´abio Renato de Almeida, Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini

Abstract:

By running transactions under the SNAPSHOT isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, SNAPSHOT is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with SNAPSHOT by using some special triggers that we named DAEMON TRIGGERS. Besides keeping the benefits of the SNAPSHOT isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the SNAPSHOT isolation and show how to preclude them with DAEMON TRIGGERS. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: DAEMON SNAPSHOT.

Keywords: Data consistency, serialization, snapshot.

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163 Study Regarding Effect of Isolation on Social Behaviour in Mice

Authors: Ritu Shitak

Abstract:

Humans are social mammals, of the primate order. Our biology, our behaviour and our pathologies are unique to us. In our desire to understand, reduce solitary confinement one source of information is the many reports of social isolation of other social mammals, especially primates. A behavioural study was conducted in the department of pharmacology at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla in Himachalpradesh province in India using white albino mice. Different behavioural parameters were observed by using open field, tail suspension, tests for aggressive behaviour and social interactions and the effect of isolation was studied. The results were evaluated and the standard statistics were applied. The said study was done to establish facts that isolation itself impairs social behaviour and can lead to alcohol dependence as well as related drug dependence.

Keywords: Albino Mice, Drug Dependence, Social isolation.

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162 CFD Simulation for Air-Borne Infection Analysis in AII-Room

Authors: Young Kwon Yang, In Sung Kang, Jung Ha Hwang, Jin Chul Park

Abstract:

The present study is a foundational study for performance improvements on isolation wards to prevent proliferation of secondary infection of infectious diseases such as SARS, H1N1, and MERS inside hospitals. Accordingly, the present study conducted an analysis of the effect of sealing mechanisms and filling of openings on ensuring air tightness performance in isolation wards as well as simulation on air currents in improved isolation wards. The study method is as follows. First, previous studies on aerial infection type and mechanism were reviewed, and the review results were utilized as basic data of analysis on simulation of air current. Second, national and international legislations and regulations in relation to isolation wards as well as case studies on developed nations were investigated in order to identify the problems in isolation wards in Korea and improvement plans. Third, construction and facility plans were compared and analyzed between general and isolation wards focusing on large general hospitals in Korea, thereby conducting comparison and analysis on the performance and effects of air-tightness of general and isolation wards through CFD simulations. The study results showed that isolation wards had better air-tightness performance than that of general wards.

Keywords: AII Room, air-borne infection, CFD, computational fluid dynamics.

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161 Comparative Study of Seismic Isolation as Retrofit Method for Historical Constructions

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra

Abstract:

Seismic isolation can be used as a retrofit method for historical buildings with the advantage that minimum intervention on super-structure is required. However, selection of isolation devices depends on weight and stiffness of upper structure. In this study, two buildings are considered for analyses to evaluate the applicability of this retrofitting methodology. Both buildings are located at Akita prefecture in the north part of Japan. One building is a wooden structure that corresponds to the old council meeting hall of Noshiro city. The second building is a brick masonry structure that was used as house of a foreign mining engineer and it is located at Ani town. Ambient vibration measurements were performed on both buildings to estimate their dynamic characteristics. Then, target period of vibration of isolated systems is selected as 3 seconds is selected to estimate required stiffness of isolation devices. For wooden structure, which is a light construction, it was found that natural rubber isolators in combination with friction bearings are suitable for seismic isolation. In case of masonry building elastomeric isolator can be used for its seismic isolation. Lumped mass systems are used for seismic response analysis and it is verified in both cases that seismic isolation can be used as retrofitting method of historical construction. However, in the case of the light building, most of the weight corresponds to the reinforced concrete slab that is required to install isolation devices.

Keywords: Historical building, finite element method, masonry structure, seismic isolation, wooden structure.

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160 A Comprehensive Method of Fault Detection and Isolation Based On Testability Modeling Data

Authors: Junyou Shi, Weiwei Cui

Abstract:

Testability modeling is a commonly used method in testability design and analysis of system. A dependency matrix will be obtained from testability modeling, and we will give a quantitative evaluation about fault detection and isolation. Based on the dependency matrix, we can obtain the diagnosis tree. The tree provides the procedures of the fault detection and isolation. But the dependency matrix usually includes built-in test (BIT) and manual test in fact. BIT runs the test automatically and is not limited by the procedures. The method above cannot give a more efficient diagnosis and use the advantages of the BIT. A Comprehensive method of fault detection and isolation is proposed. This method combines the advantages of the BIT and Manual test by splitting the matrix. The result of the case study shows that the method is effective.

Keywords: BIT, fault detection, fault isolation, testability modeling.

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159 Simulation of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Shield B. Lin, Sameer Abdali

Abstract:

Computer simulations were performed using MATLAB/Simulink for a vibration isolation system for astronaut’s exercise platform. Simulation parameters initially were based on an on-going experiment in a laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The authors expanded later simulations to include other parameters. A discrete proportional-integral-derivative controller with a low-pass filter commanding a linear actuator served as the active control unit to push and pull a counterweight in balancing the disturbance forces. A spring-damper device is used as an optional passive control unit. Simulation results indicated such design could achieve near complete vibration isolation with small displacements of the exercise platform.

Keywords: Control, counterweight, isolation, vibration.

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158 Design and Implementation of a Memory Safety Isolation Method Based on the Xen Cloud Environment

Authors: Dengpan Wu, Dan Liu

Abstract:

In view of the present cloud security problem has increasingly become one of the major obstacles hindering the development of the cloud computing, put forward a kind of memory based on Xen cloud environment security isolation technology implementation. And based on Xen virtual machine monitor system, analysis of the model of memory virtualization is implemented, using Xen memory virtualization system mechanism of super calls and grant table, based on the virtual machine manager internal implementation of access control module (ACM) to design the security isolation system memory. Experiments show that, the system can effectively isolate different customer domain OS between illegal access to memory data.

Keywords: Cloud security, memory isolation, Xen, virtual machine.

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157 Experimental and Analytical Study of Scrap Tire Rubber Pad for Seismic Isolation

Authors: Huma Kanta Mishra, Akira Igarashi

Abstract:

A seismic isolation pad produced by utilizing the scrap tire rubber which contains interleaved steel reinforcing cords has been proposed. The steel cords are expected to function similar to the steel plates used in conventional laminated rubber bearings. The scrap tire rubber pad (STRP) isolator is intended to be used in low rise residential buildings of highly seismic areas of the developing countries. Experimental investigation was conducted on unbonded STRP isolators, and test results provided useful information including stiffness, damping values and an eventual instability of the isolation unit. Finite element analysis (FE analysis) of STRP isolator was carried out on properly bonded samples. These types of isolators provide positive incremental force resisting capacity up to shear strain level of 155%. This paper briefly discusses the force deformation behavior of bonded STRP isolators including stability of the isolation unit.

Keywords: base isolation, buckling load, finite element analysis, STRP isolators.

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156 Seismic Response Reduction of Structures using Smart Base Isolation System

Authors: H.S. Kim

Abstract:

In this study, control performance of a smart base isolation system consisting of a friction pendulum system (FPS) and a magnetorheological (MR) damper has been investigated. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is used to modulate the MR damper so as to minimize structural acceleration while maintaining acceptable base displacement levels. To this end, a multi-objective optimization scheme is used to optimize parameters of membership functions and find appropriate fuzzy rules. To demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective genetic algorithm for FLC, a numerical study of a smart base isolation system is conducted using several historical earthquakes. It is shown that the proposed method can find optimal fuzzy rules and that the optimized FLC outperforms not only a passive control strategy but also a human-designed FLC and a conventional semi-active control algorithm.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, genetic algorithm, MR damper, smart base isolation system

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155 Behaviour of Base-Isolated Structures with High Initial Isolator Stiffness

Authors: Ajay Sharma, R.S. Jangid

Abstract:

Analytical seismic response of multi-story building supported on base isolation system is investigated under real earthquake motion. The superstructure is idealized as a shear type flexible building with lateral degree-of-freedom at each floor. The force-deformation behaviour of the isolation system is modelled by the bi-linear behaviour which can be effectively used to model all isolation systems in practice. The governing equations of motion of the isolated structural system are derived. The response of the system is obtained numerically by step-by-method under three real recorded earthquake motions and pulse motions associated in the near-fault earthquake motion. The variation of the top floor acceleration, interstory drift, base shear and bearing displacement of the isolated building is studied under different initial stiffness of the bi-linear isolation system. It was observed that the high initial stiffness of the isolation system excites higher modes in base-isolated structure and generate floor accelerations and story drift. Such behaviour of the base-isolated building especially supported on sliding type of isolation systems can be detrimental to sensitive equipment installed in the building. On the other hand, the bearing displacement and base shear found to reduce marginally with the increase of the initial stiffness of the initial stiffness of the isolation system. Further, the above behaviour of the base-isolated building was observed for different parameters of the bearing (i.e. post-yield stiffness and characteristic strength) and earthquake motions (i.e. real time history as well as pulse type motion).

Keywords: base isolation, base shear, bi-linear, earthquake, floor accelerations, inter-story drift, multi-story building, pulsemotion, stiffness ratio.

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154 Design of a Low Power Compensated 90nm RF Multiplier with Improved Isolation Characteristics for a Transmitted Reference Receiver Front End

Authors: Apratim Roy, A. B. M. H. Rashid

Abstract:

In this paper, a double balanced radio frequency multiplier is presented which is customized for transmitted reference ultra wideband (UWB) receivers. The multiplier uses 90nm model parameters and exploits compensating transistors to provide controllable gain for a Gilbert core. After performing periodic and quasiperiodic non linear analyses the RF mixer (multiplier) achieves a voltage conversion gain of 16 dB and a DSB noise figure of 8.253 dB with very low power consumption. A high degree of LO to RF isolation (in the range of -94dB), RF to IF isolation (in the range of -95dB) and LO to IF isolation (in the range of -143dB) is expected for this design with an input-referred IP3 point of -1.93 dBm and an input referred 1 dB compression point of -10.67dBm. The amount of noise at the output is 7.7 nV/√Hz when the LO input is driven by a 10dBm signal. The mixer manifests better results when compared with other reported multiplier circuits and its Zero-IF performance ensures its applicability as TR-UWB multipliers.

Keywords: UWB, Transmitted Reference, Controllable Gain, RFMixer, Multiplier.

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153 Application of Computational Intelligence for Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation

Authors: A. Jabbari, R. Jedermann, W. Lang

Abstract:

The new idea of this research is application of a new fault detection and isolation (FDI) technique for supervision of sensor networks in transportation system. In measurement systems, it is necessary to detect all types of faults and failures, based on predefined algorithm. Last improvements in artificial neural network studies (ANN) led to using them for some FDI purposes. In this paper, application of new probabilistic neural network features for data approximation and data classification are considered for plausibility check in temperature measurement. For this purpose, two-phase FDI mechanism was considered for residual generation and evaluation.

Keywords: Fault detection and Isolation, Neural network, Temperature measurement, measurement approximation and classification.

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152 Simulation with Uncertainties of Active Controlled Vibration Isolation System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Shield B. Lin, Ziraguen O. Williams

Abstract:

In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, an active proportional-integral-derivative controller commanding a linear actuator is proposed in a vibration isolation system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Computer simulation shows promising results that most exciter forces can be reduced or even eliminated. This paper emphasizes on parameter uncertainties, variations and exciter force variations. Drift and variations of system parameters in the vibration isolation system for astronaut’s exercise platform are analyzed. An active controlled scheme is applied with the goals to reduce the platform displacement and to minimize the force being transmitted to the spacecraft structure. The controller must be robust enough to accommodate the wide variations of system parameters and exciter forces. Computer simulation for the vibration isolation system was performed via MATLAB/Simulink and Trick. The simulation results demonstrate the achievement of force reduction with small platform displacement under wide ranges of variations in system parameters. 

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

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151 Continuous and Discontinuous Shock Absorber Control through Skyhook Strategy in Semi-Active Suspension System (4DOF Model)

Authors: A. Shamsi, N. Choupani

Abstract:

Active vibration isolation systems are less commonly used than passive systems due to their associated cost and power requirements. In principle, semi-active isolation systems can deliver the versatility, adaptability and higher performance of fully active systems for a fraction of the power consumption. Various semi-active control algorithms have been suggested in the past. This paper studies the 4DOF model of semi-active suspension performance controlled by on–off and continuous skyhook damping control strategy. The frequency and transient responses of model are evaluated in terms of body acceleration, roll angle and tire deflection and are compared with that of a passive damper. The results show that the semi-active system controlled by skyhook strategy always provides better isolation than a conventional passively damped system except at tire natural frequencies.

Keywords: Semi-active suspension system, Skyhook, Vibration isolation, 4DOF model.

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150 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Abstract:

Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: Androgenesis, pretreatment, microspore culture, regeneration, albino plants, Oryza sativa.

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149 Isolation of β-Sitosterol Diarabinoside from Rhizomes of Alpinia Galanga

Authors: N. K. Fuloria, S. Fuloria

Abstract:

Alpinia galanga is rhizome, generally known as Greater galangal and is selected for isolation of newer constituents accountable for various therapeutic activities. Present study is intended to isolate glycoside from Alpinia galanga rhizomes. Alpinia galanga methanolic extract was column chromatograph and eluted with ethyl acetate-methanol (99:1) to isolate compound β-Sitosterol Diarabinoside. Herein, the isolation and structural elucidation of new compound is described. Chemical investigation of methanolic extract of rhizomes of Alpinia galanga furnished a new compound β- Sitosterol Diarabinoside. The IR, NMR and MASS investigations of isolated compound confirmed its structure as β-Sitosterol Diarabinoside, which is isolated for the first time from a medicinal plant or any synthetic source.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, methanolic extract, β-Sitosterol Diarabinoside.

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148 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz

Abstract:

Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: Maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design.

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147 Fault Detection and Isolation in Attitude Control Subsystem of Spacecraft Formation Flying Using Extended Kalman Filters

Authors: S. Ghasemi, K. Khorasani

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation in the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation flying is considered. In order to design the fault detection method, an extended Kalman filter is utilized which is a nonlinear stochastic state estimation method. Three fault detection architectures, namely, centralized, decentralized, and semi-decentralized are designed based on the extended Kalman filters. Moreover, the residual generation and threshold selection techniques are proposed for these architectures.

Keywords: Formation flight of satellites, extended Kalman filter, fault detection and isolation, actuator fault.

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146 Fault Detection and Isolation using RBF Networks for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Mahanijah Md Kamal., Dingli Yu

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method of fault detection and isolation (FDI) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) dynamic systems under an open-loop scheme. This method uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to perform fault identification, classification and isolation. The novelty is that the RBF model of independent mode is used to predict the future outputs of the FC stack. One actuator fault, one component fault and three sensor faults have been introduced to the PEMFC systems experience faults between -7% to +10% of fault size in real-time operation. To validate the results, a benchmark model developed by Michigan University is used in the simulation to investigate the effect of these five faults. The developed independent RBF model is tested on MATLAB R2009a/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for FDI under an open-loop condition. By using this method, the RBF networks able to detect and isolate all five faults accordingly and accurately.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, radial basis function neural networks, fault detection, fault isolation.

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145 Impact of Altered Behavioral Condition on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Different Biochemical Parameters

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A. V. Chandewar

Abstract:

Aim- Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of altered behavioral condition like depression on various oxidative stress markers and biochemical parameters in rats. Methods- Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation; the rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test relative to control. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid per oxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supers oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, and blood glucose were determined. Results- There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after long term isolation. Biochemical parameters were significantly altered after social isolation. Conclusion- Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Depression, Glucose, LPO, Oxidative stress.

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144 Damage Evaluation of Curved Steel Bridges Upgraded with Isolation Bearings and Unseating Prevention Cable Restrainers

Authors: Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa, Javier Gil Belda

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of the use of seismic isolation devices on the overall 3D seismic response of curved highway viaducts with an emphasis on expansion joints. Furthermore, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of cable restrainers is presented. For this purpose, the bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on four different radii of curvature, considering two cases: restrained and unrestrained curved viaducts. Depending on the radius of curvature, three-dimensional non-linear dynamic analysis shows the vulnerability of curved viaducts to pounding and deck unseating damage. In this study, the efficiency of using LRB supports combined with cable restrainers on curved viaducts is demonstrated, not only by reducing in all cases the possible damage, but also by providing a similar behavior in the viaducts despite of curvature radius.

Keywords: Nonlinear dynamic response, seismic design, seismic isolation, unseating prevention system.

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143 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: Contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device.

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142 Essential Oils of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan and Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

The article represents the results of isolation and component chromatographic analysis of essential oils of Polygonum L. plants growing in Kazakhstan in commercial reserves at the territory of Kazakhstan. The results of research of antibacterial and antifungal activity of isolated compounds have been represented.

Keywords: Antibacterial, antifungal, bioactive substances, essential oils, isolation, Polygonum L.

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141 A Two-Way Wilkinson Power Divider Realized Using One Eighth Wave Transmission Line for GSM Application

Authors: G. Kalpanadevi, S. Ravimaran, M. Shanmugapriya

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified Wilkinson power divider for GSM application is presented. The quarter–wavelength microstrip lines in the conventional Wilkinson power divider (WPD) are replaced by one-eighth wavelength transmission line. Wilkinson power divider is designed using λ/4 and λ/8 transmission line. It has the operating frequency of 915 MHz which is used in the GSM standard. The proposed Wilkinson Power Divider is designed using the simulation tool Advanced Design System. The results of λ/8 transmission line are very close to the results of λ/4 transmission line. The isolation loss of λ/8 transmission line is improved by introducing a capacitor between the output ports. The proposed Wilkinson power divider has the best return loss of greater than -10 dB and isolation loss of -15.25 dB. The λ/8 transmission line Wilkinson power divider has the reduced size of 53.9 percentages than λ/4 transmission line WPD. The proposed design has simple structure, better isolation loss and good insertion loss.

Keywords: Wilkinson Power Divider, Quarter wave line, one eighth wave transmission line, microstrip line.

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140 Nonlinear Seismic Dynamic Response of Continuous Curved Highway Viaducts with Different Bearing Supports

Authors: Rinna Tanaka, Carlos Mendez Galindo, Toshiro Hayashikawa

Abstract:

The results show that the bridge equipped with seismic isolation bearing system shows a high amount of energy dissipation. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the overall performance of continuous curved highway viaducts with different bearing supports, with an emphasis on the effectiveness of seismic isolation based on lead rubber bearing and hedge reaction force bearing system consisted of friction sliding bearing and rubber bearing. The bridge seismic performance has been evaluated on six different cases with six bearing models. The effects of the different arrangement of bearing on the deck superstructure displacements, the seismic damage at the bottom of the piers, movement track at the pier-s top and the total and strain energies absorbed by the structure are evaluated. In conclusion, the results provide sufficient evidence of the effectiveness on the use of seismic isolation on steel curved highway bridges.

Keywords: Curved highway viaducts, non-linear dynamic response, seismic damage.

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139 Correlation of Structure and Antiviral Activity of Alkaloids of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

The article represents the results of isolation and component chromatographic analysis of essential oils of Polygonym L. plants growing in Kazakhstan in commercial reserves at the territory of Kazakhstan. The results of research of antiviral activity of isolated substances to flu virus have been represented in this article. The main pharmacophore groups in the structure of alkaloids have been identified.

Keywords: Alkaloids, antiviral, bioactive substances, isolation, pharmacophore groups, Polygonum L.

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138 Optimization of Breast Tumor Cells Isolation Efficiency and Purity by Membrane Filtration

Authors: Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty Sajay, Liu Yuxin, Chang Chia-Pin, Poenar Daniel Puiu, Abdur Rub Abdur Rahman

Abstract:

Size based filtration is one of the common methods employed to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. It is well known that this method suffers from isolation efficiency to purity tradeoff. However, this tradeoff is poorly understood. In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing of a special rectangular slit filter. The filter was designed to retain maximal amounts of nucleated cells, while minimizing the pressure on cells, thereby preserving their morphology. The key parameter, namely, input pressure, was optimized to retain the maximal number of tumor cells, whilst maximizing the depletion of normal blood cells (red and white blood cells and platelets). Our results indicate that for a slit geometry of 5 × 40 μm on a 13 mm circular membrane with a fill factor of 21%, a pressure of 6.9 mBar yields the optimum for maximizing isolation of MCF-7 and depletion of normal blood cells.

Keywords: Circulating tumor cells, Parylene slit membrane, Retention, White Blood Cell depletion.

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137 Child Homicide Victimization and Community Context: A Research Note

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

Abstract:

Among serious crimes, child homicide is a rather rare event. However, the killing of children stirs up a special type of emotion in society that pales other criminal acts. This study examines the relevancy of three possible community-level explanations for child homicide: social deprivation, female empowerment, and social isolation. The social deprivation hypothesis posits that child homicide results from lack of resources in communities. The female empowerment hypothesis argues that a higher female status translates into a higher level of capability to prevent child homicide. Finally, the social isolation hypothesis regards child homicide as a result of lack of social connectivity. Child homicide data, aggregated by US postal ZIP codes in California from 1990 to 1999, were analyzed with a negative binomial regression. The results of the negative binomial analysis demonstrate that social deprivation is the most salient and consistent predictor among all other factors in explaining child homicide victimization at the ZIP-code level. Both social isolation and female labor force participation are weak predictors of child homicide victimization across communities. Further, results from the negative binomial regression show that it is the communities with a higher, not lower, degree of female labor force participation that are associated with a higher count of child homicide. It is possible that poor communities with a higher level of female employment have a lesser capacity to provide the necessary care and protection for the children. Policies aiming at reducing social deprivation and strengthening female empowerment possess the potential to reduce child homicide in the community.

Keywords: Child homicide, deprivation, empowerment, isolation.

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