Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 164

Search results for: microspore culture

164 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Abstract:

Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: Androgenesis, pretreatment, microspore culture, regeneration, albino plants, Oryza sativa.

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163 Innovation Culture – Determinant of Firms´ Sustainability

Authors: Loreta Losane

Abstract:

Changes in global economy require changes in firms. They need to adapt to speed producing faster and creating new products, structures and processes. The purpose of the paper is to explore literature about organizational culture and its impact on innovation.

In the paper the method of literature review is used to examine influence of organizational culture on innovation and performance of enterprise.

Organizational culture is crucial for innovation. Literature reveals that research of organizational culture mostly confirm already existing conceptions and models, but those help to make profile of innovation culture.

Research summarize previous research of organizational culture as culture which foster innovation and provide profile of innovation culture, which may be used by managers to improve cultural environment to increase performance of their companies. Research also leads to hypothesis for further research.

Keywords: Innovation, Innovation Culture, Organizational Culture.

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162 Methods of Forming Informational Culture Students

Authors: Altynbek Moshkalov

Abstract:

Along with the basic features of students\' culture information, with its widely usage oriented on implementation of the new information technologies in educational process that determines the search for ways of pointing to the similarity of interdisciplinary connections content, aims and objectives of the study. In this regard, the article questions about students\' information culture, and also presented information about the aims and objectives of the information culture process among students. In the formation of a professional interest in relevant information, which is an opportunity to assist in informing the professional activities of the essence of effective use of interactive methods and innovative technologies in the learning process. The result of the experiment proves the effectiveness of the information culture process of students in training the system of higher education based on the credit technology. The main purpose of this paper is a comprehensive review of students\' information culture.

Keywords: Information culture, methods of information culture of students, educational system of the credit technology, distance learning, information of interest, information and communication technologies and tools.

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161 The Effect of the National Culture on the International Business

Authors: Phatthanan Chaiyabut

Abstract:

The aim for this research is to deliberately discuss how and why the contexts of culture are the main significant factors which need to be considered when conducting the international business oversea. As a consequence of understanding these various factors, the researcher would be able to infer some suggestions to the international organizations. With this in mind, the results of the understanding in a national culture environment can support the organizations to settle its international strategies which may be useful to develop the national export and import effectiveness. This data collecting methods will be concentrated upon 5-10 interviews from the senior members and business officers in the international company in Thailand by e-mail interview and analyses the individual manager’s viewpoint. As well as, focus on the questionnaires which the respondents were selected randomly around 100 samples from UK and Thailand, together with providing a functional sample size and comparable to data. The results of the study question the role of national culture, which contributed to in international business effectiveness and emphasize the positive and negative aspects, as well as suggestions to business investors are informed.

Keywords: Contexts of culture, International business effectiveness, International strategies, National Culture.

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160 Food Safety Culture Paramount Than Traditional Food Safety System and Food Safety Culture in South African Food Industries

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

Abstract:

The fact that traditional food safety system in the absence of food safety culture is inadequate has recently become a cause of concern for food safety professionals and other stakeholders. Focusing on implementation of traditional food safety system i.e HACCP prerequisite program and HACCP without the presence of food safety culture in the food industry has led to the processing, marketing and distribution of contaminated foods. The results of this are regular out breaks of food borne illnesses and recalls of foods from retail outlets with serious consequences to the consumers and manufacturers alike. This article will consider the importance of food safety culture, the cases of outbreaks and recalls that occurred when companies did not make food safety culture a priority. Most importantly, the food safety cultures of some food industries in South Africa were assessed from responses to questionnaires from food safety/food industry professionals in Durban South Africa. The article was concluded by recommending that both food industry employees and employers alike take food safety culture seriously.

Keywords: Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), food borne illnesses, food safety culture, food safety system, HACCP.

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159 Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and Growth Regulators on The Accumulation of Flavonoides of (Silybum marianum L.) in In vitro Culture

Authors: A. Pourjabar, S.A. Mohammadi, R. Ghahramanzadeh, Gh. Salimi

Abstract:

The extract of milk thistle contains a mix of flavonolignans termed silymarine.. In order to analysis influence of growth regulators, genotype, explant and subculture on the accumulation of flavonolignans, a study was carried out by using two genotype (Budakalszi and Noor abad moghan cultivars), cotyledon and hypocotyle explants, solid media of MS supplemented by different combinations of two growth regulators; Kinetin (0.1, 1 mg/l) and 2,4-D (1, 2 mg/l). Seeds of the plant were germinated in MS media whitout growth regulators in growth chamber at 26°C and darkness condition. In order to callus induction, the culture media was supplemented whit different concentrations of 2,4-D and kinetin. Calli obtained from explants were sub-cultured four times into the fresh media of the first experiment. flavonoides was extracted from calli in four subcultures. The flavonoid components were determined by high- performance liquid choromatography (HPLC) and separated into Taxifolin, Silydianin+Silychristin, Silybin A+B and Isosilybin A+B. Results showed that with increasing callus age, increased accumulation of silybin A+B, but reduced Isosilybin A+B content. Highest accumulation of Taxifolin was observed at first calli. Calli produced from cotyledon explant of Budakalszi cultivar were superior for Silybin A+B, where calli from hypocotyl explant produced higher amount of Taxifolin and Silydianin+Silychristin. The best cultivar for Silymarin production in this study was Budakalszi cultivar. High amount of SBN A+B and TXF were obtained from hypocotil explant.

Keywords: Callus culture, Flavonolignans, Silimarine

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158 Scientific Orientation of Youth as the Basis of Formation of a New University Culture

Authors: Sh. E. Jamanbalayeva, G. S. Abdiraiymova, N. Zh. Biyekenova, D. K. Burkhanova

Abstract:

At present the process of formation of corporate values in Kazakh universities is under the influence of a whole range of socio-economic and cultural changes: on the one hand universities must maintain and transmit traditional cultural values of education, on the other, to improve quality of service and to involve young people to science, providing thus own competitiveness. Thus, this article presents some results of two cycles of sociological research conducted in 2012 and aimed at identifying possible ways to popularize science and readiness to participate of youth in given activities, expectations of young scientists and the prospects of future development of the Kazakh science.

Keywords: Corporate culture, higher education institutions, motivation reforms, young scientists.

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157 Safety Culture Implementation Based on Occupational Health and Safety Assessment

Authors: Nyambayar Davaadorj, Ichiro Koshijima

Abstract:

Safety or the state of being safe can be described as a condition of being not dangerous or not harmful. It is necessary for an individual to avoid dangerous situations every day. Also, an organization is subject to legal requirements for the health and safety of persons inside and around the immediate workplace, or who are exposed to the workplace activities. Although it might be difficult to keep a situation where complete safety is ensured, efforts must nonetheless be made to consider ways of removing any potential danger within an organization. In order to ensure a safe working environment, the capability of responding (i.e., resilience) to signals (i.e., information concerning events that could pose future problems that must be taken into account) that occur in and around corporations is necessary. The ability to evaluate this essential point is thus one way in which safety and security can be managed. This study focuses on OHSAS18001, an internationally applied standard for the construction and operation of occupational health and safety management systems, by using IDEF0 for Function Modeling (IDEF0) and the Resilience Matrix originally made by Bracco. Further, this study discusses a method for evaluating a manner in which Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) systematically functions within corporations. Based on the findings, this study clarifies the potential structural objection for corporations when implementing and operating the OHSAS standard.

Keywords: OHSAS18001, IDEF0, safety culture, resilience engineering.

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156 Vetiver Oil Production from Root Culture of Vetiveria zizanioides

Authors: Rizkita R. Esyanti, Iriawati, Olga Mardisadora

Abstract:

Vetiver oil is secondary metabolite that accumulates in Vetiveria zizanioides roots.  The aim of this study was to obtain best type of root culture which produce high amount of vetiver oil, and was similar to metabolites produce from its mother plant.  Protein analysis was also conducted to detect protein, related to putative enzymes, which have a role in terpenoids synthesis in the root culture. The results showed that root culture derived from crown explant produced the best root growth.   The root culture produced primary and lateral roots, ca. 40 branches.  The vetiver oil produced from root culture was analyzed by using GC-MS., and the highest content of terpenoids from roots of crown explant attained 19.024%.  The result of SDS PAGE showed proteins which were ±61 kD and ± 68 kD, each might be related to putative monoterpene synthase and sesquiterpenes complex, respectively. 

Keywords: Protein, Root culture, Terpenoids, Vetiver oil.

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155 The Role of the Shamanistic Music in the Kazakh Folk Culture

Authors: T. H. Gabitov, M. Serikkyzy, G. A. Abdurazakova, A. A. Merkhayeva, N. ZH. Mukhabayev

Abstract:

The relics of traditional folk culture in Kazakhstan are ceremonies or their fragments - such as weddings, funerals, shamanism. The world of spiritual creatures, spirits-protectors, spirits-helpers, injury spirits, spirits of illnesses, etc., is described in detail in shamanic rites (in Kazakh culture it is called bakslyk). The study of these displays of folk culture, which reflect the peoples` ethnic mentality or notions about the structure, values and hierarchies of the universe, includes collection and recording of the field materials and their interpretation, i.e. reconstruction of those meanings which were initially embodied or “coded" in folklore. A distinctive feature of Kazakh nomadic culture is its self-preservation and actualization, almost untouched the ancient mythologies of the world, in particular, the mythologies connected with music, musical instruments and the creator of music. Within the frameworks of the traditional culture the word and the music keep the sacral meaning. The ritual melodies and what they carry – the holly, and at the same time unexplored, powerful and threatening, uncontrolled by people world – keep on attributing the soul to all, connected with culture.

Keywords: Shamanism, ritual, folk culture, music.

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154 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: Adhocracy, bureaucracy, organizational culture, tolerance.

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153 Fungal Disinfection by Nanofiltration in Tomato Soilless Culture

Authors: R. Amooaghaie

Abstract:

Principally, plants grown in soilless culture may be attacked by the same pests and diseases as cultivated traditionally in soil. The most destructive phytopathogens are fungi, such as Phythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium, followed by viruses, bacteria and nematodes. We investigated effect of carbon nanotube filters on disease management of soilless culture. Tomato seedlings transplant in plastic pots filled with a soilless media of vermiculite. The crop irrigated and fertilized using a hydroponic nutrient solution. We used carbon nanotube filters for nutrient solution disinfection. Our results show that carbon nanotube filtration significantly reduces pathogens on tomato plants. Fungal elimination (Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium spp.) was usually successful at about 96 to 99.9% all over the cultural season. It is seem that in tomato soilless culture, nanofiltration constitutes a reliable method that allows control of the development of diseases caused by pathogenic fungi

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, Nanofilteration, Pythium spp., Soilless culture, Tomato

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152 Traditions of Theatrical Art in the Space of Nomadic Culture of the Kazakhs

Authors: Yeskendirov N.R., Karjaubaeva S.K., Ahmet A. K.

Abstract:

A number of theoretical and methodological problems connected with substantiation of a new approach and searches of a new research paradigm and the analysis of features of formation and development of the Kazakh stage are considered in the article. The wide spectrum of questions connected with genesis of the Kazakh stage art has caused necessity of consideration of world outlook and social cultural aspects which have affected formation of the given phenomenon in the Kazakh culture. But how can we define the form of expression and aesthetics of the national theatre? Probably, the answer to this question we will find if we apply to deep world view sources, and, as a consequence, it is necessary to study deeply the plot dramaturgy, which is based on myths, rites and eposes, mastering of symbolic gestures and mimics, allegory of a word, etc.

Keywords: Tradition, theater, art, culture, nomadic Kazakhs.

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151 Democratic Political Culture of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok

Authors: Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Phusit Phukamchanoad, Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

This research aims to study the level of democratic political culture and the factors that affect the democratic political culture of 5th and 6th graders under the authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok by using stratified sampling for probability sampling and using purposive sampling for non-probability sampling to collect data toward the distribution of questionnaires to 300 respondents. This covers all of the schools under the authority of Dusit District Office. The researcher analyzed the data by using descriptive statistics which include arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics which are Independent Samples T-test (T-test) and One-Way ANOVA (F-test). The researcher also collected data by interviewing the target groups, and then analyzed the data by the use of descriptive analysis. The result shows that 5th and 6th graders under the authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok have exposed to democratic political culture at high level in overall. When considering each part, it found out that the part that has highest mean is “the constitutional democratic governmental system is suitable for Thailand” statement. The part with the lowest mean is “corruption (cheat and defraud) is normal in Thai society” statement. The factor that affects democratic political culture is grade levels, occupations of mothers, and attention in news and political movements.

Keywords: Democratic, Political Culture.

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150 The Yak of Thailand: Folk Icons Transcending Culture, Religion, and Media

Authors: David M. Lucas, Charles W. Jarrett

Abstract:

In the culture of Thailand, the Yak serve as a mediated icon representing strength, power, and mystical protection not only for the Buddha, but for population of worshipers. Originating from the forests of China, the Yak continues to stand guard at the gates of Buddhist temples. The Yak represents Thai culture in the hearts of Thai people. This paper presents a qualitative study regarding the curious mix of media, culture, and religion that projects the Yak of Thailand as a larger than life message throughout the political, cultural, and religious spheres. The gate guardians, or gods as they are sometimes called, appear throughout the religious temples of Asian cultures. However, the Asian cultures demonstrate differences in artistic renditions (or presentations) of such sentinels. Thailand gate guards (the Yak) stand in front of many Buddhist temples, and these iconic figures display unique features with varied symbolic significance. The temple (or wat), plays a vital role in every community; and, for many people, Thailand’s temples are the country’s most endearing sights. The authors applied folknography as a methodology to illustrate the importance of the Thai Yak in serving as meaningful icons that transcend not only time, but the culture, religion, and mass media. The Yak represents mythical, religious, artistic, cultural, and militaristic significance for the Thai people. Data collection included interviews, focus groups, and natural observations. This paper summarizes the perceptions of the Thai people concerning their gate sentries and the relationship, communication, connection, and the enduring respect that Thai people hold for their guardians of the gates.

Keywords: Communication, Culture, Folknography, Icon, Image, Media, Protection, Religion, Yak.

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149 The Influence of National Culture on Business Negotiations: An Exploratory Study of Venezuelan and British Managers

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Loredana Perez

Abstract:

Significant attention has recently been paid to the cross-cultural negotiations due to the growth of international businesses. Despite the substantial body of literature examining the influence of National Culture (NC) dimensions on negotiations, there is a lack of studies comparing the influence of NC in Latin America with a Western European countries, In particular, an extensive review of the literature revealed that a contribution to knowledge would be derived from the comparison of the influence of NC dimensions on negotiations in UK and Venezuela. The primary data was collected through qualitative interviews, to obtain an insight about the perceptions and beliefs of Venezuelan and British business managers about their negotiating styles. The findings of this study indicated that NC has a great influence on the negotiating styles. In particular, Venezuelan and British managers demonstrated to have opposed negotiating styles, affecting the way they communicate, approach people and their willingness to take risks.

Keywords: National culture, negotiation, international business, Venezula, UK.

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148 The Role of Parents in Teaching Entrepreneurship Culture to Their Children in Family Businesses

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Meral Erdirençelebi

Abstract:

Similar to economies in many countries; family-owned enterprises have a significant role in the development of Turkish economy. Although they have a large share in economic terms, their lifetime is limited to working life of their founders. Failure in achieving their sustainability deeply affects not only these businesses but also the economy. Therefore, two basic elements of family owned enterprises, family and organizational culture and especially entrepreneurship culture, should be examined closely. The degree of effectiveness of parents in instilling their children with entrepreneurship culture and their effects on children's profession choices are examined through face-to-face surveys with the managers owning family businesses randomly chosen among family-owned enterprises registered in Konya Chamber of Industry, which are active in specific sectors and which had different generations in their management.

Keywords: Family-owned enterprises, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship culture.

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147 Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture

Authors: Kairat Zatov, Tursun Gabitov, Maral Botaeva, Moldagaliyev Bauyrzhan, Saira Shamahay

Abstract:

Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan". Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter. The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion. Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to understand and forecast key social processes without taking into account the religious factor.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, Islam, Shamanism, tradition and innovation, fundamentalism, religious culture, spirit worship, tolerance, sectarianism, extremism and civilization.

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146 The Culture of Interethnic Concord in Kazakhstan: Peculiarities of Formation and Development

Authors: Zh. Tolen, A. Kadyralyeva, A. Alimzhanova, G. Aldambergenova, K. Arymbayeva, A. Zhiyenbekova

Abstract:

This paper describes the historical development of interethnic concord in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and emphasizes the role of tolerance mentality of the Kazakh people in ethno-political policy of the country. Moreover, pointing out interethnic concord as a powerful stabilizing factor, it analyses the specifics of interethnic policy in multinational Kazakh society. It summarizes that the culture of interethnic concord can be a model of ethno- political policy of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Interethnic relations, the culture of interethnic concord, multiculturalism, tolerance, stability in society.

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145 Igbo Art: A Reflection of the Igbo’s Visual Culture

Authors: David Osa-Egonwa

Abstract:

Visual culture is the expression of the norms and social behavior of a society in visual images. A reflection simply shows you how you look when you stand before a mirror, a clear water or stream. The mirror does not alter, improve or distort your original appearance, neither does it show you a caricature of what stands before it, this is the case with visual images created by a tribe or society. The ‘uli’ is hand drawn body design done on Igbo women and speaks of a culture of body adornment which is a practice that is appreciated by that tribe. The use of pattern of the gliding python snake ‘ije eke’ or ‘ijeagwo’ for wall painting speaks of the Igbo culture as one that appreciates wall paintings based on these patterns. Modern life came and brought a lot of change to the Igbo-speaking people of Nigeria. Change cloaked in the garment of Westernization has influenced the culture of the Igbos. This has resulted in a problem which is a break in the cultural practice that has also affected art produced by the Igbos. Before the colonial masters arrived and changed the established culture practiced by the Igbos, visual images were created that retained the culture of this people. To bring this point to limelight, this paper has adopted a historical method. A large number of works produced during pre and post-colonial era which range from sculptural pieces, paintings and other artifacts, just to mention a few, were studied carefully and it was discovered that the visual images hold the culture or aspects of the culture of the Igbos in their renditions and can rightly serve as a mirror of the Igbo visual culture.

Keywords: Artistic renditions, historical method, Igbo visual culture, changes.

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144 Effect of Process Parameters on Aerobic Decolourization of Reactive Azo Dye using Mixed Culture

Authors: Kapil Kumar, M. G. Dastidar, T. R. Sreekrishnan

Abstract:

In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the potential of aerobic mixed culture for decolourization of Remazol Black B dye in batch reactors. The effect of pH, temperature, inoculum, initial concentration of dye and initial concentration of glucose was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolourization and degradation. The culture exhibited maximum decolourization ability at pH between 7-8 and at 30°C. A 10% (v/v) inoculum and 1% (w/v) glucose concentration were found to be the optimum for decolourization. A maximum of 98% decolourization was observed at 25 ppm initial concentration of dye after 18 hours of incubation period. At higher dye concentration of 300 ppm, the removal in colour was found to be 75% in 48 hours of incubation period. The results show that the enriched mixed culture from activated sludge has good potential in removal of Remazol Black B dye from wastewater under aerobic conditions.

Keywords: Aerobic conditions, Decolourization, Mixed culture, Remazol Black B.

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143 Standardization and Adaption Requirements in Production System Transplants

Authors: G. Schuh, T. Potente, D. Kupke, S. Ivanescu

Abstract:

As German companies roll out their standardized production systems to offshore manufacturing plants, they face the challenge of implementing them in different cultural environments. Studies show that the local adaptation is one of the key factors for a successful implementation. Thus the question arises of where the line between standardization and adaptation can be drawn. To answer this question the influence of culture on production systems is analysed in this paper. The culturally contingent components of production systems are identified. Also the contingency factors are classified according to their impact on the necessary adaptation changes and implementation effort. Culturally specific decision making, coordination, communication and motivation patterns require one-time changes in organizational and process design. The attitude towards rules requires more intense coaching and controlling. Lastly a framework is developed to depict standardization and adaption needs when transplanting production systems into different cultural environments.

Keywords: Culture, influence of national culture on production systems, lean production, production systems.

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142 Niksic in the Context of Visual Urban Culture

Authors: Svetlana Perović

Abstract:

Out of all visual arts including: painting, sculpture, graphics, photography, architecture, and others, architecture is by far the most complex one, because the art category is only one of its determinants. Architecture, to some extent includes other arts which can significantly influence the shaping of an urban space (artistic interventions). These arts largely shape the visual culture in combination with other categories: film, TV, Internet, information technologies that are "changing the world" etc. In the area of architecture and urbanism, visual culture is achieved through the aspects of visual spatial effects. In this context, a complex visual deliberation about designing urban areas in order to contribute to the urban visual culture, and with it restore the cultural identity of the city, is becoming almost the primary concept of contemporary urban and architectural practice. Research in this paper relate to the city of Niksic and its place in the visual urban culture. We are looking at the city’s existing visual effects and determining the directions of transformability of its physical structure in order to achieve the visual realization of an urban area and the renewal of cultural identity of a modern city.

Keywords: Nikšić, transformability, visual culture, visual realization.

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141 The Role of Organizational Culture in Facilitating Employee Job Satisfaction in Emerald Group

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Ghoneim

Abstract:

The importance of having a good organizational culture that supports employee job satisfaction has fascinated both the business and academic world because of a tantalizing promise: culture can be fundamental to the enhancement of financial performance. This promise has led to growing interest for both researchers and practitioners in attempting to understand the influence of organizational culture on employees’ satisfaction and organizational performance. Even though the relationship between organizational culture and employee job satisfaction have gained attention in the literature, the majority of studies have been conducted within manufacturing organizations and tend to oversee the impact of culture on employee job satisfaction in a service-based environment. Thus, the main driving force of this study was to explore the role of organizational culture types in facilitating employee job satisfaction at Emerald Publishing Group. Interviews qualitative data analysis indicated that Emerald’s culture dominated by adhocracy and clan culture values. In addition, the findings provided evidence, which demonstrated that group and adhocracy organizational culture types play key roles in facilitating employee job satisfaction in a service-based environment.

Keywords: Employee satisfaction, organizational culture, performance, service based environment.

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140 Digital Scholarship and Disciplinary Culture: An Investigation of Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

Authors: Ali S. Al-Aufi, Paul Genoni

Abstract:

The emergence of networked information and communication has transformed the accessibility and delivery of scholarly information and fundamentally impacted on the processes of research and scholarly communication. The purpose of this study is to investigate disciplinary differences in the use of networked information for research and scholarly communication at Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. This study has produced quantitative data about how and why academics within different disciplines utilize networked information that is made available either internally through the university library, or externally through networked services accessed by the Internet. The results indicate some significant differences between the attitudes and practice of academics in the science disciplines when compared to those from the social sciences and humanities. While respondents from science disciplines show overall longer and more frequent use of networked information, respondents from humanities and social sciences indicated more positive attitudes and a greater degree of satisfaction toward library networked services.

Keywords: Academics, Arab World, Disciplinary Culture, Networked Information, Scholarly Communication, Sultan QaboosUniversity, Oman.

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139 Teacher Culture Inquiry of Classroom Observation at an Elementary School in Taiwan

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin

Abstract:

Three dimensions of teacher culture hinder educational improvement: individualism, conservatism and presentism. To promote the professional development of teachers, these three aspects in teacher culture should be eliminated. Classroom observation may be a useful method of eliminating individualism. The Ministry of Education in Taiwan has attempted to reduce the isolation of teachers to promote their professional growth. Because classroom observation discourse varies, teachers are generally unwilling to allow their teaching to be observed. However, classroom observations take place in the country in the form of school evaluations. The main purpose of this study was to explore the differences in teachers’ conservatism, individualism and presentism after classroom observations had been conducted at an elementary school in Taiwan. The research method was a qualitative case study involving interviews with the school principal, the director of academic affairs, and two classroom teachers. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Educators in different positions viewed classroom observations differently; (2) The classroom teachers did not highly value classroom observation; (3) There was little change in the teachers’ conservatism, individualism and presentism after classroom observation.

Keywords: Classroom observation, Lortie’s Trinity, teacher culture, teacher professional development

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138 The Influence of National Culture on Consumer Buying Behaviour: An Exploratory Study of Nigerian and British Consumers

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Lombe Ngome Enongene, Mohammed Hamdan, Gbolahan Gbadamosi

Abstract:

Despite the considerable body of literature investigating the influence of National Culture (NC) dimensions on consumer behaviour, there is a lack of studies comparing the influence of NC in Africa with Western European countries. This study is intended to fill the vacuum in knowledge by exploring how NC affects consumer buyer behavior in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. The primary data were collected through in depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with three groups of individuals: British students, Nigerian students in the United Kingdom, and Nigerian-based students. This approach and new frontier to analyze culture and consumer behaviour could help understand residual cultural threads of people (that are ingrained in their being) irrespective of exposure to other cultures. The findings of this study show that Nigerian and British consumers differ remarkably in cultural orientations such as symbols, values and psychological standpoints. This ultimately affects the choices made at every stage of the decision building process, and proves beneficial for international retail marketing.

Keywords: National culture, consumer behaviour, international business, Nigeria, UK.

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137 Two Culture-s Characters in Contemporary Kazakh Cinema

Authors: Baubek B. Nogerbek, Alma M. Aidarova

Abstract:

In this article the authors are researching cultural differences between rural and urban characters in case of contemporary Kazakh cinema.Two motion pictures are analyzed: “Strizh" (2007) by AbaiKulbai and “Seker" (2009) by SabitKurmanbekov.According to the authors- opinion ateenage girl characters in these two films reflect two cultures (urban and rural) of Kazakh society, which displays complicated socio-cultural processes of modern Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Culture (urban and rural), film characters, Kazakh cinema, Kazakh society

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136 Quality Culture Framework Proposal for Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa Ahmed Shokshok

Abstract:

Libyan industrial companies face many challenges in today's competitive market. Quality management culture approaches is one of these challenges which may furnish the road to the Libyan industrial companies to effectively empower their employees and improve their ability to respond to the international competition. The primary objective of this paper is to design a practical approach to guide Libyan industrial companies toward successful quality culture implementation.

Keywords: Libyan manufacturing industries, TQM, Quality culture, Quality framework.

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135 Production and Extraction of Quercetin and (+)-Catechin from Phyllanthus niruri Callus Culture

Authors: Anuar, N., Markom, M., Khairedin, S., Johari, N. A.

Abstract:

Quercetin and (+)-catechin are metabolites present in Phyllanthus niruri plant, have potential in medicinal uses as anticancer and antioxidant agents. Studies on production of quercetin and (+)-catechin from P. niruri callus culture via in vitro technique were carried out and the results were compared to the intact plant. P. niruri explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solidified media supplemented with several phytohormone combinations for one month. The metabolites were extracted from P. niruri callus and intact plant by using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with ethanol as modifier and solvent extraction techniques. The extracts were analyzed by means of HPLC method. Results showed that P. niruri callus culture was successfully established. The highest content of quercetin (1.72%) was found from P. niruri callus grown in media supplemented with 0.8mg/L kinetin and 0.2mg/L 2,4-dicholophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which was 1.2 fold higher than intact plant. Meanwhile, the highest amounts of (+)-catechin (0.63%) was found from P. niruri callus grown in media with addition of 0.2mg/L 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.8mg/L 2,4-D. The SFE condition in this study showed better extraction efficiency when higher contents of selected metabolites were found in all SFE extracts compared to the common solvent extracts.

Keywords: Callus culture, Phyllanthus niruri, secondary metabolite, supercritical fluid extraction.

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