Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 844

Search results for: Islanding mode

844 An Effective Islanding Detection and Classification Method Using Neuro-Phase Space Technique

Authors: Aziah Khamis, H. Shareef

Abstract:

The purpose of planned islanding is to construct a power island during system disturbances which are commonly formed for maintenance purpose. However, in most of the cases island mode operation is not allowed. Therefore distributed generators (DGs) must sense the unplanned disconnection from the main grid. Passive technique is the most commonly used method for this purpose. However, it needs improvement in order to identify the islanding condition. In this paper an effective method for identification of islanding condition based on phase space and neural network techniques has been developed. The captured voltage waveforms at the coupling points of DGs are processed to extract the required features. For this purposed a method known as the phase space techniques is used. Based on extracted features, two neural network configuration namely radial basis function and probabilistic neural networks are trained to recognize the waveform class. According to the test result, the investigated technique can provide satisfactory identification of the islanding condition in the distribution system.

Keywords: Classification, Islanding detection, Neural network, Phase space.

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843 Active Islanding Detection Method Using Intelligent Controller

Authors: Kuang-Hsiung Tan, Chih-Chan Hu, Chien-Wu Lan, Shih-Sung Lin, Te-Jen Chang

Abstract:

An active islanding detection method using disturbance signal injection with intelligent controller is proposed in this study. First, a DC\AC power inverter is emulated in the distributed generator (DG) system to implement the tracking control of active power, reactive power outputs and the islanding detection. The proposed active islanding detection method is based on injecting a disturbance signal into the power inverter system through the d-axis current which leads to a frequency deviation at the terminal of the RLC load when the utility power is disconnected. Moreover, in order to improve the transient and steady-state responses of the active power and reactive power outputs of the power inverter, and to further improve the performance of the islanding detection method, two probabilistic fuzzy neural networks (PFNN) are adopted to replace the traditional proportional-integral (PI) controllers for the tracking control and the islanding detection. Furthermore, the network structure and the online learning algorithm of the PFNN are introduced in detail. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the tracking control and the proposed active islanding detection method are verified with experimental results.

Keywords: Distributed generators, probabilistic fuzzy neural network, islanding detection, non-detection zone.

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842 Islanding Detection Techniques for Synchronous Distributed Generation

Authors: Bharti B. Parmar, Vivek J. Pandya

Abstract:

The issue of unintentional islanding detection of grid connected synchronous distributed generation (SDG) remains the most challenging task faced by the distributed generation (DG) industry as SDG is highly capable of prolonging an island. This paper gives an insight of anti-islanding detection techniques mainly applied for SDG. Different techniques conclude that it is challenging to point out a generic method for a distinct purpose as the application of particular practice depends on nature of the end use and system dependent elements. Also, the setup and operational cost affect the selection of anti-islanding technique to achieve minimal compromising between cost and system quality. A test bench is created in the MATLAB/Simulink® to demonstrate the results of a 33 kV system. The results are highly satisfactory and they are according to the current practices.

Keywords: Synchronous distributed generation, islanding, point of common coupling, loss of grid.

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841 An Overview of Islanding Detection Methods in Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Wei Yee Teoh, Chee Wei Tan

Abstract:

The issue of unintentional islanding in PV grid interconnection still remains as a challenge in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper discusses the overview of popularly used anti-islanding detection methods, practically applied in PV grid-connected systems. Anti-islanding methods generally can be classified into four major groups, which include passive methods, active methods, hybrid methods and communication base methods. Active methods have been the preferred detection technique over the years due to very small non-detected zone (NDZ) in small scale distribution generation. Passive method is comparatively simpler than active method in terms of circuitry and operations. However, it suffers from large NDZ that significantly reduces its performance. Communication base methods inherit the advantages of active and passive methods with reduced drawbacks. Hybrid method which evolved from the combination of both active and passive methods has been proven to achieve accurate anti-islanding detection by many researchers. For each of the studied anti-islanding methods, the operation analysis is described while the advantages and disadvantages are compared and discussed. It is difficult to pinpoint a generic method for a specific application, because most of the methods discussed are governed by the nature of application and system dependent elements. This study concludes that the setup and operation cost is the vital factor for anti-islanding method selection in order to achieve minimal compromising between cost and system quality.

Keywords: Active method, hybrid method, islanding detection, passive method, photovoltaic (PV), utility method

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840 Power Quality Improvement Using UPQC Integrated with Distributed Generation Network

Authors: B. Gopal, Pannala Krishna Murthy, G. N. Sreenivas

Abstract:

The increasing demand of electric power is giving an emphasis on the need for the maximum utilization of renewable energy sources. On the other hand maintaining power quality to satisfaction of utility is an essential requirement. In this paper the design aspects of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated with photovoltaic system in a distributed generation is presented. The proposed system consist of series inverter, shunt inverter are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor with Distributed Generation through a boost converter. The primary task of UPQC is to minimize grid voltage and load current disturbances along with reactive and harmonic power compensation. In addition to primary tasks of UPQC, other functionalities such as compensation of voltage interruption and active power transfer to the load and grid in both islanding and interconnected mode have been addressed. The simulation model is design in MATLAB/ Simulation environment and the results are in good agreement with the published work.

Keywords: Distributed Generation(DG), Interconnected mode, Islanding mode, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), Power Quality (PQ), Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), Photovoltaic array (PV).

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839 A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function

Authors: Zhihua Yang, Lihua Yang

Abstract:

This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.

Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Hilbert-Huang transform(HHT), Intrinsic Mode Function(IMF).

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838 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting.

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837 Experimental Estimation of Mixed-Mode Fracture Properties of Steel Weld

Authors: S. R. Hosseini, N. Choupani, A. R. M. Gharabaghi

Abstract:

The modified Arcan fixture was used in order to investigate the mixed mode fracture properties of high strength steel butt weld through experimental and numerical analysis. The fixture consisted of a central section with "butterfly-shaped" specimen that had central crack. The specimens were under pure mode I (opening), pure mode II (shearing) and all in plane mixed mode loading angles starting from 0 to 90 degrees. The geometric calibration factors were calculated with the aid of finite element analysis for various loading mode and different crack length (0.45≤ a/w ≤0.55) and the critical fracture loads obtained experimentally. The critical fracture toughness (KIC & KIIC) estimated with experimental and numerical analysis under mixed mode loading conditions.

Keywords: Arcan specimen, fracture toughness, mixed mode, steel weld.

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836 Universal Current-Mode OTA-C KHN Biquad

Authors: Dalibor Biolek, Viera Biolková, Zden─øk Kolka

Abstract:

A universal current-mode biquad is described which represents an economical variant of well-known KHN (Kerwin, Huelsman, Newcomb) voltage-mode filter. The circuit consists of two multiple-output OTAs and of two grounded capacitors. Utilizing simple splitter of the input current and a pair of jumpers, all the basic 2nd-order transfer functions can be implemented. The principle is verified by Spice simulation on the level of a CMOS structure of OTAs.

Keywords: Biquad, current mode, OTA.

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835 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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834 An Improved Optimal Sliding Mode Control for Structural Stability

Authors: Leila Fatemi, Morteza Moradi, Azadeh Mansouri

Abstract:

In this paper, the modified optimal sliding mode control with a proposed method to design a sliding surface is presented. Because of the inability of the previous approach of the sliding mode method to design a bounded and suitable input, the new variation is proposed in the sliding manifold to obviate problems in a structural system. Although the sliding mode control is a powerful method to reject disturbances and noises, the chattering problem is not good for actuators. To decrease the chattering phenomena, the optimal control is added to the sliding mode control. Not only the proposed method can decline the intense variations in the inputs of the system but also it can produce the efficient responses respect to the sliding mode control and optimal control that are shown by performing some numerical simulations.

Keywords: Structural Control, optimal control, optimal sliding mode controller, modified sliding surface.

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833 Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.

Keywords: Software platform, thermal vacuum test, control and measurement, work mode.

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832 Low Power Low Voltage Current Mode Pipelined A/D Converters

Authors: Krzysztof Wawryn, Robert Suszyński, Bogdan Strzeszewski

Abstract:

This paper presents two prototypes of low power low voltage current mode 9 bit pipelined a/d converters. The first and the second converters are configured of 1.5 bit and 2.5 bit stages, respectively. The a/d converter structures are composed of current mode building blocks and final comparator block which converts the analog current signal into digital voltage signal. All building blocks have been designed in CMOS AMS 0.35μm technology, then simulated to verify proposed concept. The performances of both converters are compared to performances of known current mode and voltage mode switched capacitance converter structures. Low power consumption and small chip area are advantages of the proposed converters.

Keywords: Pipelined converter, a/d converter, low power, lowvoltage, current mode.

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831 Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test

Authors: R. Hasanpour, N. Choupani

Abstract:

This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally. Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method, mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration determined.

Keywords: Rock Fracture Mechanics, Mixed-mode Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Arcan Test specimen.

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830 Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Producer Gas and Esters of Hingan (Balanites)Oil in Dual Fuel Mode

Authors: Samir J. Deshmukh, Lalit B. Bhuyar, Shashank B. Thakre

Abstract:

Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used for heating purposes and as supplementary or sole fuel in internal combustion engines. In this study, the virgin biomass obtained from hingan shell is used as the feedstock for gasifier to generate producer gas. The gasifier-engine system is operated on diesel and on esters of vegetable oil of hingan in liquid fuel mode operation and then on liquid fuel and producer gas combination in dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the CI engine is analyzed by running the engine in liquid fuel mode operation and in dual fuel mode operation at different load conditions with respect to maximum diesel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. It was observed that specific energy consumption in the dual fuel mode of operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine using diesel or hingan oil methyl ester (HOME) is higher than that of dual fuel mode operation. A diesel replacement in the tune of 60% in dual fuel mode is possible with the use of hingan shell producer gas. The emissions parameters such CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and smoke are higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to that of liquid fuel mode.

Keywords: Esters, performance, producer gas, vegetable oil.

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829 The Effect of Tmax in Energy Consumption in 0IEEE 802.16e with Traffic Load

Authors: Mohammadreza Sahebi, Arash Azizi Mazreah, Asadollah Shahbahrami, Bahram Bakhshi

Abstract:

Energy consumption is an important design issue for Mobile Subscriber Station (MSS) in the standard IEEE 802.16e. Because mobility of MSS implies that energy saving becomes an issue so that lifetime of MSS can be extended before re-charging. Also, the mechanism in efficiently managing the limited energy is becoming very significant since a MSS is generally energized by battery. For these, sleep mode operation is recently specified in the MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol. In order to reduce the energy consumption, we focus on the sleep-mode and wake-mode of the MAC layer, which are included in the IEEE 802.16 standards [1- 2].

Keywords: IEEE 802.16e, Sleep-mode, Wake-mode, Downlink, Mobile Subscriber Station.

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828 Backstepping Sliding Mode Controller Coupled to Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for Interconnected Fractional Nonlinear System

Authors: D. Elleuch, T. Damak

Abstract:

Performance control law is studied for an interconnected fractional nonlinear system. Applying a backstepping algorithm, a backstepping sliding mode controller (BSMC) is developed for fractional nonlinear system. To improve control law performance, BSMC is coupled to an adaptive sliding mode observer have a filtered error as a sliding surface. The both architecture performance is studied throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a cart. Simulation result show that the BSMC coupled to an adaptive sliding mode observer have stable control law and eligible control amplitude than the BSMC.

Keywords: Backstepping sliding mode controller, interconnected fractional nonlinear system, adaptive sliding mode observer.

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827 A Superior Delay Estimation Model for VLSI Interconnect in Current Mode Signaling

Authors: Sunil Jadav, Rajeevan Chandel Munish Vashishath

Abstract:

Today’s VLSI networks demands for high speed. And in this work the compact form mathematical model for current mode signalling in VLSI interconnects is presented.RLC interconnect line is modelled using characteristic impedance of transmission line and inductive effect. The on-chip inductance effect is dominant at lower technology node is emulated into an equivalent resistance. First order transfer function is designed using finite difference equation, Laplace transform and by applying the boundary conditions at the source and load termination. It has been observed that the dominant pole determines system response and delay in the proposed model. The novel proposed current mode model shows superior performance as compared to voltage mode signalling. Analysis shows that current mode signalling in VLSI interconnects provides 2.8 times better delay performance than voltage mode. Secondly the damping factor of a lumped RLC circuit is shown to be a useful figure of merit.

Keywords: Current Mode, Voltage Mode, VLSI Interconnect.

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826 A Novel Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach for Empirical Mode Decomposition

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new instantaneous frequency computation approach  -Counting Instantaneous Frequency for a general class of signals called simple waves. The classsimple wave contains a wide range of continuous signals for which the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The concept of  -Counting Instantaneous Frequency also applies to all the discrete data. For all the simple wave signals and the discrete data, -Counting instantaneous frequency can be computed directly without signal decomposition process. The intrinsic mode functions obtained through empirical mode decomposition belongs to simple wave. So  -Counting instantaneous frequency can be used together with empirical mode decomposition.

Keywords: Instantaneous frequency, empirical mode decomposition, intrinsic mode function.

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825 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Speed Controller for a Vector Controlled Induction Motor

Authors: S. Massoum, A. Bentaallah, A. Massoum, F. Benaimeche, P. Wira, A. Meroufel

Abstract:

This paper presents a speed fuzzy sliding mode controller for a vector controlled induction machine (IM) fed by a voltage source inverter (PWM). The sliding mode based fuzzy control method is developed to achieve fast response, a best disturbance rejection and to maintain a good decoupling. The problem with sliding mode control is that there is high frequency switching around the sliding mode surface. The FSMC is the combination of the robustness of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the smoothness of Fuzzy Logic (FL). To reduce the torque fluctuations (chattering), the sign function used in the conventional SMC is substituted with a fuzzy logic algorithm. The proposed algorithm was simulated by Matlab/Simulink software and simulation results show that the performance of the control scheme is robust and the chattering problem is solved.

Keywords: IM, FOC, FLC, SMC, and FSMC.

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824 Sliding Mode Control with Fuzzy Boundary Layer to Air-Air Interception Problem

Authors: Mustafa Resa Becan

Abstract:

The performance of a type of fuzzy sliding mode control is researched by considering the nonlinear characteristic of a missile-target interception problem to obtain a robust interception process. The variable boundary layer by using fuzzy logic is proposed to reduce the chattering around the switching surface then is applied to the interception model which was derived. The performances of the sliding mode control with constant and fuzzy boundary layer are compared at the end of the study and the results are evaluated.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, fuzzy, boundary layer, interception problem.

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823 Sliding Mode Control of a Bus Suspension System

Authors: Mujde Turkkan, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surface, are to be suppressed via suspension systems. In this paper, sliding mode control for a half bus model with air suspension system is presented. The bus is modelled as five degrees of freedom (DoF) system. The mathematical model of the half bus is developed using Lagrange Equations. For time domain analysis, the bus model is assumed to travel at certain speed over the bump road. The numerical results of the analysis indicate that the sliding mode controllers can be effectively used to suppress the vibrations and to improve the ride comfort of the busses.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, bus model, air suspension.

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822 Numerical Investigation of Delamination in Carbon-Epoxy Composite using Arcan Specimen

Authors: M. Nikbakht, N. Choupani

Abstract:

In this paper delamination phenomenon in Carbon-Epoxy laminated composite material is investigated numerically. Arcan apparatus and specimen is modeled in ABAQUS finite element software for different loading conditions and crack geometries. The influence of variation of crack geometry on interlaminar fracture stress intensity factor and energy release rate for various mixed mode ratios and pure mode I and II was studied. Also, correction factors for this specimen for different crack length ratios were calculated. The finite element results indicate that for loading angles close to pure mode-II loading, a high ratio of mode-II to mode-I fracture is dominant and there is an opposite trend for loading angles close to pure mode-I loading. It confirms that by varying the loading angle of Arcan specimen pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode loading conditions can be created and tested. Also, numerical results confirm that the increase of the mode- II loading contribution leads to an increase of fracture resistance in the CF/PEI composite (i.e., a reduction in the total strain energy release rate) and the increase of the crack length leads to a reduction of interlaminar fracture resistance in the CF/PEI composite (i.e., an increase in the total interlaminar strain energy release rate).

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, Mixed Mode, Arcan Specimen, Finite Element.

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821 Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

Authors: D.Elleuch, T.Damak

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown that the second one is more robust to estimate the state.

Keywords: Adaptive observer, Lipchitz system, Interconnected fractional nonlinear system, sliding mode.

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820 Development of a Sliding-tearing Mode Fracture Mechanical Tool for Laminated Composite Materials

Authors: Andras Szekrenyes

Abstract:

This work presents the mixed-mode II/III prestressed split-cantilever beam specimen for the fracture testing of composite materials. In accordance with the concept of prestressed composite beams one of the two fracture modes is provided by the prestressed state of the specimen, and the other one is increased up to fracture initiation by using a testing machine. The novel beam-like specimen is able to provide any combination of the mode-II and mode-III energy release rates. A simple closed-form solution is developed using beam theory as a data reduction scheme and for the calculation of the energy release rates in the new configuration. The applicability and the limitations of the novel fracture mechanical test are demonstrated using unidirectional glass/polyester composite specimens. If only crack propagation onset is involved then the mixed-mode beam specimen can be used to obtain the fracture criterion of transparent composite materials in the GII - GIII plane in a relatively simple way.

Keywords: Composite, fracture mechanics, toughness testing, mixed-mode II/III fracture.

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819 Chaos Synchronization Using Sliding Mode Technique

Authors: Behzad Khademian, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective sliding mode design is applied to chaos synchronization. The proposed controller can make the states of two identical modified Chua-s circuits globally asymptotically synchronized. Numerical results are provided to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Sliding mode, Chaos synchronization, Modified Chua's circuit.

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818 Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot

Authors: Abdallah Ghoul, Bachir Ouamri, Ismail Khalil Bousserhane

Abstract:

In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.

Keywords: Internet, manipulator robot, PID controller, remote control, sliding mode, teleoperation.

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817 Trajectory Control of a Robotic Manipulator Utilizing an Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode

Authors: T. C. Kuo

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control method is proposed for the robust tracking control of robotic manipulators. The proposed controller possesses the advantages of adaptive control, fuzzy control, and sliding mode control. First, system stability and robustness are guaranteed based on the sliding mode control. Further, fuzzy rules are developed incorporating with adaptation law to alleviate the input chattering effectively. Stability of the control system is proven by using the Lyapunov method. An application to a three-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator is carried out. Accurate trajectory tracking as well as robustness is achieved. Input chattering is greatly eliminated.

Keywords: Fuzzy control, sliding mode control, roboticmanipulator, adaptive control.

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816 Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures

Authors: Moussa Hamdan, Abdulati Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.

Keywords: Surface plasmons, optical waveguides, semiconductor lasers, refractive index, slab dialectical.

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815 Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multiscale Analysis of Physiological Signal

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a refined multiscale Shannon entropy for analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflects the underlying dynamics of EEG over multiple scales. The rationale behind this method is that neurological signals such as EEG possess distinct dynamics over different spectral modes. To deal with the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of EEG, the recently developed empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is incorporated, allowing a decomposition of EEG into its inherent spectral components, referred to as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By calculating the Shannon entropy of IMFs in a time-dependent manner and summing them over adaptive multiple scales, it results in an adaptive subscale entropy measure of EEG. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed entropy properly reveals the dynamical changes over multiple scales.

Keywords: EEG, subscale entropy, Empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode function.

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