Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 933

Search results for: Distributed generators

933 On the Reliability of Low Voltage Network with Small Scale Distributed Generators

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola Lj.Rajakovic

Abstract:

Since the 80s huge efforts have been made to utilize renewable energy sources to generate electric power. This paper reports some aspects of integration of the distributed generators into the low voltage distribution networks. An assessment of impact of the distributed generators on the reliability indices of low voltage network is performed. Results obtained from case study using low voltage network, are presented and discussed.

Keywords: low voltage network, distributed generation, reliability indices

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932 A Novel Probablistic Strategy for Modeling Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generators

Authors: Engy A. Mohamed, Yasser G. Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for modeling photovoltaic based distributed generators for the purpose of optimal planning of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the stochastic nature of photovoltaic based distributed generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Comulative distribution function, distributed generation, Monte Carlo.

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931 Coordinated Voltage Control using Multiple Regulators in Distribution System with Distributed Generators

Authors: R. Shivarudraswamy, D. N. Gaonkar

Abstract:

The continued interest in the use of distributed generation in recent years is leading to the growth in number of distributed generators connected to distribution networks. Steady state voltage rise resulting from the connection of these generators can be a major obstacle to their connection at lower voltage levels. The present electric distribution network is designed to keep the customer voltage within tolerance limit. This may require a reduction in connectable generation capacity, under utilization of appropriate generation sites. Thus distribution network operators need a proper voltage regulation method to allow the significant integration of distributed generation systems to existing network. In this work a voltage rise problem in a typical distribution system has been studied. A method for voltage regulation of distribution system with multiple DG system by coordinated operation distributed generator, capacitor and OLTC has been developed. A sensitivity based analysis has been carried out to determine the priority for individual generators in multiple DG environment. The effectiveness of the developed method has been evaluated under various cases through simulation results.

Keywords: Distributed generation, voltage control, sensitivity factor.

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930 Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration Considering Distributed Generators

Authors: R. Khorshidi , T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

Recently, distributed generation technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and reliability assurances that might be achieved as a result of their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the possibilities of international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, electricity sector restructuring, high power reliability requirements for certain activities, and concern about easing transmission and distribution capacity bottlenecks and congestion. So it is necessary that impact of these kinds of generators on distribution feeder reconfiguration would be investigated. This paper presents an approach for distribution reconfiguration considering Distributed Generators (DGs). The objective function is summation of electrical power losses A Tabu search optimization is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on a real distribution feeder.

Keywords: Distributed Generator, Daily Optimal Operation, Genetic Algorithm.

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929 Effect of Distributed Generators on the Optimal Operation of Distribution Networks

Authors: J. Olamaei , T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for daily optimal operation of distribution networks considering Distributed Generators (DGs). Due to private ownership of DGs, a cost based compensation method is used to encourage DGs in active and reactive power generation. The objective function is summation of electrical energy generated by DGs and substation bus (main bus) in the next day. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on an IEEE34 buses distribution feeder.

Keywords: Distributed Generator, Daily Optimal Operation, Genetic Algorithm.

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928 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. 

Keywords: Distributed generation, heuristic approach, Optimization, planning.

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927 Optimal Planning of Voltage Controlled Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Systems

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Yasser G. Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Distributed generation, heuristic approach, Optimization, planning.

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926 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: Distributed generation, renewable energy sources, techno-economic analysis, energy policy, curriculum.

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925 Dynamic Performance Evaluation of Distributed Generation Units in the Micro Grid

Authors: Abdolreza Roozbeh, Reza Sedaghati, Ali Asghar Baziar, Mohammad Reza Tabatabaei

Abstract:

This paper presents dynamic models of distributed generators (DG) and investigates dynamic behavior of the DG units in the micro grid system. The DG units include photovoltaic and fuel cell sources. The voltage source inverter is adopted since the electronic interface which can be equipped with its controller to keep stability of the micro grid during small signal dynamics. This paper also introduces power management strategies and implements the DG load sharing concept to keep the micro grid operation in gridconnected and islanding modes of operation. The results demonstrate the operation and performance of the photovoltaic and fuel cell as distributed generators in a micro grid. The entire control system in the micro grid is developed by combining the benefits of the power control and the voltage control strategies. Simulation results are all reported, confirming the validity of the proposed control technique.

Keywords: Stability, Distributed Generation, Dynamic, Micro Grid.

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924 Improvement of Voltage Profile of Grid Integrated Wind Distributed Generation by SVC

Authors: Fariba Shavakhi Zavareh, Hadi Fotoohabadi, Reza Sedaghati

Abstract:

Due to the continuous increment of the load demand, identification of weaker buses, improvement of voltage profile and power losses in the context of the voltage stability problems has become one of the major concerns for the larger, complex, interconnected power systems. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controller in Wind generators connected electrical network for maintaining voltage stability. Wind energy could be the growing renewable energy due to several advantages. The influence of wind generators on power quality is a significant issue; non uniform power production causes variations in system voltage and frequency. Therefore, wind farm requires high reactive power compensation; the advances in high power semiconducting devices have led to the development of FACTS. The FACTS devices such as for example SVC inject reactive power into the system which helps in maintaining a better voltage profile. The performance is evaluated on an IEEE 14 bus system, two wind generators are connected at low voltage buses to meet the increased load demand and SVC devices are integrated at the buses with wind generators to keep voltage stability. Power flows, nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the power network are obtained by iterative solutions using MIPOWER.

Keywords: Voltage Profile, FACTS Device, SVC, Distributed Generation.

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923 Distributed Generator Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System

Authors: J. B. V. Subrahmanyam, C. Radhakrishna

Abstract:

To minimize power losses, it is important to determine the location and size of local generators to be placed in unbalanced power distribution systems. On account of some inherent features of unbalanced distribution systems, such as radial structure, large number of nodes, a wide range of X/R ratios, the conventional techniques developed for the transmission systems generally fail on the determination of optimum size and location of distributed generators (DGs). This paper presents a simple method for investigating the problem of contemporaneously choosing best location and size of DG in three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system (URDS) for power loss minimization and to improve the voltage profile of the system. Best location of the DG is determined by using voltage index analysis and size of DG is computed by variational technique algorithm according to available standard size of DGs. This paper presents the results of simulations for 25-bus and IEEE 37- bus Unbalanced Radial Distribution system.

Keywords: Distributed generator, unbalanced radial distributionsystem, voltage index analysis, variational algorithm.

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922 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Channel with Delta Winglet Vortex Generators at Different Reynolds Numbers

Authors: N. K. Singh

Abstract:

In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a rectangular channel with triangular vortex generators is evaluated. The span wise averaged Nusselt number, mean temperature and total heat flux are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel at a blade angle of 30° for Reynolds numbers 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000. The use of vortex generators increases the span wise averaged Nusselt number compared to the case without vortex generators considerably. At a particular blade angle, increasing the Reynolds number results in an enhancement in the overall performance and span wise averaged Nusselt number was found to be greater at particular location for larger Reynolds number. The total heat flux from the bottom wall with vortex generators was found to be greater than that without vortex generators and the difference increases with increase in Reynolds number.

Keywords: Heat transfer, channel with vortex generators, numerical simulation, effect of Reynolds number on heat transfer.

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921 The Potential of Hybrid Microgrids for Mitigating Power Outage in Lebanon

Authors: R. Chedid, R. Ghajar

Abstract:

Lebanon electricity crisis continues to escalate. Rationing hours still apply across the country but with different rates. The capital Beirut is subjected to 3 hours cut while other cities, town and villages may endure 9 to 14 hours of power shortage. To mitigate this situation, private diesel generators distributed illegally all over the country are being used to bridge the gap in power supply. Almost each building in large cities has its own generator and individual villages may have more than one generator supplying their loads. These generators together with their private networks form incomplete and ill-designed and managed microgrids (MG) but can be further developed to become renewable energy-based MG operating in island- or grid-connected modes. This paper will analyze the potential of introducing MG to help resolve the energy crisis in Lebanon. It will investigate the usefulness of developing MG under the prevailing situation of existing private power supply service providers and in light of the developed national energy policy that supports renewable energy development. A case study on a distribution feeder in a rural area will be analyzed using HOMER software to demonstrate the usefulness of introducing photovoltaic (PV) arrays along the existing diesel generators for all the stakeholders; namely, the developers, the customers, the utility and the community at large. Policy recommendations regarding MG development in Lebanon will be presented on the basis of the accumulated experience in private generation and the privatization and public-private partnership laws.

Keywords: Decentralized systems, microgrids, distributed generation, renewable energy.

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920 Effects of Distributed Generation on Voltage Profile for Reconfiguration of Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahdi Hayatdavudi, Ali Reza Rajabi, Mohammad Hassan Raouf, Mojtaba Saeedimoghadam, Amir Habibi

Abstract:

Generally, distributed generation units refer to small-scale electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to the customer or an electric distribution system (in parallel mode). From the customers’ point of view, a potentially lower cost, higher service reliability, high power quality, increased energy efficiency, and energy independence can be the key points of a proper DG unit. Moreover, the use of renewable types of distributed generations such as wind, photovoltaic, geothermal or hydroelectric power can also provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study their impacts on the distribution networks. A marked increase in Distributed Generation (DG), associated with medium voltage distribution networks, may be expected. Nowadays, distribution networks are planned for unidirectional power flows that are peculiar to passive systems, and voltage control is carried out exclusively by varying the tap position of the HV/MV transformer. This paper will compare different DG control methods and possible network reconfiguration aimed at assessing their effect on voltage profiles.

Keywords: Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration (DFR), Distributed Generator (DG), Voltage Profile, Control.

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919 The Use of Nuclear Generation to Provide Power System Stability

Authors: Heather Wyman-Pain, Yuankai Bian, Furong Li

Abstract:

The decreasing use of fossil fuel power stations has a negative effect on the stability of the electricity systems in many countries. Nuclear power stations have traditionally provided minimal ancillary services to support the system but this must change in the future as they replace fossil fuel generators. This paper explains the development of the four most popular reactor types still in regular operation across the world which have formed the basis for most reactor development since their commercialisation in the 1950s. The use of nuclear power in four countries with varying levels of capacity provided by nuclear generators is investigated, using the primary frequency response provided by generators as a measure for the electricity networks stability, to assess the need for nuclear generators to provide additional support as their share of the generation capacity increases.

Keywords: Frequency control, nuclear power generation, power system stability, system inertia.

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918 Target Tracking in Sensor Networks: A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Approach

Authors: R.Mostafaei, A.Habiboghli, M.R.Meybodi

Abstract:

In distributed resource allocation a set of agents must assign their resources to a set of tasks. This problem arises in many real-world domains such as distributed sensor networks, disaster rescue, hospital scheduling and others. Despite the variety of approaches proposed for distributed resource allocation, a systematic formalization of the problem, explaining the different sources of difficulties, and a formal explanation of the strengths and limitations of key approaches is missing. We take a step towards this goal by using a formalization of distributed resource allocation that represents both dynamic and distributed aspects of the problem. In this paper we present a new idea for target tracking in sensor networks and compare it with previous approaches. The central contribution of the paper is a generalized mapping from distributed resource allocation to DDCSP. This mapping is proven to correctly perform resource allocation problems of specific difficulty. This theoretical result is verified in practice by a simulation on a realworld distributed sensor network.

Keywords: Distributed CSP, Target Tracking, Sensor Network

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917 A Preliminary Conceptual Scale to Discretize the Distributed Manufacturing Continuum

Authors: Ijaz Ul Haq, Fiorenzo Franceschini

Abstract:

The distributed manufacturing methodology brings a new concept of decentralized manufacturing operations close to the proximity of end users. A preliminary scale, to measure distributed capacity and evaluate positioning of firms, is developed in this research. In the first part of the paper, a literature review has been performed which highlights the explorative nature of the studies conducted to present definitions and classifications due to novelty of this topic. From literature, five dimensions of distributed manufacturing development stages have been identified: localization, manufacturing technologies, customization and personalization, digitalization and democratization of design. Based on these determinants a conceptual scale is proposed to measure the status of distributed manufacturing of a generic firm. A multiple case study is then conducted in two steps to test the conceptual scale and to identify the corresponding level of distributed potential in each case study firm.

Keywords: Conceptual scale, distributed manufacturing, firm’s distributed capacity, manufacturing continuum.

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916 Investigating the Impact of Wind Speed on Active and Reactive Power Penetration to the Distribution Network

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, N.P.Padhy

Abstract:

Wind power is among the most actively developing distributed generation (DG) technology. Majority of the wind power based DG technologies employ wind turbine induction generators (WTIG) instead of synchronous generators, for the technical advantages like: reduced size, increased robustness, lower cost, and increased electromechanical damping. However, dynamic changes of wind speed make the amount of active/reactive power injected/drawn to a WTIG embedded distribution network highly variable. This paper analyzes the effect of wind speed changes on the active and reactive power penetration to the wind energy embedded distribution network. Four types of wind speed changes namely; constant, linear change, gust change and random change of wind speed are considered in the analysis. The study is carried out by three-phase, non-linear, dynamic simulation of distribution system component models. Results obtained from the investigation are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Wind turbine induction generator, distribution network, active and reactive power, wind speed.

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915 Experimental Parallel Architecture for Rendering 3D Model into MPEG-4 Format

Authors: Ajay Joshi, Surya Ismail

Abstract:

This paper will present the initial findings of a research into distributed computer rendering. The goal of the research is to create a distributed computer system capable of rendering a 3D model into an MPEG-4 stream. This paper outlines the initial design, software architecture and hardware setup for the system. Distributed computing means designing and implementing programs that run on two or more interconnected computing systems. Distributed computing is often used to speed up the rendering of graphical imaging. Distributed computing systems are used to generate images for movies, games and simulations. A topic of interest is the application of distributed computing to the MPEG-4 standard. During the course of the research, a distributed system will be created that can render a 3D model into an MPEG-4 stream. It is expected that applying distributed computing principals will speed up rendering, thus improving the usefulness and efficiency of the MPEG-4 standard

Keywords: Cluster, parallel architecture, rendering, MPEG-4.

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914 Intelligent Agents for Distributed Intrusion Detection System

Authors: M. Benattou, K. Tamine

Abstract:

This paper presents a distributed intrusion detection system IDS, based on the concept of specialized distributed agents community representing agents with the same purpose for detecting distributed attacks. The semantic of intrusion events occurring in a predetermined network has been defined. The correlation rules referring the process which our proposed IDS combines the captured events that is distributed both spatially and temporally. And then the proposed IDS tries to extract significant and broad patterns for set of well-known attacks. The primary goal of our work is to provide intrusion detection and real-time prevention capability against insider attacks in distributed and fully automated environments.

Keywords: Mobile agent, specialized agent, interpreter agent, event rules, correlation.

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913 Integration of Fixed and Variable Speed Wind Generator Dynamics with Multimachine AC Systems

Authors: A.H.M.A.Rahim

Abstract:

The impact of fixed speed squirrel cage type as well as variable speed doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) on dynamic performance of a multimachine power system has been investigated. Detailed models of the various components have been presented and the integration of asynchronous and synchronous generators has been carried out through a rotor angle based transform. Simulation studies carried out considering the conventional dynamic model of squirrel cage asynchronous generators show that integration, as such, could degrade to the AC system performance transiently. This article proposes a frequency or power controller which can effectively control the transients and restore normal operation of fixed speed induction generator quickly. Comparison of simulation results between classical cage and doubly-fed induction generators indicate that the doubly fed induction machine is more adaptable to multimachine AC system. Frequency controller installed in the DFIG system can also improve its transient profile.

Keywords: Doubly-fed generator, Induction generator, Multimachine system modeling, Wind energy systems

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912 An Exploratory Environment for Concurrency Control Algorithms

Authors: Jinhua Guo

Abstract:

Designing, implementing, and debugging concurrency control algorithms in a real system is a complex, tedious, and errorprone process. Further, understanding concurrency control algorithms and distributed computations is itself a difficult task. Visualization can help with both of these problems. Thus, we have developed an exploratory environment in which people can prototype and test various versions of concurrency control algorithms, study and debug distributed computations, and view performance statistics of distributed systems. In this paper, we describe the exploratory environment and show how it can be used to explore concurrency control algorithms for the interactive steering of distributed computations.

Keywords: Consistency, Distributed Computing, InteractiveSteering, Simulation, Visualization

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911 A Temporal Synchronization Model for Heterogeneous Data in Distributed Systems

Authors: Jorge Estudillo Ramirez, Saul E. Pomares Hernandez

Abstract:

Multimedia distributed systems deal with heterogeneous data, such as texts, images, graphics, video and audio. The specification of temporal relations among different data types and distributed sources is an open research area. This paper proposes a fully distributed synchronization model to be used in multimedia systems. One original aspect of the model is that it avoids the use of a common reference (e.g. wall clock and shared memory). To achieve this, all possible multimedia temporal relations are specified according to their causal dependencies.

Keywords: Multimedia, Distributed Systems, Partial Ordering, Temporal Synchronization

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910 Challenges on Adopting Scrum for Distributed Teams in Home Office Environments

Authors: Marlon Luz, Daniel Gazineu, Mauro Teófilo

Abstract:

This paper describes the two actual tendencies in the software development process usage: 'Scrum' and 'work in home office'. It-s exposed the four main challenges to adopt Scrum framework for distributed teams in this cited kind of work. The challenges are mainly based on the communication problems due distances since the Scrum encourages the team to work together in the same room, and this is not possible when people work distributed in their homes.

Keywords: Agile, Scrum, Distributed Work, Home Office.

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909 A Multiagent System for Distributed Systems Management

Authors: H. M. Kelash, H. M. Faheem, M. Amoon

Abstract:

The demand for autonomous resource management for distributed systems has increased in recent years. Distributed systems require an efficient and powerful communication mechanism between applications running on different hosts and networks. The use of mobile agent technology to distribute and delegate management tasks promises to overcome the scalability and flexibility limitations of the currently used centralized management approach. This work proposes a multiagent system that adopts mobile agents as a technology for tasks distribution, results collection, and management of resources in large-scale distributed systems. A new mobile agent-based approach for collecting results from distributed system elements is presented. The technique of artificial intelligence based on intelligent agents giving the system a proactive behavior. The presented results are based on a design example of an application operating in a mobile environment.

Keywords: distributed management, distributed systems, efficiency, mobile agent, multiagent, response time

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908 Object Allocation with Replication in Distributed Systems

Authors: H. T. Barney, G. C. Low

Abstract:

The design of distributed systems involves dividing the system into partitions (or components) and then allocating these partitions to physical nodes. There have been several techniques proposed for both the partitioning and allocation processes. These existing techniques suffer from a number of limitations including lack of support for replication. Replication is difficult to use effectively but has the potential to greatly improve the performance of a distributed system. This paper presents a new technique technique for allocating objects in order to improve performance in a distributed system that supports replication. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated and tested on an example system. The performance of the new technique is compared with the performance of an existing technique in order to demonstrate both the validity and superiority of the new technique when developing a distributed system that can utilise object replication.

Keywords: Allocation, Distributed Systems, Replication.

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907 Reliability Improvement with Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation in Distribution System

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, T. Langtharthong

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in a distribution system. The problem is to reliability improvement of distribution system with distributed generations. The technique employed to solve the minimization problem is based on a developed Tabu search algorithm and reliability worth analysis. The developed methodology is tested with a distribution system of Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) bus 2. It can be seen from the case study that distributed generation can reduce the customer interruption cost and therefore improve the reliability of the system. It is expected that our proposed method will be utilized effectively for distribution system operator.

Keywords: Distributed generation Optimization technique Reliability improvement, Distribution system.

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906 Distributed Frequency Synchronization for Global Synchronization in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Jung-Hyun Kim, Jihyung Kim, Kwangjae Lim, Dong Seung Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, our focus is to assure a global frequency synchronization in OFDMA-based wireless mesh networks with local information. To acquire the global synchronization in distributed manner, we propose a novel distributed frequency synchronization (DFS) method. DFS is a method that carrier frequencies of distributed nodes converge to a common value by repetitive estimation and averaging step and sharing step. Experimental results show that DFS achieves noteworthy better synchronization success probability than existing schemes in OFDMA-based mesh networks where the estimation error is presented.

Keywords: OFDMA systems, Frequency synchronization, Distributed networks, Multiple groups.

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905 Technical and Economic Impacts of Distributed Generation on Distribution System

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Auchariyamet

Abstract:

Distributed Generation (DG) in the form of renewable power generation systems is currently preferred for clean power generation. It has a significant impact on the distribution systems. This impact may be either positively or negatively depending on the distribution system, distributed generator and load characteristics. In this works, an overview of DG is briefly introduced. The technology of DG is also listed while the technical impacts and economic impacts are explained.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Technical Impacts, Economic Impacts.

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904 An Edit-Distance Algorithm to Detect Correlated Attacks in Distributed Systems

Authors: Sule Simsek

Abstract:

Intrusion detection systems (IDS)are crucial components of the security mechanisms of today-s computer systems. Existing research on intrusion detection has focused on sequential intrusions. However, intrusions can also be formed by concurrent interactions of multiple processes. Some of the intrusions caused by these interactions cannot be detected using sequential intrusion detection methods. Therefore, there is a need for a mechanism that views the distributed system as a whole. L-BIDS (Lattice-Based Intrusion Detection System) is proposed to address this problem. In the L-BIDS framework, a library of intrusions and distributed traces are represented as lattices. Then these lattices are compared in order to detect intrusions in the distributed traces.

Keywords: Attack graph, distributed, edit-distance, misuse detection.

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