Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: shame and guilt

71 Devising a Paradigm for the Assessment of Guilt across Species

Authors: Trisha S. Malhotra

Abstract:

While there exist frameworks to study the induction, manifestation, duration and general nature of emotions like shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride in humans, the same cannot be said for other species. This is because such 'complex' emotions have situational inductions and manifestations that supposedly vary due to differences between and within different species' ethology. This paper looks at the socio-adaptive functions of guilt to posit why this emotion might be observed across varying species. Primarily, the experimental paradigm of guilt-assessment in domesticated dogs is critiqued for lack of ethological consideration in its measurement and analysis. It is argued that a paradigm for guilt-assessment should measure the species-specific prosocial approach behavior instead of the immediate feedback of the 'guilty'. Finally, it is asserted that the origin of guilt is subjective and if it must be studied across a plethora of species, its definition must be tailored to fit accordingly.

Keywords: guilt, assessment, dogs, prosocial approach behavior, empathy, species, ethology

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70 The Relationships between the Feelings of Bullying, Self- Esteem, Employee Silence, Anger, Self- Blame and Shame

Authors: Şebnem Aslan, Demet Akarçay

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The objective of this study is to investigate the feelings of health employees occurred by bullying and the relationships between these feelings at work place. In this context, the relationships between bullying and the feelings of self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self- blame and shame. This study was conducted among 512 health employees in three hospitals in Konya by using survey method and simple random sampling. The scales of bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self-blame, and shame were performed within the study. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive analysis, correlation, confirmative factor analysis, structural equation modeling and path analysis. The results of the study showed that while bullying had a positive effect on self-esteem (.61), employee silence (.41), anger (.18), a negative effect on self-blame and shame (-.26) was observed. Employee silence affected self-blame and shame (.83) as positively. Besides, self-esteem impacted on self- blame and shame (.18), employee silence (.62) positively and self-blame and shame was observed as negatively affecting on anger (-.20). Similarly, self-esteem was found as negatively affected on anger (-.13).

Keywords: bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, shame and guilt, healthcare employee

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69 Differences in Guilt, Shame, Self-Anger, and Suicide Cognitions Based on Recent Suicide Ideation and Lifetime Suicide Attempt History

Authors: E. H. Szeto, E. Ammendola, J. V. Tabares, A. Starkey, J. Hay, J. G. McClung, C. J. Bryan

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Introduction: Suicide is a leading cause of death globally, which accounts for more deaths annually than war, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, homicides, and car accidents, while an estimated 140 million individuals have significant suicide ideation (SI) each year in the United States. Typical risk factors such as hopelessness, depression, and psychiatric disorders can predict suicide ideation but cannot distinguish between those who ideate from those who attempt suicide (SA). The Fluid Vulnerability Theory of suicide posits that a person’s activation of the suicidal mode is predicated on one’s predisposition, triggers, baseline/acute risk, and protective factors. The current study compares self-conscious cognitive-affective states (including guilt, shame, anger towards the self, and suicidal beliefs) among patients based on the endorsement of recent SI (i.e., past two weeks; acute risk) and lifetime SA (i.e., baseline risk). Method: A total of 2,722 individuals in an outpatient primary care setting were included in this cross-sectional, observational study; data for 2,584 were valid and retained for analysis. The Differential Emotions Scale measuring guilt, shame, and self-anger and the Suicide Cognitions Scale measuring suicide cognitions were administered. Results: A total of 2,222 individuals reported no recent SI or lifetime SA (Group 1), 161 reported recent SI only (Group 2), 145 reported lifetime SA only (Group 3), 56 reported both recent SI and lifetime SA (Group 4). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that guilt, shame, self-anger, and suicide cognitions were the highest for Group 4 (both recent SI and lifetime SA), followed by Group 2 (recent SI-only), then Group 3 (lifetime SA-only), and lastly, Group 1 (no recent SI or lifetime SA). Conclusion: The results on recent SI-only versus lifetime SA-only contribute to the literature on the Fluid Vulnerability Theory of suicide by capturing SI and SA in two different time periods, which signify the acute risks and chronic baseline risks of the suicidal mode, respectively. It is also shown that: (a) people with a lifetime SA reported more severe symptoms than those without, (b) people with recent SI reported more severe symptoms than those without, and (c) people with both recent SI and lifetime SA were the most severely distressed. Future studies may replicate the findings here with other pertinent risk factors such as thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability, the last of which is consistently linked to attempting among ideators.

Keywords: suicide, guilt, shame, self-anger, suicide cognitions, suicide ideation, suicide attempt

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68 The Effects of Organizational Apologies for Some Members’ Annoying Behavior on Other Members’ Appraisal of Their Organization

Authors: Chikae Isobe, Toshihiko Souma, Yoshiya Furukawa

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In Japan, an organization is sometimes asked for responsibility and apology toward the organization for the annoying behavior of employees, even though the behavior is not relevant to the organization. Our studies have repeatedly shown that it is important for organizational evaluation to organization propose compensatory behavior for such annoying behavior, even though the behavior is not relevant to the organization. In this study, it was examined how such an organizational response (apology) was likely to evaluate by members of the organization who were not related to the annoying behavior. Three independent variables were manipulated that is organization emotion (guilt and shame), compensation (proposal or not), and the relation between organization and the annoying behavior (relate or not). And the effects of organizational identity (high and low) were also examined. We conducted an online survey for 240 participants through a crowdsourcing company. Participants were asked to imagine a situation in which an incident in which some people in your company did not return an important document that they borrowed privately (vs. at work) became the topic of discussion, and the company responded. For the analysis,189 data (111 males and 78 females, mean age = 40.6) were selected. The results of ANOVA of 2 by2 on organizational appraisal, perceived organizational responsibility, and so on were conducted. Organization appraisal by members was also higher when the organization proposed compensatory behavior. In addition, when the annoying behavior was related to their work (than no related), for those who were high in organization identity (than low), organization appraisal was high. The interaction between relatedness and organizational identity was significant. Differences in relatedness between the organization and annoying behavior were significant in those with low organizational identity but not in those with high organizational identity. When the organization stated not taking compensatory action, members were more likely to perceive the organization as responsible for the annoying behavior. However, the interaction results indicated this tendency was limited to when the annoying behavior was not related to the organization. Furthermore, it tended to be perceived as responsible for the organization when the organization made a statement that felt shame for the annoying behavior not related to the organization and would compensate for the annoying behavior. These results indicate that even members of the organization do not consider the organization's compensatory actions to be unjustified. In addition, because those with high organizational identity perceived the organization to be responsible when it showed strong remorse (shame and compensation), they would be a tendency to make judgments that are consistent with organizational judgments. It would be considered that the Japanese have the norm that even if the organization is not at fault for a member's disruptive behavior, it should respond to it.

Keywords: appraisal for organization, annoying behavior, group shame and guilt, compensation, organizational apologies

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67 Love and Loss: The Emergence of Shame in Romantic Information Communication Technology

Authors: C. Caudwell, R. Syed, C. Lacey

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While the development and advancement of information communication technologies (ICTs) offers powerful opportunities for meaningful connections and relationships, shame is a significant barrier to social and cultural acceptance. In particular, artificial intelligence and socially oriented robots are increasingly becoming partners in romantic relationships with people, offering bonding, support, comfort, growth, and reciprocity. However, these relationships suffer hierarchical, anthropocentric shame that is a significant barrier to their success and longevity. This paper will present case studies of human and artificially intelligent agent relationships, in the context of internal and external shame, as cultivated, propagated, and communicated through ICT. Using an interdisciplinary methodology we aim to present a framework for technological shame, building on the experimental and emergent psychoanalytical theories of emotions. Our study finds principally that socialization is a powerful factor in the vectors of shame as experienced by humans. On a wider scale, we contribute understanding of social emotion and the phenomenon of shame proliferated through ICTs, which is at present under-explored, but vital, as society and culture is increasingly mediated through this medium.

Keywords: shame, artificial intelligence, romance, society

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66 Emotion Expression of the Leader and Collective Efficacy: Pride and Guilt

Authors: Hsiu-Tsu Cho

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Collective efficacy refers to a group’s sense of its capacity to complete a task successfully or to reach objectives. Little effort has been expended on investigating the relationship between the emotion expression of a leader and collective efficacy. In this study, we examined the impact of the different emotions and emotion expression of a group leader on collective efficacy and explored whether the emotion–expressive effects differed under conditions of negative and positive emotions. A total of 240 undergraduate and graduate students recruited using Facebook and posters at a university participated in this research. The participants were separated randomly into 80 groups of four persons consisting of three participants and a confederate. They were randomly assigned to one of five conditions in a 2 (pride vs. guilt) × 2 (emotion expression of group leader vs. no emotion expression of group leader) factorial design and a control condition. Each four-person group was instructed to get the reward in a group competition of solving the five-disk Tower of Hanoi puzzle and making decisions on an investment case. We surveyed the participants by employing the emotional measure revised from previous researchers and collective efficacy questionnaire on a 5-point scale. To induce an emotion of pride (or guilt), the experimenter announced whether the group performance was good enough to have a chance of getting the reward (ranking the top or bottom 20% among all groups) after group task. The leader (confederate) could either express or not express a feeling of pride (or guilt) following the instruction according to the assigned condition. To check manipulation of emotion, we added a control condition under which the experimenter revealed no results regarding group performance in maintaining a neutral emotion. One-way ANOVAs and post hoc pairwise comparisons among the three emotion conditions (pride, guilt, and control condition) involved assigning pride and guilt scores (pride: F(1,75) = 32.41, p < .001; guilt: F(1,75) = 6.75, p < .05). The results indicated that manipulations of emotion were successful. A two-way between-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine the predictions of the main effects of emotion types and emotion expression as well as the interaction effect of these two variables on collective efficacy. The experimental findings suggest that pride did not affect collective efficacy (F(1,60) = 1.90, ns.) more than guilt did and that the group leader did not motivate collective efficacy regardless of whether he or she expressed emotion (F(1,60) = .89, ns.). However, the interaction effect of emotion types and emotion expression was statistically significant (F(1,60) = 4.27, p < .05, ω2 = .066); the effects accounted for 6.6% of the variance. Additional results revealed that, under the pride condition, the leader enhanced group efficacy when expressing emotion, whereas, under the guilt condition, an expression of emotion could reduce collective efficacy. Overall, these findings challenge the assumption that the effect of expression emotion are the same on all emotions and suggest that a leader should be cautious when expressing negative emotions toward a group to avoid reducing group effectiveness.

Keywords: collective efficacy, group leader, emotion expression, pride, guilty

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65 Criminal Law Instruments to Counter Corporate Crimes in Poland

Authors: Dorota Habrat

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In Polish law, the idea of the introduction of corporate responsibility for crimes is becoming more popular and creates a lot of questions. The need to introduce into the Polish legal system liability of corporate (collective entities) has resulted, among others, from the Polish Republic's international commitments, in particular related to membership in the European Union. The Act of 28 October 2002 on the liability of collective entities for acts prohibited under penalty is one of the example of adaptation of Polish law to Community law. Introduction to Polish law a criminal nature liability of corporations (legal persons) has resulted in a lot of controversy and lack of acceptance from both the scientific community as well as the judiciary. The responsibility of collective entities under the Act has a criminal nature. The main question concerns the ability of the collective entity to be brought to guilt under criminal law sense. Polish criminal law knows only the responsibility of individual persons. So far, guilt as a personal feature of action, based on the ability of the offender to feel in his psyche, could be considered only in relation to the individual person, while the said Act destroyed this conviction. Guilt of collective entity must be proven under at least one of the three possible forms: the guilt in the selection or supervision and so called organizational guilt. The next question is how the principle of proportionality in relation to criminal measures in response of collective entities should be considered. It should be remembered that the legal subjectivity of collective entities, including their rights and freedoms, is an emanation of the rights and freedoms of individual persons which create collective entities and through these entities implement their rights and freedoms. The adopted Act largely reflects the international legal regulations but also contains the unknown and original legislative solutions.

Keywords: criminal corporate responsibility, Polish criminal law, legislative solutions, Act of 28 October 2002

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64 Detention Experiences of Asylum Seeking Children in Canada: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Zohra Faize

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Globalization has expanded the mobility privileges of the Global North population while simultaneously, those in the Global South, namely poor, and racialized minorities are increasingly criminalized for crossing international borders. As part of this global trend, Canada also engages in tight border control practices, which often result in marginalization and criminalization of asylum seekers, including children. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as a theoretical framework and methodology, this research explores the effects of tight border control practices on children asylum-seekers; with a specific focus on detention experiences in Canadian prisons and immigration Holding Centers. The preliminary results of interviews with 8 participants confirm the violations of child rights that stem from the detention practice. Children also report that they find immigration detention to be a stressful and a confusing experience, often resulting in feeling of shame and guilt after their release into the community.

Keywords: border control, crimmigration, Canada, children asylum seekers, immcarceration, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

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63 Confess Your Sins to One Another: An Exploration of the Biblical Validity and the Psychological Efficacy of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Catholic Church

Authors: M. B. Peter

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The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has long been upheld, by the Catholic Church, as one of the Sacraments of healing, mainly due to the sense of peace, tranquility and psychological quiescence it accords the penitent upon receiving Sacramental absolution of sin through the action of the priest. This paper explores the Sacramental character of this practice and the psychological benefits of the celebration of the Sacrament. This is achieved in two parts: firstly, by the intellectual engagement of Sacred Scripture and the consolidated Sacred Tradition that the Catholic magisterium protects and, secondly, via a broad survey of the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Orval Hobart Mowrer regarding confession and forgiveness. The former will serve to demonstrate the Catholic belief of the divine institution of the Sacrament whilst the latter will demonstrate how this belief, coupled with the existing benefit of confessing guilt, collectively bolsters the Sacrament’s overall psychological efficacy. Fundamentally, the analysis of Jung and Mowrer’s works demonstrate that man, as a naturally religious being, has an inherent need for the confession of his wrong that he might be alleviated of psychological guilt in obtaining forgiveness of a (divinely ordained) minister who is sanctioned to absolve, i.e. the priest. The paper also presents the curative effect of the celebration of this Sacrament, illustrating how, without the act of confession, man remains in moral isolation from God and man; and, that with it, man is relieved of the mysterious feeling of guilt which lies at the root of his disquiet of mind and disturbance of will. Thus, the paper penultimately establishes how the Sacrament of Reconciliation is positioned in that place where psychology and theology meet: man’s sense of guilt. It is Jung’s views on confession and forgiveness that ultimately bridge the chasm between psychology and Christianity.

Keywords: Catholic, confession, Jung, Mowrer, penance, psychology, Sacrament of Reconciliation

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62 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Marina Sousa, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Joana Cabral, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira, Ermelindo Peixoto

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Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, early memories, paranoid ideation, parenting styles, shame, submissiveness

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61 Norms and Laws: Fate of Community Forestry in Jharkhand

Authors: Pawas Suren

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The conflict between livelihood and forest protection has been a perpetual phenomenon in India. In the era of climate change, the problem is expected to aggravate the declining trend of dense forest in the country, creating impediments in the climate change adaptation by the forest dependent communities. In order to access the complexity of the problem, Hazarinagh and Chatra districts of Jharkhand were selected as a case study. To identify norms practiced by the communities to manage community forestry, the ethnographic study was designed to understand the values, traditions, and cultures of forest dependent communities, most of whom were tribal. It was observed that internalization of efficient forest norms is reflected in the pride and honor of such behavior while violators are sanctioned through guilt and shame. The study analyzes the effect of norms being practiced in the management and ecology of community forestry as common property resource. The light of the findings led towards the gaps in the prevalent forest laws to address efficient allocation of property rights. The conclusion embarks on reconsidering accepted factors of forest degradation in India.

Keywords: climate change, common property resource, community forestry, norms

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60 Text Emotion Recognition by Multi-Head Attention based Bidirectional LSTM Utilizing Multi-Level Classification

Authors: Vishwanath Pethri Kamath, Jayantha Gowda Sarapanahalli, Vishal Mishra, Siddhesh Balwant Bandgar

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Recognition of emotional information is essential in any form of communication. Growing HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) in recent times indicates the importance of understanding of emotions expressed and becomes crucial for improving the system or the interaction itself. In this research work, textual data for emotion recognition is used. The text being the least expressive amongst the multimodal resources poses various challenges such as contextual information and also sequential nature of the language construction. In this research work, the proposal is made for a neural architecture to resolve not less than 8 emotions from textual data sources derived from multiple datasets using google pre-trained word2vec word embeddings and a Multi-head attention-based bidirectional LSTM model with a one-vs-all Multi-Level Classification. The emotions targeted in this research are Anger, Disgust, Fear, Guilt, Joy, Sadness, Shame, and Surprise. Textual data from multiple datasets were used for this research work such as ISEAR, Go Emotions, Affect datasets for creating the emotions’ dataset. Data samples overlap or conflicts were considered with careful preprocessing. Our results show a significant improvement with the modeling architecture and as good as 10 points improvement in recognizing some emotions.

Keywords: text emotion recognition, bidirectional LSTM, multi-head attention, multi-level classification, google word2vec word embeddings

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59 The Juxtaposition of Home in Toni Morrison's Home: Ironic Functions as Trauma and Healing

Authors: Imas Istiani

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The concept of home is usually closely related to the place of safety and security. For people who have travelled far and long, they long to be united with home to feel safe, secure and comfortable. However, for some people, especially for veterans, home cannot offer them those feelings, on the contrary, it can give them the sense of insecurity as well as guilty. Thus, its juxtaposed concept can also put home as an uncanny place that represses and haunt its occupant. As for veterans, 'survivor guilt' overpowers them in the way that it will be hard for them to embrace the comfort that home offers. In Home, Toni Morrison poignantly depicts Frank’s life upon returning from the war. Burdened with his traumatic experiences, Frank finds home full with terror, guilt, fear, grief, and loss. Using Dominick laCapra’s 'Trauma Theory,' the study finds that Frank works through his trauma by being able to distinguish between past and present so that he can overcome those repressed feelings. Aside from his inner healing power, Frank digests the process of working through with the help of home and community, as proposed by Evelyn Jaffe Schreiber claiming that community can help survivors to heal from traumatic experiences. Thus, Home has two juxtaposed functions; both as traumatizing and healing place.

Keywords: trauma, healing, home, trauma theory

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58 ‘Honour’ Crime and the Need for Differentiation from Domestic Violence in UK Law

Authors: Mariam Shah

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‘Honour’ crime has commonly been perceived in the UK as being a ‘domestic violence’ related issue due to incidents perceived to take place within a domestic context, and commonly by familial perpetrators. The lack of differentiation between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related incidents has several negative implications. Firstly, the prevalence and extent of ‘honour’ related crime within the UK cannot be accurately quantified due to ‘honour’ incidents being classed statistically as domestic violence incidents. Secondly, lack of differentiation means that the negative stereotypical attitudes ascribed to domestic violence which has resulted in lower criminal conviction rates that are also impacting the conviction of perpetrators of ‘honour’ crime. Thirdly, ‘honour’ related crime is innately distinct from domestic violence due to the perpetrator’s resolute intent of cleansing perceived ‘shame’ in any way possible, often with the involvement and collusion of multiple perpetrators from within the family and/or community. Domestic violence is typically restricted to the ‘home’, but ‘honour’ crime can operate between national and international boundaries. This paper critically examines the current academic literature and concludes that the few similarities between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related crime are not sufficient to warrant identical treatment under UK criminal law. ‘Honour’ related crime is a distinct and stand-alone offence which should be recognised as such. The appropriate identification and treatment of ‘honour’ crime are crucial, particularly in light of the UK’s first ‘white’ honour killing which saw a young English woman murdered after being deemed to have brought ‘shame’ on her ex-boyfriend’s family. This incident highlights the possibility of ‘honour’ crime extending beyond its perceived ‘ethnic minority’ roots and becoming more of a ‘mainstream’ issue for the multi-cultural and multi-racial UK.

Keywords: differentiation, domestic violence, honour crime, United Kingdom

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57 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer

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In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: climate change, mitigation, moral hazard, negative emission technologies, responsibility

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56 Obese and Overweight Women and Public Health Issues in Hillah City, Iraq

Authors: Amean A. Yasir, Zainab Kh. A. Al-Mahdi Al-Amean

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In both developed and developing countries, obesity among women is increasing, but in different patterns and at very different speeds. It may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. This research studied the age distribution among obese women, the types of overweight and obesity, and the extent of the problem of overweight/obesity and the obesity etiological factors among women in Hillah city in central Iraq. A total of 322 overweight and obese women were included in the study, those women were randomly selected. The Body Mass Index was used as indicator for overweight/ obesity. The incidence of overweight/obesity among age groups were estimated, the etiology factors included genetic, environmental, genetic/environmental and endocrine disease. The overweight and obese women were screened for incidence of infection and/or diseases. The study found that the prevalence of 322 overweight and obese women in Hillah city in central Iraq was 19.25% and 80.78%, respectively. The obese women types were recorded based on BMI and WHO classification as class-1 obesity (29.81%), class-2 obesity (24.22%) and class-3 obesity (26.70%), the result was discrepancy non-significant, P value < 0.05. The incidence of overweight in women was high among those aged 20-29 years (90.32%), 6.45% aged 30-39 years old and 3.22% among ≥ 60 years old, while the incidence of obesity was 20.38% for those in the age group 20-29 years, 17.30% were 30-39 years, 23.84% were 40-49 years, 16.92% were 50-59 years group and 21.53% were ≥ 60 years age group. These results confirm that the age can be considered as a significant factor for obesity types (P value < 0.0001). The result also showed that the both genetic factors and environmental factors were responsible for incidents of overweight or obesity (84.78%) p value < 0.0001. The results also recorded cases of different repeated infections (skin infection, recurrent UTI and influenza), cancer, gallstones, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and infertility. Weight stigma and bias generally refers to negative attitudes; Obesity can affect quality of life, and the results of this study recorded depression among overweight or obese women. This can lead to sexual problems, shame and guilt, social isolation and reduced work performance. Overweight and Obesity are real problems among women of all age groups and is associated with the risk of diseases and infection and negatively affects quality of life. This result warrants further studies into the prevalence of obesity among women in Hillah City in central Iraq and the immune response of obese women.

Keywords: obesity, overweight, Iraq, body mass index

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55 A Multiple Case Study of How Bilingual-Bicultural Teachers' Language Shame and Loss Affects Teaching English Language Learners

Authors: Lisa Winstead, Penny Congcong Wang

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This two-year multiple case study of eight Spanish-English speaking teachers explores bilingual-bicultural Latino teachers’ lived experiences as English Language Learners and, more recently, as adult teachers who work with English Language Learners in mainstream schools. Research questions explored include: How do bilingual-bicultural teachers perceive their native language use and sense of self within society from childhood to adulthood? Correspondingly, what are bilingual teachers’ perceptions of how their own language learning experience might affect teaching students of similar linguistic and cultural backgrounds? This study took place in an urban area in the Pacific Southwest of the United States. Participants were K-8 teachers and enrolled in a Spanish-English bilingual authorization program. Data were collected from journals, focus group interviews, field notes, and class artifacts. Within case and cross-case analysis revealed that the participants were shamed about their language use as children which contributed to their primary language loss. They similarly reported how experiences of mainstream educator and administrator language shaming invalidated their ability to provide support for Latino heritage ELLs, despite their bilingual-bicultural expertise. However, participants reported that counter-narratives from the bilingual authorization program, parents, community and church organizations, and cultural responsive teachers were effective in promoting their language retention, pride, and feelings of well-being.

Keywords: teacher education, bilingual education, English language learners, emergent bilinguals, social justice, language shame, language loss, translanguaging

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54 The Influence of Parental Media Mediation on Adolescents Risky Media Use: Controlled vs. Autonomy Supportive Strategies

Authors: Jeffrey L. Hurst, Sarah M. Coyne

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With the growth of technology and media, teens are increasingly exposed to media such as pornography and engaging in risky media use such as sexting. Parental media mediation strategies including controlling or autonomy supporting strategies can be an important protective factor against risky media uses. The purpose of this study is to examine how parental media mediation around media, influence adolescents’ behaviors including frequency of pornography use and sexting. We also examine the effects of parental media mediation on adolescents disclosing pornography use to parents and the amount of secrets that adolescents keep about pornography use. We hypothesize that controlling media mediation will result in more sexting, more frequency pornography use, more secrets about pornography and less disclosure to parents. We also predict that autonomy supportive media mediation will show the opposite pattern. Data for this study came from a nationally representative research project, Project M.E.D.I.A. Participants included 783 adolescents. 49% of the participants were male, and the mean age for boys was 15.44 years (SD= 3.34) and for girls was 15.3 years (SD=2.93). Parental media mediation was assessed using an eight-item measure with subscales of controlling and autonomy supporting media mediation. Participants were also asked if they have ever viewed pornography. If they answered yes, they were asked about the frequency of pornography use as well as if they have ever kept secrets from their parents about it and if they had ever disclosed their pornography use to their parents. The data analysis strategy for this study was a multiple group path analysis. Frequency of pornography use, sexting, secrets from parents and disclosure to parents were predicted by controlling and autonomy supporting parental media mediation, frequency of parents warning against pornography use, income and ethnicity. Groups were distinguished by boys and girls, allowing for sex differences. After running the model in MPLUS, we found partial support for our hypotheses. Autonomy supportive media mediation resulted in less sexting for boys (β= -.15, p < .05) and girls ( β= -.13, p < .05). Autonomy supportive media mediation also predicted keeping fewer secrets for girls (β=-.27, p < .01) but had no effect for boys. Controlling media mediation predicted more disclosure about pornography to parents for boys (β=.16, p < .05) and less disclosure to parents about pornography for girls (β=-.14, p < .05). Frequency of pornography was not predicted by any of the predictors in the model. Autonomy supportive media mediation was a very strong predictor of less sexting for both boys and girls. Parents should approach media mediation with this supportive and understanding mindset. Parental autonomy support allows adolescents to explore and develop their own moral beliefs without feeling guilt or shame from their parents. This need to have autonomy is also shown by girls disclosing less pornography use to their parents when parents are really controlling about media use. Interestingly, boys disclosed more to their parents when their parents were controlling. Further research is needed on why this is. Further research should also look at the effects that disclosing pornography use to parents has on future pornography use.

Keywords: media, moral development, parental mediation, pornography, sexting

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53 Debunking Sexual Myths in Bangladesh through an Intervention on the Internet

Authors: E. Rommes, Els Toonen, Rahil Roodsaz, Suborna Camellia, Farhana Alam, Saad Khan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Tanveer Hassan, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, a country in which adults (both parents and teachers) find it particularly hard to speak with youth about sexuality, adolescents seem to struggle with various insecurities about their sexual feelings, thoughts, behavior and physical characteristics. On the basis of a large number of interviews and focus groups with rural and urban Bangla adolescent girls and boys of lower and middle class as part of the large-scale three-year project ‘Breaking the Shame’, we have identified ten sexual themes or ‘myths’ that youth struggle with most. These encompass amongst others beliefs and insecurities on masturbation, discharge, same-sex behavior and feelings, the effects of watching porn and gender norms. We argue that the Internet is a particularly suitable medium to ‘debunk’ those myths, as youth can consult it anonymously and privately and so avoid social shame. Moreover, amongst the myths, we have identified two kinds which may need different debunking techniques. One kind of myth concerns scientifically uncontested, generally biological related information, such as the effects of having sex with a pregnant woman, questions on the effects of a penile or vaginal discharge or questions on the effects of masturbation. The second kind of myths concerns more diverse information sources and deals with e.g. religious or culturally specific norms, such as on the meaning and existence of homosexuality or gender appropriate norms of behavior in Bangladesh. For addressing both kinds of myths, expert information including a wealth of references to information resources needs to be provided, which the Internet is very suitable for. For the second kind of myths, adolescents also need to learn how to deal with sometimes conflicting norms and information sources, and they need to develop and reflect on their own opinions as part of their identity formation. On the basis of a literature review, we thus distinguish general information needs from identity formation needs, which includes the need to be able to relate information and opinions to one’s own opinions and situation. Hence, we argue that youth not only need abstract expert information to be able to debunk sexual myths, but also the option to discuss this information with other adolescents and compare their own situation and opinions with other peers, who in that way serve as ‘warm experts’ for each other. In this paper, we will describe the outcomes of our qualitative study above. In addition, we will present our findings of an intervention by presenting youth with general, uncontested information on the Internet with additional peer discussion options to compare the debunking effects on different kinds of myths.

Keywords: peer discussion, intervention, sexual myths, shame

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52 A Dimensional Approach to Family Involvement in Forensic Mental Health Settings - Prevention of the Systemic Replication of Abuse, Need for Accepted Falsehoods and Family Guilt and Shame

Authors: Katie E. Jennings

Abstract:

The interactions between family dynamics and environmental factors with mental health vulnerability in individuals are well known and are a theme for on-going research and debate. The impact upon mental health issues and forensic issues on family dynamics, experience, and emotional wellbeing cannot be over-Emphasised. For forensic patients with diagnosed mental disorders, these relationships and environments may have also been functionally linked to the development and maintenance of those disorders; with significant adverse childhood experiences being a common feature of many Patient’s histories. Mental health hospitals remove the patient from their home environments and provide treatment outside of these relationships and often outside of the home area. There is, therefore, a major focus on Services ensuring that patients are able to build and maintain relationships with family and friends, requiring services to involve families in Patients' care and treatment wherever possible. There are standards set by Government and clinical bodies that require absolute demonstration of the inclusion of family and friends in all aspects of the care and treatment of forensic patients. For some patients and family members, this push to take on a “role” in care can be unhelpful, extremely stressful, and has constant implications for the potential delicate reparation of relationships. Based on work undertaken for over 20 years in forensic mental health settings, this paper explores the positive psychology approach to a dimensional model to family inclusion in mental health care that learns from family court work and allows for the maintenance of relationships to be at both proximal and Distil levels; to prevent the replication of abuse, decrease the need for falsehoods and assist the recovery of all. The model is based on allowing families to choose to not be involved or be involved in different ways if this is seen to be more helpful. It also allows patients to choose the level of potential involvement that they would find helpful, and for this to be reviewed at a timeframe agreed by all parties, rather than when the next survey is due or the patient has a significant care meeting. This paper is significant as there is a lack of research to support services to use a positive psychology approach to work in this area, the assumption that being asked to be involved must be positive for all seems naïve at best for this patient group. Work relating to the psychology of family can significantly contribute to the development of knowledge in this area. The development of a dimensional model will support choice within families and assist in the development of more honest and open relationships.

Keywords: family dynamics, forensic, mental disorder, positive psychology

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51 A Penny for Your Thoughts: Mind Wandering Tendencies of Individuals with Autistic Traits

Authors: Leilani Forby, Farid Pazhoohi, Alan Kingstone

Abstract:

There is abundant research on the nature and content of mind wandering (MW) in neurotypical (NT) adults, however, there is little to no research in these areas on autistic individuals. The objective of the current study was to uncover any differences between low and high autistic trait individuals in their MW. In particular, we examined their attitudes toward, and the themes and temporal dimensions (past, present, future) of, their MW episodes. For our online study, we recruited 518 students (394 women and 124 men), between the ages of 18 and 51 years (M = 20.93, SD = 3.40) from the undergraduate Human Subject Pool at the University of British Columbia. Participants completed the Short Imaginal Processes Inventory (SIPI), which includes the three subscales Positive-Constructive Daydreaming (SIPI-PC), Guilt and Fear of Failure Daydreaming (SIPI-GFF), and Poor Attentional Control (SIPI-PAC). Participants also completed the Past (IPI-past) and Present (IPI-present) subscales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI), the Deliberate (MW-D) and Spontaneous (MW-S) Mind Wandering scales, the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), and the 10-item Autism Quotient (AQ-10). Results showed that overall, participant AQ-10 scores were significantly correlated with MW-S, SIPI-GFF, and PSS-4 scores, such that as the number of autistic traits endorsed by participants increased, so did their reports of spontaneous mind wandering, guilt and fear of failure themed day dreaming, and stress levels. This same pattern held for female participants, however, AQ-10 scores were positively correlated with only PSS-4 scores for males. These results suggest that compared to males with autistic traits, MW in females with autistic traits is more similar to individuals with low autistic traits in terms of content and intentionality. Results are discussed in terms of clinical implications, their limitations, and suggested directions for future research.

Keywords: autism, deliberate, mind wandering, spontaneous, perceived stress

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50 Single-Parent Families and Its Impact on the Psycho Child Development in Schools

Authors: Sylvie Sossou, Grégoire Gansou, Ildevert Egue

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Introduction: The mission of the family and the school is to educate and train citizens of the city. But the family’s values , parental roles, respect for life collapse in their traditional African form. Indeed laxity with regard to divorce, liberal ideas about child rearing influence the emotional life of the latter. Several causes may contribute to the decline in academic performance. In order to seek a psychological solution to the issue, a study was conducted in 6 schools at the 9th district in Cotonou, cosmopolitan city of Benin. Objective: To evaluate the impact of single parenthood on the psycho child development. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather verbal information. The questionnaires were administered to parents and children (schoolchildren 4, 5 and six form) from 7 to 12 years in lone parenthood. The interview was done with teachers and school leaders. We identified 209 cases of children living with a "single-parent" and 68 single parents. Results: Of the 209 children surveyed the results showed that 116 children are cut relational triangle in early childhood (before 3 years). The psychological effects showed that the separation has caused sadness for 52 children, anger 22, shame 17, crying at 31 children, fear for 14, the silence at 58 children. In front of complete family’s children, these children experience feelings of aggression in 11.48%; sadness in 30.64%; 5.26% the shame, the 6.69% tears; jealousy in 2.39% and 2.87% of indifference. The option to get married in 44.15% of children is a challenge to want to give a happy childhood for their offspring; 22.01% feel rejected, there is uncertainty for 11.48% of cases and 25.36% didn’t give answer. 49, 76% of children want to see their family together; 7.65% are against to avoid disputes and in many cases to save the mother of the father's physical abuse. 27.75% of the ex-partners decline responsibility in the care of the child. Furthermore family difficulties affecting the intellectual capacities of children: 37.32% of children see school difficulties related to family problems despite all the pressure single-parent to see his child succeed. Single parenthood affects inter-family relations: pressure 33.97%; nervousness 24.88%; overprotection 29.18%; backbiting 11.96%, are the lives of these families. Conclusion: At the end of the investigation, results showed that there is a causal relationship between psychological disorders, academic difficulties of children and quality of parental relationships. Other cases may exist, but the lack of resources meant that we have only limited at 6 schools. Early psychological treatment for these children is needed.

Keywords: single-parent, psycho child, school, Cotonou

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49 A Qualitative Exploration of the Beliefs and Experiences of HIV-Related Self-Stigma Amongst Young Adults Living with HIV in Zimbabwe

Authors: Camille Rich, Nadine Ferris France, Ann Nolan, Webster Mavhu, Vongai Munatsi

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Background and Aim: Zimbabwe has one of the highest HIV rates in the world, with a 12.7% adult prevalence rate. Young adults are a key group affected by HIV, and one-third of all new infections in Zimbabwe are amongst people ages 18-24 years. Stigma remains one of the main barriers to managing and reducing the HIV crisis, especially for young adults. There are several types of stigma, including enacted stigma, the outward discrimination towards someone and self-stigma, the negative self-judgments one has towards themselves. Self-stigma can have severe consequences, including feelings of worthlessness, shame, suicidal thoughts, and avoidance of medical help. This can have detrimental effects on those living with HIV. However, the unique beliefs and impacts of self-stigma amongst key groups living with HIV have not yet been explored. Therefore, the focus of this study is on the beliefs and experiences of HIV-related self-stigma, as experienced by young adults living in Harare, Zimbabwe. Research Methods: A qualitative approach was taken for this study, using sixteen semi-structured interviews with young adults (18-24 years) who are living with HIV in Harare. Participants were conveniently and purposefully sampled as members of Africa, an organization dedicated to young people living with HIV. Interviews were conducted over Zoom due to the COVID-19 pandemic, recorded and then coded using the software NVivo. The data was analyzed using both inductive and deductive Thematic Analysis to find common themes. Results: All of the participants experienced HIV-related self-stigma, and both beliefs and experiences were explored. These negative self-perceptions included beliefs of worthlessness, hopelessness, and negative body image. The young adults described believing they were not good enough to be around HIV negative people or that they could never be loved due to their HIV status. Developing self-stigmatizing thoughts came from internalizing negative cultural values, stereotypes about people living with HIV, and adverse experiences. Three main themes of self-stigmatizing experiences emerged: disclosure difficulties, relationship complications, and being isolated. Fear of telling someone their status, rejection in a relationship, and being excluded by others due to their HIV status contributed to their self-stigma. These experiences caused feelings of loneliness, sadness, shame, fear, and low self-worth. Conclusions: This study explored the beliefs and experiences of HIV-related self-stigma of these young adults. The emergence of negative self-perceptions demonstrated deep-rooted beliefs of HIV-related self-stigma that adversely impact the participants. The negative self-perceptions and self-stigmatizing experiences caused the participants to feel worthless, hopeless, shameful, and alone-negatively impacting their physical and mental health, personal relationships, and sense of self-identity. These results can now be used to pursue interventions to target the specific beliefs and experiences of young adults living with HIV and reduce the adverse consequences of self-stigma.

Keywords: beliefs, HIV, self-stigma, stigma, Zimbabwe

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48 Of Love and Isolation: Narratives of Siblings of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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Aim: Siblings of children with cerebral palsy are often in the periphery of discussions; their views not always taken into account. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young siblings of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and artwork were gathered from 10 children who have siblings diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The data was analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes within the narratives. Results: The key themes to emerge were complex and nuanced. These included themes of love and feeling of protectiveness; jealousy and uncertainly; guilt and hope. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to take document the views of siblings who are often on the margins of the family and of family decisions and discussions. It also supports the need to offer safe spaces and opportunities for siblings of children with disabilities to express their feelings and to receive support where required.

Keywords: disability, grandmothers, mothers, narratives, women

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47 Local Culture and Ability to Access Funding on Beef Cattle Farmer

Authors: Aslina Asnawi, A. Amidah Amrawaty, Nirwana

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This article examines the relationship of local culture on the ability to access finance on beef cattle farmer. The local culture in this study associated with the values held by the farmer community so far and affect the character of farmers both in his personal life and his relationship with the surrounding environment. The data was collected by using interview and questionnaire instrument. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and correlation analysis. The result show that local culture identified in this study include: honesty, cleverness, decency, firmness, hard work, and shame. It’s important result that local culture has been associated with the ability to access financing for beef cattle farmers. The higher values are adopted and maintained by farmers will increase their ability to obtain loans from both informal and formal institutions. Strengthening the local culture is important because it affects the character of farmers who became one of the considerations for lenders other than collateral, capacity and capital is precisely the financing constraints for them.

Keywords: access funding, beef cattle farmers, character, local culture

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46 An as-If Ritual and Its Discontents: Everyday Life of North Korean Migrant Women in South Korea

Authors: Sojung Kim

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This paper explores how the Partition of Korea is absorbed into everyday life through North Korean migrant women’s rituals for traditional holidays in Korea. In national holidays called myungjul, Koreans traditionally visit their paternal ancestor’s hometowns to hold jesa, the rites for the ancestors, at the graves and home. Due to the physical gaps in the kinship networks, marked by the kin left behind in North Korea, North Korean migrants gather among themselves in the neighborhood in South Korea as if they make the myungjul ritual of the family gatherings. This impossibility of the proper practice of the rites insinuates the violence of the Partition refracted into the family relations between those in the South and those in the North. Yet, the myungjul gathering creates a kind of collective hometown, beside one’s genealogical hometown, where they can express lamentation and guilt over not being able to visit their parents and ancestors in their hometowns, which they are traditionally required to do. In this as-if ritual, myungjul is re-created for and by the women and for others in the community. Yet, the texture of this ritual is marked by discontent and dissatisfaction. Attending to fostering discontents that seep into the collective events, this paper aims to seek ways to study the violence that permeated in everyday life in partitioned Korea.

Keywords: as-if ritual, everyday life, kinship, migration

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45 Sexuality Education through Media and Technology: Addressing Unmet Needs of Adolescents in Bangladesh

Authors: Farhana Alam Bhuiyan, Saad Khan, Tanveer Hassan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Rahil Roodsaz, Els Rommes, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

Breaking the shame’ is a 3 year (2015-2018) qualitative implementation research project which investigates several aspects of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) issues for adolescents living in Bangladesh. Scope of learning SRHR issues for adolescents is limited here due to cultural and religious taboos. This study adds to the ongoing discussions around adolescent’s SRHR needs and aims to, 1) understand the overall SRHR needs of urban and rural unmarried female and male adolescents and the challenges they face, 2) explore existing gaps in the content of SRHR curriculum and 3) finally, addresses some critical knowledge gaps by developing and implementing innovative SRHR educational materials. 18 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with boys and 21 IDIs and 14 FGDs with girls of ages 13-19, from both urban and rural setting took place. Curriculum materials from two leading organizations, Unite for Body Rights (UBR) Alliance Bangladesh and BRAC Adolescent Development Program (ADP) were also reviewed, with discussions with 12 key program staff. This paper critically analyses the relevance of some of the SRHR topics that are covered, the challenges with existing pedagogic approaches and key sexuality issues that are not covered in the content, but are important for adolescents. Adolescents asked for content and guidance on a number of topics which remain missing from the core curriculum, such as emotional coping mechanisms particularly in relationships, bullying, impact of exposure to porn, and sexual performance anxiety. Other core areas of concern were effects of masturbation, condom use, sexual desire and orientation, which are mentioned in the content, but never discussed properly, resulting in confusion. Due to lack of open discussion around sexuality, porn becomes a source of information for the adolescents. For these reasons, several myths and misconceptions regarding SRHR issues like body, sexuality, agency, and gender roles still persist. The pedagogical approach is very didactic, and teachers felt uncomfortable to have discussions on certain SRHR topics due to cultural taboos or shame and stigma. Certain topics are favored- such as family planning, menstruation- and presented with an emphasis on biology and risk. Rigid formal teaching style, hierarchical power relations between students and most teachers discourage questions and frank conversations. Pedagogy approaches within classrooms play a critical role in the sharing of knowledge. The paper also describes the pilot approaches to implementing new content in SRHR curriculum. After a review of findings, three areas were selected as critically important, 1) myths and misconceptions 2) emotional management challenges, and 3) how to use condom, that have come up from adolescents. Technology centric educational materials such as web page based information platform and you tube videos are opted for which allow adolescents to bypass gatekeepers and learn facts and information from a legitimate educational site. In the era of social media, when information is always a click away, adolescents need sources that are reliable and not overwhelming. The research aims to ensure that adolescents learn and apply knowledge effectively, through creating the new materials and making it accessible to adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, Bangladesh, media, sexuality education, unmet needs

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44 Children and Parents Left behind in Transnational Families: The Problem of Care Deficit

Authors: Joanna Bielecka-Prus

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In the view of increasing number of labour migrations associated with broadly understood economic crisis, many families experience migration separation. Currently, in the era of globalization, migration movements include an increasing number of families, more and more frequently a new type of family, a transnational family. Accordingly, the functions of the family, family practice of care, and the relationships between members of the group change especially in the case of female migration. Sociologists highlight the emotional aspects of migrants’ family lives: managing emotions, coping with guilt, loneliness and rejection. Not without significance is the fact that today's public discourse often represents migrant women in a negative light. On the one hand, consumption and expanding material resources are assessed positively, on the other hand, deficits emotional and devastation of family life in the transnational families appear. Opinions expressed by different environments: the media, the political environment, etc. do not always take into account the context of mobility and their different effects on family life. The paper will present the analysis of qualitative studies of Polish female migrants’ families left-behind (children, parents, caregivers N = 100) and their coping strategies in different situations in the event of migration separation. The main area of care deficit will be defined and it will be showed who and how help to solve the problems.

Keywords: care, children left behind, female migration, parents left behind

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43 Qualitative Analysis of Emotional Thoughts in the Perspective of Nurses Who Have Been Working Experience in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit

Authors: Sevil Inal, Leman Yantiri, Meral Kelleci

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Aim: In this study, it was aimed to qualitatively analyze the feelings, thoughts and meanings of the nurses who had experience in child hematology in the past. Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 nurses between 29 and 53 years of age who had previously worked in child hematology-oncology unit. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview form. Each interview lasted 20-30 minute. Some of the questions are: ‘What kind of experiences do you experience when you think about the periods you are working in hematology-oncology service?’ ‘Do you explain the reason for living these feelings?’ The data were analyzed with QSR NVivo 7 software. Results: From the perspective of the nurses who had experience working in the pediatric hematology-oncology service in the past, five main themes and sub-themes related to emotions and thoughts towards this experiment were identified in the study. 1) Positive and negative emotions: (a) fear and anxiety, (b) desperation, pity, guilt, (c) burnout, (d) longing; 2) Being coping 3) Professional implications 4) Meaning of life 5) Unmet needs and suggestions. Conclusions: Working in hematology should be viewed as a multidimensional situation that affects the way nurses view their profession and life, leading to a wide range of emotional lives. Data obtained from this study can be used to strengthen hematologic nurses.

Keywords: cancer, child, care, hematology, nursing

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42 Teaching Basic Life Support in More Than 1000 Young School Children in 5th Grade

Authors: H. Booke, R. Nordmeier

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Sudden cardiac arrest is sometimes eye-witnessed by kids. Mostly, their (grand-)parents are affected by sudden cardiac arrest, putting these kids under enormous psychological pressure: Although they are more than desperate to help, they feel insecure and helpless and are afraid of causing harm rather than realizing their chance to help. Even years later, they may blame themselves for not having helped their beloved ones. However, the absolute majority of school children - at least in Germany - is not educated to provide first aid. Teaching young kids (5th grade) in basic life support thus may help to save lives while washing away the kids' fear from causing harm during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. A teaching of circulatory and respiratory (patho-)physiology, followed by hands-on training of basic life support for every single child, was offered to each school in our district. The teaching was performed by anesthesiologists, and the program was called 'kids can save lives'. However, before enrollment in this program, the entire class must have had lessons in biology with a special focus on heart and circulation as well as lung and gas exchange. More than 1.000 kids were taught and trained in basic life support, giving them the knowledge and skills to provide basic life support. This may help to reduce the rate of failure to provide first aid. Therefore, educating young kids in basic life support may not only help to save lives, but it also may help to prevent any feelings of guilt because of not having helped in cases of eye-witnessed sudden cardiac arrest.

Keywords: teaching, children, basic life support, cardiac arrest, CPR

Procedia PDF Downloads 47