Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Sacrament of Reconciliation

51 Confess Your Sins to One Another: An Exploration of the Biblical Validity and the Psychological Efficacy of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Catholic Church

Authors: M. B. Peter

Abstract:

The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has long been upheld, by the Catholic Church, as one of the Sacraments of healing, mainly due to the sense of peace, tranquility and psychological quiescence it accords the penitent upon receiving Sacramental absolution of sin through the action of the priest. This paper explores the Sacramental character of this practice and the psychological benefits of the celebration of the Sacrament. This is achieved in two parts: firstly, by the intellectual engagement of Sacred Scripture and the consolidated Sacred Tradition that the Catholic magisterium protects and, secondly, via a broad survey of the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Orval Hobart Mowrer regarding confession and forgiveness. The former will serve to demonstrate the Catholic belief of the divine institution of the Sacrament whilst the latter will demonstrate how this belief, coupled with the existing benefit of confessing guilt, collectively bolsters the Sacrament’s overall psychological efficacy. Fundamentally, the analysis of Jung and Mowrer’s works demonstrate that man, as a naturally religious being, has an inherent need for the confession of his wrong that he might be alleviated of psychological guilt in obtaining forgiveness of a (divinely ordained) minister who is sanctioned to absolve, i.e. the priest. The paper also presents the curative effect of the celebration of this Sacrament, illustrating how, without the act of confession, man remains in moral isolation from God and man; and, that with it, man is relieved of the mysterious feeling of guilt which lies at the root of his disquiet of mind and disturbance of will. Thus, the paper penultimately establishes how the Sacrament of Reconciliation is positioned in that place where psychology and theology meet: man’s sense of guilt. It is Jung’s views on confession and forgiveness that ultimately bridge the chasm between psychology and Christianity.

Keywords: Catholic, confession, Jung, Mowrer, penance, psychology, Sacrament of Reconciliation

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50 The Gender Equality within the European Union Reconciliation of Work and Family Life Policies: Tackling Gender Inequality or Tackling Unemployment

Authors: Nazli Kazanoglu

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Reconciliation of work and family life has been an area of interest within the academic as well as in the political debate for more than three decades. With the dramatic changes in the extent to which women and men contribute to unpaid domestic work and paid employment, the reconciliation of work and family life issues have become more prominent than ever before. And they have begun to enjoy an increased attention of policy makers both at the EU and national levels. Over the last three decades the EU has initiated numerous equality programs and strategies and roadmaps regarding reconciliation of work and family life, though particularly because of the crisis and increasing willingness of achieving the EUs target of seventy five per cent of men and women in employment by 2020, those programs, strategies and roadmaps emphasized on eradicating womens familial burdens while entering labor market and providing them as equal opportunities as their male counterparts have. Reconciliation of work and family life policies thus bit by bit moved away from the objectives with a strong commitment to ensuring gender equality towards employment objectives. This paper is thus an endeavor to look at the nature of EU reconciliation of work and family life policies from the angle of gender equality. More precisely relying on the feminist literature, this paper rests on the assumption that reconciliation of work and family policies should provide the sufficient measures indeed with a more emphasis on endorsing gender equality rather than economic concerns and prioritizes two inter-related aspects while evaluating the gender equality of reconciliation of work and family life policies. First providing free choice to women in terms of their family and work lives and second challenge the unequal division of labor at home. In that sense, it investigates the nature of the changing uses and meanings of gender equality in reconciliation of work and family life policies in different stages of the EU social policy development particularly after the introduction of European Employment Strategy which gave a tremendous importance to reconciliation of work and family life during their collaborations with other issues on the EU agenda as well as the major rationale behind their development and implementation and locates them in terms of two inter-related parameters mentioned above.

Keywords: European Union, division of unpaid work, gender equality, rhetoric of free choice

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49 Ill-Defined and Ill-Equipped: Understanding the Limits of the Concept of Truth in South Africa’S Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Authors: Keo Mbebe

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The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is widely regarded as a blueprint for countries seeking to transcend the atrocities of their past and create a new human rights-based administration. The aim of these societies is to establish historical truth. Within the TRC, the aspects of truth-finding and truth-telling were considered to be catalysts for national unity and reconciliation. Truth-seeking, in addition, was mandated in the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (TRC Act), which is the legislation behind the TRC. However, there is an incongruency between the conception of truth outlined in the Act, and the conception of truth explained in the Report of the TRC proceedings. The aim of this paper is to delineate these two kinds of “truth” and to critically analyze them. Doing so, it will then be evident in the discussion that there is a need for substantial clarity in the conception of truth used in transitional justice settings based on truth-finding and truth-seeking, and the paper will present ways in which such clarity may be achieved. The paper will begin with a philosophical engagement on the notion of historical truth used by the TRC legislation. Thereafter, the historical background to the political context in which the TRC Act was mandated will be provided. The next section would then be a sketch of the conceptions of historical truth and historical injustice in the Act, as well as its supporting documents. Lastly, it will be argued that the subversion of the TRC’s mandate to promote reconciliation and national unity by bringing to light past human rights violations during apartheid is betrayed by its amorphous conception of historical truth.

Keywords: historical truth, human rights, transitional justice, truth commission

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48 Political Economy of Development Induced Re-Territorialization: A South African Uppercut

Authors: K. Lekshmi

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Land becomes a predominant constituent of transitional justice paradigm subsequent to the apartheid inspired land grabs and conflict induced forceful evictions in South Africa effecting land encroachment, expropriation, and alienation. In this pretext, post-Apartheid regime initiated land reconciliation measures which presume to overcome the politically appropriated historical injustices in conjunction with reconstructing transitional justice. As land grabs became one of the quintessential repercussions followed by ethnic cleansing in South Africa, it is prominent to study how land reconciliation becomes necessary in imparting transitional justice to the victims. The study also looks into the nature of developmental pattern after re- territorialization process in a post-conflict country like South Africa and, tries to look how re-territorialization process construed the functional distribution of income vis-a-vis income inequality in particular. Further the paper attempts to study how far land distribution and equal access as part of the land reconciliation process juxtaposed the principle of restitution. Research methodology applied is empirical followed by analytical research.

Keywords: development, land reconciliation, transitional justice, income inequality and displacement, re-territorialization

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47 A Greedy Alignment Algorithm Supporting Medication Reconciliation

Authors: David Tresner-Kirsch

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Reconciling patient medication lists from multiple sources is a critical task supporting the safe delivery of patient care. Manual reconciliation is a time-consuming and error-prone process, and recently attempts have been made to develop efficiency- and safety-oriented automated support for professionals performing the task. An important capability of any such support system is automated alignment – finding which medications from a list correspond to which medications from a different source, regardless of misspellings, naming differences (e.g. brand name vs. generic), or changes in treatment (e.g. switching a patient from one antidepressant class to another). This work describes a new algorithmic solution to this alignment task, using a greedy matching approach based on string similarity, edit distances, concept extraction and normalization, and synonym search derived from the RxNorm nomenclature. The accuracy of this algorithm was evaluated against a gold-standard corpus of 681 medication records; this evaluation found that the algorithm predicted alignments with 99% precision and 91% recall. This performance is sufficient to support decision support applications for medication reconciliation.

Keywords: clinical decision support, medication reconciliation, natural language processing, RxNorm

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46 Beyond Empathy: From Justice to Reconciliation

Authors: Nissim Avissar

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This paper aims to question the practice of bringing together people belonging to groups in conflict with the aim of bridging differences through universal empathy and interpersonal connections. It is argued that in cases where one group has the power, and the other is in a struggle to change the balance assuming universal equality between the groups and encouraging emphatic understanding is a non-emphatic practice. Accordingly, a new concept is posited–justice-sensitive empathy, conditioning empathy in such situations on the acknowledgement of an imbalance of power/injustice. With this reframing in mind, educational practices promoting social justice are discussed. In order to create conditions for justice-seeking or politically sensitive empathy, we need to go beyond the conventional definitions of empathy and offer other means and possibilities. Three possibilities are discussed. The first focuses on intra-group (as opposed to inter-group) processes within each group. It means temporary and tactical separation that may allow each group to focus on its own needs and values and perhaps to return to the dialogue more confidently. The second option emphasizes the notion of "constructive conflict," which means that each side still aspires to promote his own interests but without demolishing the other side (which is a rival but also an unwanted and forced partner). Here, alongside the "obligation to resist" and to act to promote justice as we view and understand it, we have to take into account the other side. The third and last option relates to the practice of Restorative Justice. This practice originated in the Truth and Reconciliation committees in South Africa, but it is now widely used in other contexts. Those committees had the authority to punish (or pardon) people; however, their main purpose was to seek truth and, from there, nourish reconciliation. This is the main idea of restorative justice; it seeks justice for the sake of restoring relationships. All the above options involve action and are aware of power relations (i.e., politics). They all seek justice. They may create conditions for the more conventional empathic practice to evolve, but no less than that, they are examples of justice-seeking and politically sensitive empathetic practice.

Keywords: education, empathy, justice, reconciliation

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45 An Analysis of the Continuum in Inter-Caste Relations in India

Authors: Sujit Kumar

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Historicity of inter-caste relations can be traced in the early stages of evolution of rural community in the Indian society. These have witnessed vicissitudes during long drawn interactions between caste groups. Inter-caste relations evolved in a more organized form in the guise of Jajmani system. This is a system of permanent and hereditary inter-caste relations and gives a kaleidoscopic view of socio-economic relations among various caste groupings. Universality of its prevalence in rural India for centuries is well recognized and documented. But it has been undergoing metamorphic change in some regions and changing at a slower pace in the others during post-independence period. An empirical study was conducted with the objectives to know whether Jajmani system is in vogue in the rural areas and type and intensity of socio-economic ties among different caste categories and to find out the change in inter-caste relations, if any owing to industrialization and modernization. Information was elicited from 225 respondents using interview schedule designed for this purpose. It is discernible that in majority of cases, inter-caste social relations which find better expression on the occasions like marriage, death, birth and festivals etc. among Brahmins and lower castes vis-à-vis other caste categories have grown weak. The data further unearth that economic relations as maintained on the occasions of marriage, sacred thread ceremony, mundan sacrament, birthday, death, yajna, katha, routine hair cut, manufacture and repair of various iron, earthen, wooden and leather articles between members of higher castes (general category) and lower castes (scheduled castes) are moderate but weak in case of Other Backward Classes vis-à-vis all other caste categories. Overwhelming majority of informants believe that decline in hereditary occupations, depreciation of old products and services and their availability from the market being made by industry are main reasons in descending order for change in inter caste relations. Modernization, westernization, industrialization, transportation and communications, growing materialism and consumerism together have brought change in relations among caste groups affecting about a billion population inhabiting rural India.

Keywords: inter-caste, Jajmani, sacrament, Yajna

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44 Where Is the Sultan of Aceh? Reconsidering the Return of the Aceh Sultanate

Authors: Muhammad Harya Ramdhoni, Nidzam Sulaiman, Muhammad Ridwan

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The Helsinki Agreement between the Indonesian Government (RI) and the Aceh Liberation Movement (GAM) on 15th Aug. 2005 fails to reconcile social and political turmoil in Aceh Darussalam (NAD). The political powers that were once unified in their struggle against Indonesian Government prior to this agreement have now become divided due to differences in political and economic interests. Using descriptive analysis and intellectual discourse, this paper proposes that the Aceh Sultanate be revived as an attempt to unite these divided political powers and to curtail potential conflicts in the area. This proposal is based on three assumptions. First, the Aceh Sultanate is the only Sultanate in Sumatera that did not fall victim to the social revolution post 1945 proclamation of independence. Second, the Acehnese still acknowledge the Sultanate as a sovereign political power even though it was defeated by the Dutch in 1904. Third, there are emotional, historical and cultural ties between the Acehnese and the Sultanate as they still perceived them to be their patron. Consequently, the Sultanate is the unifying element of all political powers in the area. This, however, is not an attempt to reinstate feudalism in Aceh. It only seeks to facilitate the political reconciliation process in Aceh Darussalam founded on sociological and historical background of locals.

Keywords: Sultanate Aceh, political reconciliation, political power, patron-client

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43 Music Educators for Peace: Synchronizing Music and Pedagogical Experiences to Re-Build Social Fabric in Colombia's Post-Conflict

Authors: Julian Dario Castro Cifuentes

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In Colombia, the armed conflict has lasted for more than sixty years bringing poverty, internal displacement of people, deaths from both government and insurgent forces and other violence-related problems that has damaged its social fabric. In 2016, the peace process between the Colombian government and the FARC rebels brought the possibility of ending this war and a new set of challenges to Colombian society in order to achieve pacific coexistence and reconciliation. In this scenario, there have been different efforts from diverse social actors in order to build peace and reconciliation mainly within the victims of the armed conflict. In the case of music, there have been multiple programs for social transformation through music and pedagogical experiences. Nevertheless, the need to strengthen this initiative by giving ‘peace building oriented’ pedagogical tools to the musicians that lead this experiences and understanding which aspects make this practices ‘musically meaningful’, has been recognized. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to discuss the convergences and divergences of music, and educational experiences applied to peacebuilding in the context of Colombia’s post-conflict. In this research, the hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm is applied in a case study of a peace building music education experience in the department of Nariño, Colombia articulated with the program ‘Manos a la Paz’. Two particular experiences, one on musical practice and another on music education are taken as a unit of analysis to understand its essence and structure in order to find ways to articulate efforts in peace building actions from music. This study shows how the existent gap between music experience and its subjacent pedagogical knowledge, can be reduced through deconstruction of the music and pedagogical experience. The ‘Manos a la Paz’ program showed how a peace building approach to music education can make major contributions to Pacific Coexistence and Reconciliation in Colombia’s Post-Conflict.

Keywords: music education, music for peace, music pedagogy, peace building, social fabric

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42 A Qualitative Analysis on Historicizing Nationalist Discourse of the Origins of the Communities of Sri Lanka among the Contemporary Sinhalese

Authors: Jeyaseelan Gnanaseelan

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In the post-war reconciliation context, the Sri Lankans need to develop constructive discourse on political harmony, cohesion, and co-habitation to make a positive impact on legislative changes towards post-conflict reconciliation, sustainable peace, and justice. Ideological discourse constitutes power in constructing ideational, textual and interpersonal constructs for legitimizing power in society. This paper qualitatively analyses the exemplified discourse extracts of some prominent contemporary Sinhalese, which represent majoritarianism and ethno-nationalism regarding the origins of the Sinhala and Tamil communities and the consequent status availed to their existence in Sri Lanka. The study focuses, with the historiographical evidence, on whether such discourse has been a part of the problem or a part of the solution to the protracted, historically constructed Sri Lankan conflict. It finds out the continuation of such persistent and reiterated linguistically embedded ethno-centric ideological and attitudinal positions even now, which need to be addressed. This paper recommends awareness creation among the public about the true, scientifically derived historical information on the origins, evolution and inter-community co-existence and conflict of the two communities so that a durable solution can be reached in the long run.

Keywords: conflict, discourse, ethno-nationalism, ideology, legitimization, Sinhalese, Tamil

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41 Some Reasons for the Pervasiveness of the Blood Feud among Albanians: An Albanian Phenomenon or Lack of Malfunction of the Judicial Structure

Authors: Arburim Iseni, Afrim Aliti, Nagri Rexhepi

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The blood feud or blood-taking is a social obligation to commit murder in order to salvage honor questioned by an earlier murder or moral humiliation. This social obligation is still preserved as a stub among Albanians when honor is violated. By the term honor are understood many things, such as honor to the family, house, guest, property, etc. Many Albanian family members are forced to stay locked up at home because of the blood killing, whereas other families abandon their houses and migrate to other places. Nonetheless, Albanians maintain close ties with their extended families, clans, and tribes and thus chances are high that the violence can beget more violence and without reconciliation of the blood these families will always be endangered. One of the reasons for the pervasiveness of the blood feud is the poor social conditions, political imbroglio and the power vacuum which comes from the corrupted and judiciary system of the state. Contrary to this, Albanian blood feud is not a phenomenon present only to the Albanians, but it also takes place in some other cultures and nations, such as: Chechens, Montenegrins, Serbians, and lately more radical one is between Amman and Israel who are at constant feud.

Keywords: honor, blood feud, reconciliation, power vacuum, poor social conditions, political imbroglio

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40 Mediation in Turkish Health Law for Healthcare Disputes

Authors: V. Durmus, M. Uydaci

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In order to prevent overburdened courts, rising costs of litigation, and lengthy trial resolutions, the Law on Mediation for Civil Disputes was enacted, which was aimed at defining the procedure and guiding principles for dispute resolutions under Civil Law, in 2012. This “Mediation Code” also applies for civil healthcare disputes in Turkey. Aside from mediation, reconciliation, governed by Articles 253-255 of Criminal Procedure Law, has emerged as an alternative way to resolve criminal medical disputes, but the difference between mediation and conciliation is mostly procedural. This article deals with mediation in Turkish health law and aspect of medical malpractice mediation in Turkey. In addition, this study examines the issue of mediation in health law from both a legal and normative point of view, including codes of mediation which regulate both the structural and professional practice of mediation providers. As a result, although there is not official record about success rate of medical malpractice litigations and malpractice mediation in Turkey, it is widely accepted that the success rate for medical malpractice cases is relatively low compared to other personal injury cases even if it is generally considered that medical malpractice case filings have gradually increased recently. According to the Justice Ministry’s Department of Mediation in Turkey, 719 civil disputes have referred to mediators since 2013 (when the first mediation law came into force) with a 98% success rate.

Keywords: malpractice mediation, medical disputes, reconciliation, health litigation, Turkish health law

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39 A Semi-Automated GIS-Based Implementation of Slope Angle Design Reconciliation Process at Debswana Jwaneng Mine, Botswana

Authors: K. Mokatse, O. M. Barei, K. Gabanakgosi, P. Matlhabaphiri

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The mining of pit slopes is often associated with some level of deviation from design recommendations, and this may translate to associated changes in the stability of the excavated pit slopes. Therefore slope angle design reconciliations are essential for assessing and monitoring compliance of excavated pit slopes to accepted slope designs. These associated changes in slope stability may be reflected by changes in the calculated factors of safety and/or probabilities of failure. Reconciliations of as-mined and slope design profiles are conducted periodically to assess the implications of these deviations on pit slope stability. Currently, the slope design reconciliation process being implemented in Jwaneng Mine involves the measurement of as-mined and design slope angles along vertical sections cut along the established geotechnical design section lines on the GEOVIA GEMS™ software. Bench retentions are calculated as a percentage of the available catchment area, less over-mined and under-mined areas, to that of the designed catchment area. This process has proven to be both tedious and requires a lot of manual effort and time to execute. Consequently, a new semi-automated mine-to-design reconciliation approach that utilizes laser scanning and GIS-based tools is being proposed at Jwaneng Mine. This method involves high-resolution scanning of targeted bench walls, subsequent creation of 3D surfaces from point cloud data and the derivation of slope toe lines and crest lines on the Maptek I-Site Studio software. The toe lines and crest lines are then exported to the ArcGIS software where distance offsets between the design and actual bench toe lines and crest lines are calculated. Retained bench catchment capacity is measured as distances between the toe lines and crest lines on the same bench elevations. The assessment of the performance of the inter-ramp and overall slopes entails the measurement of excavated and design slope angles along vertical sections on the ArcGIS software. Excavated and design toe-to-toe or crest-to-crest slope angles are measured for inter-ramp stack slope reconciliations. Crest-to-toe slope angles are also measured for overall slope angle design reconciliations. The proposed approach allows for a more automated, accurate, quick and easier workflow for carrying out slope angle design reconciliations. This process has proved highly effective and timeous in the assessment of slope performance in Jwaneng Mine. This paper presents a newly proposed process for assessing compliance to slope angle designs for Jwaneng Mine.

Keywords: slope angle designs, slope design recommendations, slope performance, slope stability

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38 The Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace, a Transitional Justice Mechanism That Prioritizes Reconciliation over Punishment: A Content Analysis of the Colombian Peace Agreement

Authors: Laura Mendez

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Tribunals for the prosecution of crimes against humanity have been implemented in recent history via international intervention or imposed by one side of the conflict, as in the cases of Rwanda, Iraq, Argentina, and Chile. However, the creation of a criminal tribunal as the result of a peace agreement between formerly warring parties has been unique to the Colombian peace process. As such, the Colombian Jurisdiction for Peace (SJP), or JEP for its Spanish acronym, is viewed as a site of social contestation where actors shape its design and implementation. This study contributes to the literature of transitional justice by analyzing how the framing of the creation of the Colombian tribunal reveals the parties' interests. The analysis frames the interests of the power-brokers, i.e., the government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the victims in light of the tribunal’s functions. The purpose of this analysis is to understand how the interests of the parties are embedded in the designing of the SJP. This paper argues that the creation of the SJP rests on restorative justice, for which the victim, not the perpetrator, is at the center of prosecution. The SJP’s approach to justice moves from prosecution as punishment to prosecution as sanctions. SJP’s alternative sanctions focused on truth, reparation, and restoration are designed to humanize both the victim and the perpetrator in order to achieve reconciliation. The findings also show that requiring the perpetrator to perform labor to repair the victim as an alternative form of sanction aims to foster relations of reintegration and social learning between victims and perpetrators.

Keywords: transitional justice mechanisms, criminal tribunals, Colombia, Colombian Jurisdiction for Peace, JEP

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37 De-Securitizing Identity: Narrative (In)Consistency in Periods of Transition

Authors: Katerina Antoniou

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When examining conflicts around the world, it is evident that the majority of intractable conflicts are steeped in identity. Identity seems to be not only a causal variable for conflict, but also a catalytic parameter for the process of reconciliation that follows ceasefire. This paper focuses on the process of identity securitization that occurs between rival groups of heterogeneous collective identities – ethnic, national or religious – as well as on the relationship between identity securitization and the ability of the groups involved to reconcile. Are securitized identities obstacles to the process of reconciliation, able to hinder any prospects of peace? If the level to which an identity is securitized is catalytic to a conflict’s discourse and settlement, then which factors act as indicators of identity de-securitization? The level of an in-group’s identity securitization can be estimated through a number of indicators, one of which is narrative. The stories, views and stances each in-group adopts in relation to its history of conflict and relation with their rival out-group can clarify whether that specific in-group feels victimized and threatened or safe and ready to reconcile. Accordingly, this study discusses identity securitization through narrative in relation to intractable conflicts. Are there conflicts around the world that, despite having been identified as intractable, stagnated or insoluble, show signs of identity de-securitization through narrative? This inquiry uses the case of the Cyprus conflict and its partitioned societies to present official narratives from the two communities and assess whether these narratives have transformed, indicating a less securitized in-group identity for the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Specifically, the study compares the official historical overviews presented by each community’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs website and discusses the extent to which the two official narratives present a securitized collective identity. In addition, the study will observe whether official stances by the two communities – as adopted by community leaders – have transformed to depict less securitization over time. Additionally, the leaders’ reflection of popular opinion is evaluated through recent opinion polls from each community. Cyprus is currently experiencing renewed optimism for reunification, with the leaders of its two communities engaging in rigorous negotiations, and with rumors calling for a potential referendum for reunification to be taking place even as early as within 2016. Although leaders’ have shown a shift in their rhetoric and have moved away from narratives of victimization, this is not the case for the official narratives used by their respective ministries of foreign affairs. The study’s findings explore whether this narrative inconsistency proves that Cyprus is transitioning towards reunification, or whether the leaders are risking sending a securitized population to the polls to reject a potential reunification. More broadly, this study suggests that in the event that intractable conflicts might be moving towards viable peace, in-group narratives--official narratives in particular--can act as indicators of the extent to which rival entities have managed to reconcile.

Keywords: conflict, identity, narrative, reconciliation

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36 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen

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The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: QKD, BB84, protocol, cryptography, FPGA, key, security, communication

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35 Reverse Logistics Information Management Using Ontological Approach

Authors: F. Lhafiane, A. Elbyed, M. Bouchoum

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Reverse Logistics (RL) Process is considered as complex and dynamic network that involves many stakeholders such as: suppliers, manufactures, warehouse, retails, and costumers, this complexity is inherent in such process due to lack of perfect knowledge or conflicting information. Ontologies, on the other hand, can be considered as an approach to overcome the problem of sharing knowledge and communication among the various reverse logistics partners. In this paper, we propose a semantic representation based on hybrid architecture for building the Ontologies in an ascendant way, this method facilitates the semantic reconciliation between the heterogeneous information systems (ICT) that support reverse logistics Processes and product data.

Keywords: Reverse Logistics, information management, heterogeneity, ontologies, semantic web

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34 Geometallurgy of Niobium Deposits: An Integrated Multi-Disciplined Approach

Authors: Mohamed Nasraoui

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Spatial ore distribution, ore heterogeneity and their links with geological processes involved in Niobium concentration are all factors for consideration when bridging field observations to extraction scheme. Indeed, mineralogy changes of Nb-hosting phases, their textural relationships with hydrothermal or secondary minerals, play a key control over mineral processing. This study based both on filed work and ore characterization presents data from several Nb-deposits related to carbonatite complexes. The results obtained by a wide range of analytical techniques, including, XRD, XRF, ICP-MS, SEM, Microprobe, Spectro-CL, FTIR-DTA and Mössbauer spectroscopy, demonstrate how geometallurgical assessment, at all stage of mine development, can greatly assist in the design of a suitable extraction flowsheet and data reconciliation.

Keywords: carbonatites, Nb-geometallurgy, Nb-mineralogy, mineral processing.

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33 From Tionghoa to Tjina: Historical Tracing on the Identity Politics in Demonization of Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia

Authors: Michael J. Kristiono

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This paper attempts to investigate the reasons behind the negative sentiments directed towards Chinese Indonesians from International Relations (IR) perspective. By tracing back the treatment of the New Order government towards ethnic Chinese, it was found that such demonization initially happened due to two politically motivated reasons. Firstly, as part of de-Soekarnoization done by the New Order, the Chinese were outcast because Chinese identity does not conform to the 'Indonesian identity', which was in essence, the Javanese identity. Secondly, the condition reflected the change in Indonesian foreign policy which drifted apart from People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the latter was suspected to be involved in September 30 Movement. Then, this paper argues that due to those reasons, coupled by blatant maltreatment from the New Order Government, Chinese Indonesians were constructed as the Others, that is, as non-Indonesians. Such construct has been deeply embedded such that reconciliation attempts done by the Reformation Era government were not sufficient enough to stop ethnic discrimination towards Chinese Indonesians from happening even until the present.

Keywords: Chinese Indonesians, ethnic discrimination, identity, New Order

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32 Does Rumor Shakes Trust: The Role of Emotions in Local Conflict and Peacemaking

Authors: Safiye Ates Burc

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This proposal is based on the story of Kurdish tribal conflict and peace in Mardin (Turkey). In the stories that will be detailed with in-depth interviews with the parties to the conflict (family elders, mediators and other tribal lords); It will be examined how rumor has an effect on establishing conflict and peace and whether it shakes the trust between the parties. In fact, this research is still at an ongoing stage. In this paper, the effect of emotions on conflict and reconciliation, which is the main subject of this ongoing study, will be conveyed in line with the data obtained from the preliminary research. In-depth interviews are conducted in the research in which the ethnography method is used. As an early result, it can be said that in organizations such as the Kurdish tribes, where local loyalties and traditions are very strong, the rumor has the potential to shake the trust between the parties and thus can become the excuse for conflict. Because rumors damage the prestige of tribes, that’s, it’s social capital.

Keywords: rumor, trust, Kurdish tribes, local peacemaking, conflict

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31 Neural Network Based Decision Trees Using Machine Learning for Alzheimer's Diagnosis

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Tracy Lin Huan, S. Meenakshi Sundaram

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Alzheimer’s disease is one of the prevalent kind of ailment, expected for impudent reconciliation or an effectual therapy is to be accredited hitherto. Probable detonation of patients in the upcoming years, and consequently an enormous deal of apprehension in early discovery of the disorder, this will conceivably chaperon to enhanced healing outcomes. Complex impetuosity of the brain is an observant symbolic of the disease and a unique recognition of genetic sign of the disease. Machine learning alongside deep learning and decision tree reinforces the aptitude to absorb characteristics from multi-dimensional data’s and thus simplifies automatic classification of Alzheimer’s disease. Susceptible testing was prophesied and realized in training the prospect of Alzheimer’s disease classification built on machine learning advances. It was shrewd that the decision trees trained with deep neural network fashioned the excellent results parallel to related pattern classification.

Keywords: Alzheimer's diagnosis, decision trees, deep neural network, machine learning, pattern classification

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30 Healing (in) Relationship: The Theory and Practice of Inner-Outer Peacebuilding in North-Western India

Authors: Josie Gardner

Abstract:

The overall intention of this research is to reimagine peacebuilding in both in theory and practical application in light of the shortcomings and unsustainability of the current peacebuilding paradigm. These limitations are identified here as an overly rational-material approach to peacebuilding that neglects the inner dimension of peace for a fragmented rather than holistic model, and that espouses a conflict and violence-centric approach to peacebuilding. In counter, this presentation is purposed to investigate the dynamics of inner and outer peace as a holistic, complex system towards ‘inner-outer’ peacebuilding. This paper draws from primary research in the protracted conflict context of north-western India (Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh) as a case study. This presentation has two central aims. First, to introduce the process of inner (psycho-spiritual) peacebuilding, which has thus far been neglected by mainstream and orthodox literature. Second, to examine why inner peacebuilding is essential for realising sustainable peace on a broader scale as outer (socio-political) peace and to better understand how the inner and outer dynamics of peace relate and affect one another. To these ends, Josephine (the researcher/author/presenter) partnered with Yakjah Reconciliation and Development Network to implement a series of action-oriented workshops and retreats centred around healing, reconciliation, leadership, and personal development for the dual purpose of collaboratively generating data, theory, and insights, as well as providing the youth leaders with an experiential, transformative experience. The research team created and used a novel methodological approach called Mapping Ritual Ecologies, which draws from Participatory Action Research and Digital Ethnography to form a collaborative research model with a group of 20 youth co-researchers who are emerging youth peace leaders in Kashmir, Jammu, and Ladakh. This research found significant intra- and inter-personal shifts towards an experience of inner peace through inner peacebuilding activities. Moreover, this process of inner peacebuilding affected their families and communities through interpersonal healing and peace leadership in an inside-out process of change. These insights have generated rich insights and have supported emerging theories about the dynamics between inner and outer peace, power, justice, and collective healing. This presentation argues that the largely neglected dimension of inner (psycho-spiritual) peacebuilding is imperative for broader socio-political (outer) change. Changing structures of oppression, injustice, and violence—i.e. structures of separation—requires individual, interpersonal, and collective healing. While this presentation primarily examines and advocates for inside-out peacebuilding and social justice, it will also touch upon the effect of systems of separation on the inner condition and human experience. This research reimagines peacebuilding as a holistic inner-outer approach. This offers an alternative path forward those weaves together self-actualisation and social justice. While contextualised within north-western India with a small case study population, the findings speak also to other conflict contexts as well as our global peacebuilding and social justice milieu.

Keywords: holistic, inner peacebuilding, psycho-spiritual, systems youth

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29 Peace Based Diplomacy, Peace Communication and Peace Lobbying in the Example of Turkey-France Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

The first stage to procure peace communication is to construct a mutual accordance, which can be defined as: To constitute reconciliation ground in order to open and constitute the right peace and dialogue areas. For example: In Turkey’s EU entry process, in order to procure French public opinion, to constitute a communication frame is a must. For the constitution of this frame, the titles of discussion in which it will be moved and for which French public opinion will show its support must be determined. The most important title of this ground is Turkey’s peace potential for Europe with its strategic position. For this reason, it’s is so strategic for peace communication that Turkey’s contributions for Europe and World should be opened up for discussion in public opinion in France and be introduced as a strong accordance ground.Peace based diplomacy, peace communication strategies and peace lobbying in the example of Turkey-France relations presents a strong peace titles.

Keywords: intercultural communication, mediation education, common sense leaders, artistic sensitivity

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28 Verifying Environmental Performance through Inventory and Assessment: Case Study of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Compliance and Tracking System

Authors: Oral S. Saulters, Shanon D. Goldberg, Wendy A. Staples, Ellena I. Martinez, Lorie M. Sanchez, Diego E. Archuleta, Deborah L. Williams, Scot D. Johnson

Abstract:

To address an important set of unverified field conditions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Compliance and Tracking System (WCATS) Wall-to-Wall Team performed an unprecedented and advanced inventory. This reconciliation involved confirmation analysis for approximately 5850 hazardous, low-level, mixed low-level, and transuranic waste containers located in more than 200 staging and storage areas across 33 technical areas. The interdisciplinary team scoped, planned, and developed the multidimensional assessments. Through coordination with cross-functional site hosts, they were able to verify and validate data while resolving discrepancies identified in WCATS. The results were extraordinary with an updated inventory, tailored outreach, more cohesive communications, and timely closed-loop feedback.

Keywords: circular economy, environmental performance data, social-ecological-technological systems, waste management

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27 Potential of Mineral Composition Reconstruction for Monitoring the Performance of an Iron Ore Concentration Plant

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi, Claude Bazin, Daniel Hodouin, Laura Perez Barnuevo

Abstract:

The performance of a separation process is usually evaluated using performance indices calculated from elemental assays readily available from the chemical analysis laboratory. However, the separation process performance is essentially related to the properties of the minerals that carry the elements and not those of the elements. Since elements or metals can be carried by valuable and gangue minerals in the ore and that each mineral responds differently to a mineral processing method, the use of only elemental assays could lead to erroneous or uncertain conclusions on the process performance. This paper discusses the advantages of using performance indices calculated from minerals content, such as minerals recovery, for process performance assessments. A method is presented that uses elemental assays to estimate the minerals content of the solids in various process streams. The method combines the stoichiometric composition of the minerals and constraints of mass conservation for the minerals through the concentration process to estimate the minerals content from elemental assays. The advantage of assessing a concentration process using mineral based performance indices is illustrated for an iron ore concentration circuit.

Keywords: data reconciliation, iron ore concentration, mineral composition, process performance assessment

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26 The Tariffs of Water Service for Productive Users: A Model for Defining Fare Classes

Authors: M. Macchiaroli, V. Pellecchia, L. Dolores

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The water supply for production users (craft, commercial, industrial), understood as the set of water supply and wastewater collection services becomes an increasingly felt problem in a water scarcity regime. In fact, disputes are triggered between the different social parties for the fair and efficient use of water resources. Within this aspect, the problem arises of the different pricing of services between civil users and production users. Of particular interest is the question of defining the tariff classes depending on consumption levels. If for civil users, this theme is strongly permeated by social profiles (a topic dealt with by the author in a forthcoming research contribution) connected with the inalienability of the right to have water and with the reconciliation of the needs of the weakest groups of the population, for consumers in the production sector the logic adopted by the manager may be inspired by criteria of greater corporate rationality. This work illustrates the Italian regulatory framework and shows an optimization model of tariff classes in the production sector that reconciles the public objective of sustainable use of the resource and the needs of a production system in search of recovery after the depressing effects caused by COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: decision making, economic evaluation, urban water management, water tariff

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25 The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City

Authors: Hemadri Raut

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The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.

Keywords: building facades, city, community, heritage, identity, transformation, urban

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24 The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing the Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands

Authors: M. L. Yeung

Abstract:

With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in the facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in the Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal’s death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in the Hong Kong cultural context, a ‘double-loss’ experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the ‘double-loss’ is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.

Keywords: changing family, disenfranchised grief, divorce, ex-spousal death, marriage

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23 Striking a Balance between Certainty and Flexibility: The Role of Ubuntu in South African Contract Law

Authors: Yeukai Mupangavanhu

Abstract:

The paper examines the concept of ubuntu and the extent to which it can play a role in ensuring fairness and justice in contractual relationships. Courts are expected to balance sanctity of contract and fairness. Public policy is currently a mechanism which is used by courts when balancing the above two competing interests. It, however, generally favours the freedom and sanctity of contract. The question which is addressed in this paper is whether the concept of ubuntu is an alternative mechanism that may be used to mitigate the sometimes harsh and unfair consequences of the doctrine of freedom and sanctity of contract. A comparative study and case analysis is the methodology that is used in this article. Unfairness in contracts is generally related to the problem of inequality in bargaining power underscored by deeply entrenched social and economic inequalities that are a consequence of apartheid and patriarchy. The transformative nature of the constitution demands the inclusion of African legal ideas and values in the legal order. There is a need for the harmonisation of western ideals which are based on the classical model of law of contract with relevant African principles. In order to attain a transformative legal order that promotes a societal transformation and enhances the lives of everyone courts cannot continue to frown upon African values. Ubuntu has the potential of steering the law of contract in a more equitable direction. The substantive rules of contract law undoubtedly need to be infused with the notion of ubuntu. The reconciliation of Western and African values is at the heart of legal transformation.

Keywords: fairness, sanctity of contract, contractual justice, transformative constitutionalism

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22 The Morality of the Sensitive in Adorno: Suffering and Recognition in the Mimesis Model

Authors: Talita Cavaignac

Abstract:

Adorno's critique of totality, especially in a split society marked by reification, also rests on the impossibility of generalizing normative principles. Given the unfeasibility of normative universalizations, which conditions can justify the possibility of criticism and normativity in Adorno's thought? If reason itself is still entangled in alienation from the model of the domination of nature, how could be possible a critical theory? In political terms, if the notion of totality is challenged by the critique of identity, how can Adorno maintain the ideal of liberation and reconciliation between private interests and the possibility of some sort of ethics without giving up a materialist theory of society and without betting in a necessary link between redemption and history? Faced with this complex of questions, it is intended to reflect on the sense in which the notion of ‘suffering’ could throw help to the epistemological problem of the foundations of criticism in Adorno's work. The idea is that, in contrast to a universalizable model of justice, Adorno mobilizes in the notion of ‘suffering’ a gateway to the critical reflection of society. He would thus develop an approach to moral problems through the sensual-bodily perspective, fear, pain, and somatic factors. Nevertheless, due to the attention to the damaged experience and to the constitution of subjectivity -a sense in which the concept of mimesis continues to stand out- we understand suffering as an expression of an objective reification. Following the statement of other authors, the intention is to think how the resources linked to the idea of ‘suffering’ in Adorno's writings are engaged in the reflection of the problem of morality and of the contradictions between universal and particular (articulated in Hegel's tradition).

Keywords: ethics, morality, sensitive, Theodor Adorno

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