Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1821

Search results for: special needs

1821 Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Laraba Bala Mohammed

Abstract:

Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.

Keywords: inclusive education, national policy, education, special needs

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1820 Western and Eastern Ways of Special Warfare: The Strategic History of Special Operations from Western and Eastern Sources

Authors: Adam Kok Wey Leong

Abstract:

Special operations were supposedly a new way of irregular warfare that was officially formed during World War 2. For example, the famous British Special Operations Executive (SOE) and the Americans’ Office for Strategic Services (OSS) – the forerunners of modern day CIA were born in World War 2. These special operations units were tasked with the conduct of sabotage and subversion activities behind enemy lines, placing great importance in forming Fifth Column activities and supporting resistance movements. This pointed to a paradoxical argument that modern day special operations is a product of Western modern military innovation but utilizing Eastern ways of ‘ungentlemanly’ warfare. This thesis is superfluous as special operations had been well practised by both ancient Western empires such as the Greeks and Romans, and around the same time in the East, such as in China, and Japan. This paper will describe the practice of special operations, first from the Western military history of the Greeks during the Peloponnesian war. It will then highlight the similar practice of special operations by the Near Eastern Assassins and Eastern militaries by using examples from the Chinese and the Japanese. This paper propounds that special operations, or ways of warfare as a whole, has no cultural and geographical divide, but rather very similarly practiced by men from all over the world. Ideas of fighting, killing and ultimately winning a war have similar undertones – attempts to find ways to win economically and at the least time.

Keywords: special operations, strategic culture, ways of warfare, Sun Tzu, Frontinus

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1819 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Digital Game-Based Learning on Educational Outcomes of Students with Special Needs in an Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Shafaq Rubab

Abstract:

The inclusion of special needs students in a classroom is prevailing gradually in developing countries. Digital game-based learning is one the most effective instructional methodology for special needs students. Digital game-based learning facilitates special needs students who actually face challenges and obstacles in their learning processes. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digital game-based learning on the educational progress of special needs students in developing countries. The quasi-experimental research was conducted by using purposively selected sample size of eight special needs students. Results of both experimental and control group showed that performance of the experimental group students was better than the control group students and there was a significant difference between both groups’ results. This research strongly recommended that digital game-based learning can help special needs students in an inclusive classroom. It also revealed that special needs students can learn efficiently by using pedagogically sound learning games and game-based learning helps a lot for the self-paced fast-track learning system.

Keywords: inclusive education, special needs, digital game-based learning, fast-track learning

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1818 Distance Training Packages on Providing for Learner with Special Needs

Authors: Jareeluk Ratanaphan

Abstract:

The purposed of this research were; 1.To survey the teacher’s needs on knowledge about special education management for special needs learner 2.To development of distance training packages on providing for learner with special needs. 3. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s achievement. 4. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s opinion on the distance training packages. The design of the experiment was research and development. The research sample for survey were 86 teachers, and 22 teachers for study the effects of using the packages on achievement and opinion. The research instrument comprised: 1) training packages on special education management for special needs learner 2) achievement test 3) questionnaire. Mean, percentage, standard deviation, t-test and content analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: 1. The teacher’s needs on knowledge about teaching for learner with learning disability, mental retardation, autism, physical and health impairment and research in special education. 2. The package composed of special education management for special needs student document and manual of distance training packages. The efficiency of packages was established at 79.50/81.35. 3. The results of using the packages were the posttest average scores of trainee’s achievement were higher than pretest. 4. The trainee’s opinion on the package was at the highest level.

Keywords: distance training, training package, teacher, learner with special needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1817 The Impact of Stress and Coping Style on Educational Involvement among Fathers to Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Aviva Lvan, Lipaz Shamoa-Nir

Abstract:

Recently, has increased the research interest in modern fatherhood especially, the increasing involvement of fathers in the family. However, there is a little research evidence on fathers to children with special needs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stress and coping style on involvement in school among fathers to children with special needs in inclusive education. We compared the fathers to children with special needs (N=72) with fathers to non-special needs children (N = 75), and found that higher stress levels, greater educational involvement and greater use of social support coping style, were found among fathers of children with special needs. In addition, mission coping style and emotional coping style predict involvement in the school and emotional coping style predicts high levels of stress. The above findings contribute to the investigation of changes in the perception of the role of fathers and their involvement in their children's lives especially, among fathers to children with special needs. From the applied aspect, the findings may increase the understanding of the role of fathers and their unique contribution to the social, emotional, and academic development of their children.

Keywords: coping style, educational involvement, special needs, stress

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1816 Sex Education for Children with Special Needs

Authors: Nefrijanti Sutikno

Abstract:

This paper highlights puberty and sexuality on children with special needs (SNC) in which they are very vulnerable to child sexual abuse (CSA). By providing sufficient knowledge and skill to teachers, they can synergise with parents to better anticipate, prevent and reduce the possibility of CSA and when it has already happened, together they are able to provide proper support and assistance to the victims of CSA.

Keywords: Special Needs Children (SNC), puberty, sexuality, child sexual abuse (CSA), prevention of CSA, anticipation of CSA

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1815 Special Education Teachers’ Knowledge and Application of the Concept of Curriculum Adaptation for Learners with Special Education Needs in Zambia

Authors: Kenneth Kapalu Muzata, Dikeledi Mahlo, Pinkie Mabunda Mabunda

Abstract:

This paper presents results of a study conducted to establish special education teachers’ knowledge and application of curriculum adaptation of the 2013 revised curriculum in Zambia. From a sample of 134 respondents (120 special education teachers, 12 education officers, and 2 curriculum specialists), the study collected both quantitative and qualitative data to establish whether teachers understood and applied the concept of curriculum adaptation in teaching learners with special education needs. To obtain data validity and reliability, the researchers collected data by use of mixed methods. Semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were administered. Lesson Observations and post-lesson discussions were conducted on 12 selected teachers from the 120 sample that answered the questionnaires. Frequencies, percentages, and significant differences were derived through the statistical package for social sciences. Qualitative data were analyzed with the help of NVIVO qualitative software to create themes and obtain coding density to help with conclusions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were concurrently compared and related. The results revealed that special education teachers lacked a thorough understanding of the concept of curriculum adaptation, thus denying learners with special education needs the opportunity to benefit from the revised curriculum. The teachers were not oriented on the revised curriculum and hence facing numerous challenges trying to adapt the curriculum. The study recommended training of special education teachers in curriculum adaptation.

Keywords: curriculum adaptation, special education, learners with special education needs, special education teachers

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1814 Counselling Families with Special Needs Children: Problems and Prospect: A Case Study of Calabar Metropolis in Cross River State

Authors: Anthonia Emmanuel Inaja

Abstract:

The role of the counseling services by Special Educators, Guidance Counsellors and psychologists alike to Families and Parents of children with special needs cannot be over-emphasized. This paper examined the vital role of counseling services and its impact on the emotional and physical readiness of parents to initiate and support the education and rehabilitation needs of their children. The paper considered the importance of counseling, when counseling services are best required preparing the mindset of parents and family members as well as the immediate community of the social needs child.

Keywords: counseling, families, special, needs, children, problems, prospect

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1813 The Moving and Special Ability Influence Player Preference in the Dual Protagonist Game

Authors: Shih-Chieh Liao, Jen-Ying Ma

Abstract:

Dual protagonists game always bring a unique experience compared to the other games. This research wants to discuss whether the dual protagonists have the moving ability and special ability or not; it will affect the preference of the players. This research will focus on the single-player dual protagonists game. After the observation, we found that when players control the dual protagonists, the moving ability and special ability are a great point defining the preference of players. When players control the character, which is lack of moving ability, they often feel impatient with the inconvenient mechanism and then reduce the will to play with the character or even the game. Furthermore, the special ability is also important in the situation that there is another character to compare with. When the character is too powerful, players tend not to use the weaker one. In addition, gender is a big deal in the games. It surprisingly controls the will of play occasionally. In view of these, this research makes a single-player dual protagonists game and the dual protagonists are limited to male and female. The experiment content detected with Electrodermal Activity (EDA) includes seven different situations. (1) male and females both have the moving ability and special ability. (2) male and female both have a special ability, but female does not have the moving ability. (3) male and females both have a special ability, but the male does not have the moving ability. (4) male and female both have the moving ability, but the male does not have special ability (5) male and female both have the moving ability, but female does not have a special ability (6) male-only has the moving ability and female-only has a special ability (7) male-only has a special ability and female only has the moving ability. The experiment will evaluate the emotional changes of the subjects in those situations. The result sorted by the significance of player preference is (6)>(4)>(1)>(2)>(5)>(3)>(7). The result demonstrates that players prefer females with special abilities or males with moving abilities. The game developer could design the ability of dual protagonists based on this research. Therefore, players may have a better experience.

Keywords: biofeedback, dual protagonists, emotional responses, psychology, user experience

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1812 Development of Distance Training Packages for Teacher on Education Management for Learners with Special Needs

Authors: Jareeluk Ratanaphan

Abstract:

The purposed of this research were; 1. To survey the teacher’s needs on knowledge about special education management for special needs student 2. Development of distance training packages for teacher on special education management for special needs student 3. to study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s achievement 4. to study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s opinion on the distance training packages. The design of the experiment was research and development. The research sample for survey were 86 teachers, and 22 teachers for study the effects of using the packages on achievement and opinion. The research instrument comprised: 1) training packages on special education management for special needs student 2) achievement test 3) questionnaire. Mean, percentage, standard deviation, t-test and content analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: 1. The teacher’s needs on knowledge about teaching for a learner with learning disability, mental retardation, autism, physical and health impairment and research in special education. 2. The package composed of special education management for special needs student document and manual of distance training packages. The document consisted by the name of packages, the explanation for the educator, content’s structure, concept, objectives, content and activities. Manual of distance training packages consisted by the explanation about a document, objectives, explanation about using the package, training schedule, and evaluation. The efficiency of packages was established at 79.50/81.35. 3. The results of using the packages were the posttest average scores of trainee’s achievement were higher than the pretest. 4. The trainee’s opinion on the package was at the highest level.

Keywords: distance training package, teacher, learner with special needs

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1811 Selecting Special Education as a Career: A Qualitative Study of Motivating Factors for Special Education Teachers

Authors: Jennifer Duffy, Liz Fleming

Abstract:

Teacher shortage in special education is an American educational problem. Due to the implementation of The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) and The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004), there has been an increase in the number of students requiring special education services. Consequently, there has been an influx to hire more special education teachers. However, the historic challenge of hiring certified special education teachers has been intensified with this the profession’s increasing demand of positions to fill. Efforts to improve recruitment and entry into the field must be informed by an understanding of the factors that initially inspire special education teachers to choose this career pathway. Hence, an understanding of reasons why teachers select special education as a profession is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore personal, academic, and professional motivations that lead to the selection of special education as a career choice. Using the grounded theory approach, this research investigation examined the factors that were most instrumental in influencing applicants to select special education as a career choice. Over one hundred de-identified graduate school applications to Bay Path University’s Graduate Special Education Programs from 2014- 2017 were qualitatively analyzed. Grounded coding was used to discover themes that emerged in applicants’ admissions essays explaining why he/she was pursuing a career in special education. The central themes that were most influential in applicants’ selection of special education as a career trajectory were (a) personal/familial connections to disability, (b) meaningful paraprofessional experiences working with disabled children, (c) aptitudes for teaching, and (d) finding personal rewards and professional fulfillment by advocating for vulnerable children. Implications from these findings include educating family members of children with disabilities about possible career tracks in special education, designing programs for paraprofessionals to become certified teachers, exposing prospective teacher candidates to the field of special education, and recruiting professionals from the human services field who seek to improve the quality of life and educational opportunities for children with special needs.

Keywords: career choice, professional pathways to teaching children with disabilities, special education, teacher recruitment

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1810 The Residual Effects of Special Merchandising Sections on Consumers' Shopping Behavior

Authors: Shih-Ching Wang, Mark Lang

Abstract:

This paper examines the secondary effects and consequences of special displays on subsequent shopping behavior. Special displays are studied as a prominent form of in-store or shopper marketing activity. Two experiments are performed using special value and special quality-oriented displays in an online simulated store environment. The impact of exposure to special displays on mindsets and resulting product choices are tested in a shopping task. Impact on store image is also tested. The experiments find that special displays do trigger shopping mindsets that affect product choices and shopping basket composition and value. There are intended and unintended positive and negative effects found. Special value displays improve store price image but trigger a price sensitive shopping mindset that causes more lower-priced items to be purchased, lowering total basket dollar value. Special natural food displays improve store quality image and trigger a quality-oriented mindset that causes fewer lower-priced items to be purchased, increasing total basket dollar value. These findings extend the theories of product categorization, mind-sets, and price sensitivity found in communication research into the retail store environment. Findings also warn retailers to consider the total effects and consequences of special displays when designing and executing in-store or shopper marketing activity.

Keywords: special displays, mindset, shopping behavior, price consciousness, product categorization, store image

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1809 Perception of the Frequency and Importance of Peer Social Support by Students with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Lucia Hrebeňárová, Jarmila Žolnová, Veronika Palková

Abstract:

Inclusive education of students with special educational needs has been on the increase in the Slovak Republic, facing many challenges. Preparedness of teachers for inclusive education is one of the most frequent issues; teachers lack skills when it comes to the use of effective instruction depending on the individual needs of students, improvement of classroom management and social skills, and support of inclusion within the classroom. Social support is crucial for the school success of students within inclusive settings. The aim of the paper is to analyse perception of the frequency and importance of peer social support by students with special educational needs in inclusive education. The data collection tool used was the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). The research sample consisted of 953 fourth grade students – 141 students with special educational needs educated in an inclusive setting and 812 students of the standard population. No significant differences were found between the students with special educational needs and the students without special educational needs in an inclusive setting when it comes to the perception of frequency and importance of social support of schoolmates and friends. However, the perception of frequency and importance of a friend’s social support was higher than the perception of frequency and importance of a classmate’s social support in both groups of students.

Keywords: inclusive education, peer social support, peer, student with special eEducational needs

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1808 Role of Special Training Centers (STC) in Right to Education Act Challenges And Remedies

Authors: Anshu Radha Aggarwal

Abstract:

As per the Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009, every child in the age group of 6-14 years shall be admitted in a neighborhood school. All the Out of School Children identified have to be enrolled / mainstreamed in to age appropriate class and there-after be provided special training. This paper addresses issues emerging from provisions in the RTE Act that specifically refer to the enrolment of out-of school children into age appropriate classes and the requirement to provide special trainings that will enable this to take place. In the context of RTE Act, the Out-of-School Children are first enrolled in the formal school and then they are provided with Special Training through NRSTCs (Long Term / Short term basis). These centers are functioning in formal school campus itself. This paper specifies the role of special training centers (STC). It presents a re-envisioning of assessment that recognizes two principal functions of assessment, assessment for learning and assessment of learning, instead of the more familiar categories of formative, diagnostic, summative, and evaluative assessment. The use of these two functions of assessment highlights and emphasizes the role of special training centers (STC) to assess their level for giving them appropriate special training and to evaluate their improvement in learning level. Challenge of problem faced by teachers to do diagnostic assessment, including its place in the sequence of assessment procedures appropriate in identifying and addressing individual children’s learning difficulties are solved by special training centers (STC). It is important that assessment is used to identify children with learning difficulties at the earliest possible stage so that appropriate support and intervention can be put in place. So appropriate challenges with tools are presented here for their assessment at entry level and at completion level of primary children by special training centers (STC).

Keywords: right to education, assessment, challenges, out of school children

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1807 Coping Strategies Used By Special Education Teachers In Rural Schools

Authors: Susan P. Gregory

Abstract:

The United States has a critical shortage of special education teachers and rural states face more challenges in finding teachers to fill these positions. The state of Montana is one of the larger rural states in the United States and has had a critical need for special education teachers for over 30 years. It is the 4th largest state in the United States with respect to size but the 44th in the nation with respect to population size. Montana’s state department of education supports rural schools that have difficulty in finding a special education teacher. School districts are allowed to fill vacant special education positions with licensed teachers that have no background in teaching students with special needs. These teachers are given three years to complete a university program leading to an endorsement in special education. The teachershave a range of teaching experience from veteran teachers to those who arein their first teaching position. The common factor they share is that they are all teaching in an area for which they have had no previous experience, that is special education. They also share the experience of teaching in rural schools where they may be the only special education teacher in their school. The literature tells us that teachers are stressed and that the demands of special education can exacerbate that stress. As institutions of higher education prepare preservice teachers to enter the profession, knowledge of the challenges these preservice teachers will face and how they overcome those challenges, are an important part of the preparing them for the reality of schools today. This study will report interviews conducted with a group oflicensed teachers who were new to special education. These teachers were hired within the past three years for special education positions in rural schools in the state of Montana. Individual phone interviews will be conducted, and the teachers will be asked to identify not just the challenges they face but the strategies they use to overcome them. The interviews will be transcribed and common themes emerging from those interviews will identified. The strategies that these teachers use to manage the challenges and stressors of being first year special education teachers in rural schools will be reported. The conclusion will present strategies identified by the teachers in this study and examine them in the context of the research literature. These strategies will provide information for facultywho are preparing preservice teachers to take positions in rural schools.

Keywords: coping strategies, rural, special education, teachers

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1806 Using a Strength Based Approach to Teaching Children with Special Needs

Authors: Eunice Tan

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to look at an alternative to the approach and methodologies of working with a child with special needs. The strength-based approach to education embodies a paradigm shift. It is a strategy to move away from a deficit-based methodology which inadvertently may lead to an extensive list of things that the child cannot do or is unable to do. Today, many parents of individuals with special needs are focused on the individual’s deficits rather than on his or her strengths. Even when parents recognise and identify their child’s savant strengths to be valuable and wish to develop their abilities, they face the challenge that there are insufficient programs committed to supporting the development and improvement of such abilities. What is a strength-based approach in education? A strength-based approach in education focuses on students' positive qualities and contributions to class instead of the skills and abilities they may not have. Many schools are focused on the child’s special educational needs rather than the whole child. Parents interviewed have said that they have to engage external tutors to help hone in on their child’s interests and strengths. The strength-based approach to writing statements encourages educators to find out: • What a child can do • What a child can do when he or she is given educational support • Learning more about children with special needs and their strengths and talents will broaden our understanding of how we can help them with language acquisition, social skills, as well as self-help and independence skills.

Keywords: special needs, strengths, and talents, alternative educational approach, strength based approach

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1805 Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs

Authors: Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.

Keywords: hierarchy of needs, parents, special needs, care-giving

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1804 Theoretical Exploration for the Impact of Accounting for Special Methods in Connectivity-Based Cohesion Measurement

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Class cohesion is a key object-oriented software quality attribute that is used to evaluate the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion measures. However, the effect of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular connectivity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. For each of the three connectivity-based measures, the proposed theoretical study recommended excluding the special methods in cohesion measurement.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods

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1803 Training Student Teachers to Work in Partnership with Parents of Students with Special Needs

Authors: Alicia Greenbank, Efrat Bengio

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to examine the efficacy of the first course in Israel, whose objective is to train student teachers in the special education department to work cooperatively with parents of children with special needs. Studies often highlight the importance of cooperation between teachers and parents of students with special needs. Israel’s Special Education Law defines parents as complete partners, and the Ministry of Education encourages and even requires that partnership be present. Yet this partnership is difficult to achieve many kindergarten teachers, and teachers have a lot of difficulties establishing and managing a pattern of cooperation with their students’ parents. Often we see different perspectives on the child's development and needs, distrust, lack of appreciation, and communication difficulties on both sides – parents & teachers. The course describes a method of instilling the need for cooperation at an early stage of teacher training-in the teacher training program. 22 students in the special education program for early childhood education in the fourth year of learning took part in the course. The fourth-year is the experiential training year and the first time that students have worked in a school. The course consisted of 14 sessions. Seven parents of students with different disabilities participated at 6 of the sessions. The changes in the students' attitudes towards partnership and their ability to manage this partnership were carried out by examining the reports written by the students before the meetings with the parents and the reflections they wrote after each meeting with the parents and at the end of the course. Three themes emerged from the narrative analysis, corresponding to the three preconditions for joint activities with parents — Approach, Attitude, Appropriate Atmosphere, according to the Four A’s Model. The findings showed that a course combining meetings with parents of children with special needs offers many benefits for teacher training. The course raised student awareness of the question partnership, changed students’ approaches and attitudes towards the parents, stressed the importance of partnership, and provided students with tools for working with parents through the school. Based on the findings of this study, courses in this format can be applied in order to cooperate between teachers and parents, for example, parents of gifted children with special needs.

Keywords: Partnership with parents in special education, parents of children with disabilities, parents of children with special needs, parents’ involvement in special education

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1802 Mindfulness among Educators in General and Special Education at Independent Schools in Qatar and Its Effects on Their Academic Performance and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Mohamed S. Osman, Mohamed R. Nosair

Abstract:

The study aims to determine the effects of mindfulness on self-efficacy and professional success among educators of general and special education at Qatar Independent. The study sample will consist of 100 educators from the males and females divided to (50) educators of general education and (50) educators of Special Education in primary, and high schools. They will response to mindfulness scale and the scale of self-efficacy. In addition, use reports of the assessment by the Department of Education for their performance and assessments of their supervisors. The study will examine the effect of some variables such as differences between educators from general and special education, as well as the differences between males and females and years of experience. The study will use a statistic descriptive approach and Correlative analysis such as; means and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The study may predicts differences between educators in all variables study.

Keywords: mindfulness, educators, general education, special education, academic performance, self-efficacy

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1801 Self-Determination among Individuals with Intellectual Disability: An Experiment

Authors: Wasim Ahmad, Bir Singh Chavan, Nazli Ahmad

Abstract:

Objectives: The present investigation is an attempt to find out the efficacy of training the special educators on promoting self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Methods: The study equipped the special educators with necessary skills and knowledge to train individuals with the intellectual disability for practicing self-determination. Subjects: Special educators (N=25) were selected for training on self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. After receiving the training, (N=50) individuals with an intellectual disability were selected and intervened by the trained special educators. Tool: Self-Determination Scale for Adults with Mild Mental Retardation (SDSAMR) developed by Keshwal and Thressiakutty (2010) has been used. It’s a reliable and valid tool used by many researchers. It has 36 items distributed in five domains namely: personal management, community participation, recreation and leisure time, choice making and problem solving. Analysis: The collected data was analyzed using the statistical techniques such as t-test, ANCOVA, and Posthoc Tuckey test. Results: The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-15.56) of self-determination concepts among the special educators. This indicates that the training enhanced the performance of special educators on the concept of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. The study also reveals that the training received on transition planning by the special educators found to be effective because they were able to practice the concept by imparting and training the individuals with intellectual disability to if determined. The results show that there was a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-16.61) of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Conclusion: To conclude it can be said that the training has a remarkable impact on the performance of the individuals with intellectual disability on self-determination.

Keywords: experiment, individuals with intellectual disability, self-determination, special educators

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1800 Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass

Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Mujahid Kamran

Abstract:

It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.

Keywords: causality, gauge particles, material particles, special relativity

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1799 Efficient Moment Frame Structure

Authors: Mircea I. Pastrav, Cornelia Baera, Florea Dinu

Abstract:

A different concept for designing and detailing of reinforced concrete precast frame structures is analyzed in this paper. The new detailing of the joints derives from the special hybrid moment frame joints. The special reinforcements of this alternative detailing, named modified special hybrid joint, are bondless with respect to both column and beams. Full scale tests were performed on a plan model, which represents a part of 5 story structure, cropped in the middle of the beams and columns spans. Theoretical approach was developed, based on testing results on twice repaired model, subjected to lateral seismic type loading. Discussion regarding the modified special hybrid joint behavior and further on widening research needed concludes the presentation.

Keywords: modified hybrid joint, repair, seismic loading type, acceptance criteria

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1798 Special Education in the South African Context: A Bio-Ecological Perspective

Authors: Suegnet Smit

Abstract:

Prior to 1994, special education in South Africa was marginalized and fragmented. Moving away from a Medical model approach to special education, the Government, after 1994, promoted an Inclusive approach, as a means to transform education in general, and special education in particular. This transformation, however, is moving at too a slow pace for learners with barriers to learning and development to benefit fully from their education. The goal of the Department of Basic Education is to minimize, remove, and prevent barriers to learning and development in the educational setting, by attending to the unique needs of the individual learner. However, the implementation of Inclusive education is problematic, and general education remains poor. This paper highlights the historical development of special education in South Africa, underpinned by a bio-ecological perspective. Problematic areas within the systemic levels of the education system are highlighted in order to indicate how the interactive processes within the systemic levels affect special needs learners on the personal dimension of the bio-ecological approach. As part of the methodology, thorough document analysis was conducted on information collected from a large body of research literature, which included academic articles, reports, policies, and policy reviews. Through a qualitative analysis, data were grouped and categorized according to the bio-ecological model systems, which revealed various successes and challenges within the education system. The challenges inhibit change, growth, and development for the child, who experience barriers to learning. From these findings, it is established that special education in South Africa has been, and still is, on a bumpy road. Sadly, the transformation process of change, envisaged by implementing Inclusive education, is still yet a dream, not fully realized. Special education seems to be stuck at what is, and the education system has not moved forward significantly enough to reach what special education should and could be. The gap that exists between a vision of Inclusive quality education for all, and the current reality, is still too wide. Problems encountered in all the education system levels, causes a funnel-effect downward to learners with special educational needs, with negative effects for the development of these learners.

Keywords: bio-ecological perspective, education systems, inclusive education, special education

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1797 Ultra High Performance Concrete Using Special Aggregates for Irregular Structures (the New Concrete Technology)

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh

Abstract:

Concrete the basic material using in construction across the global these days. The purpose of this special concrete is to provide extra strength and stability for irregular structure where the center of gravity is disturbed. In this paper an effort has been made to use different type of material aggregates has been discussed. We named As "STAR Aggregates" which has qualities to resist Shear, tension and compression forces. We have been divided into coarse aggregates and fine aggregates according to their sizes. Star Aggregates has interlocking behavior and cutting edge technology. Star aggregates had been draft and deign in Auto CAD and then analysis in ANSYS software. by using special aggregates we deign concrete grade of M40 for mega structures and irregular structure. This special concrete with STAR aggregates use in construction for irregular structure like Bridges, Skyscrapers or in deigned buildings.

Keywords: star aggregates, high performance concrete, material aggregates, interlocking

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
1796 Barriers That Special Education Teachers Faced When Working with Students with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusion Schools

Authors: Faris Algahtani

Abstract:

Every child has a right to education. This is one of the laws in the constitution and it empowers every child to access knowledge but it does not, however, allocate special interest to the rights of education for children with disabilities. It also does not address the challenges that teachers of such children face while trying to educate them. This study was conducted at government schools of Saudi Arabia. As the teaching profession is the most valuable profession and deserves to have its challenges tackled. This paper explores the challenges that teachers face as they try to teach students who have intellectual disabilities (ID). It looks at the daily challenges of a teacher who has to teach both children with disabilities and those without. The literature review shed light on the various aspects of mainstream education from the classroom to the outside environment to the teachers involved in mainstream education. The study employed qualitative methods in which Focus Group Discussions were utilized and Twenty (N=20) special education teachers were randomly sampled from primary schools through 6 groups of teachers from 6 different schools were interviewed through semi-structured interviews with the aim of drawing collective perceptions rather than personal perceptions about the challenges. The study found that most teachers had similar perceptions about the challenges that teachers face as they educate students with intellectual disabilities. The study recommends that The Ministry of Education should consider increasing the availability of special needs courses, workshops and conference for special education teachers.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, inclusion, mainstream schools, disabilities, special education teachers

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1795 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1794 Changing Pedagogy from Segregation to Inclusion: A Phenomenological Case Study of Ten Special Educators

Authors: Monique Somma

Abstract:

As special education service delivery models are shifting in order to better meet the academic and social rights of students with exceptionalities, teaching practices must also align with these goals. This phenomenological case study explored the change experiences of special education teachers who have transitioned from teaching in a self-contained special education class to an inclusive class setting. Ten special educators who had recently changed their teaching roles to inclusive classrooms, completed surveys and participated in a focus group. Of the original ten educators, five chose to participate further in individual interviews. Data collected from the three methods was examined and compared for common themes. Emergent themes included, support and training, attitudes and perceptions, inclusive practice, growth and change, and teaching practice. The overall findings indicated that despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others and systematic barriers in the education system. They were equally surprised by the overall social and academic performance of students with exceptionalities in inclusive classes, as well as, the social and academic growth and development of the other students in the class. Over the course of their careers, they all identified an overall personal pedagogical shift, to some degree or another, which they contributed to the successful experiences of inclusion they had. They also recognized that collaborating with others was essential for inclusion to be successful. The findings from this study suggest several implications for professional development and training needs specific to special education teachers moving into inclusive settings. Maximizing the skills of teachers with special education experience in a Professional Learning Community (PLC) and mentorship opportunities would be beneficial to all staffs working toward creating inclusive classrooms and schools.

Keywords: attitudes and perceptions, inclusion of students with exceptionalities, special education teachers, teacher change

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1793 Experiences of Trainee Teachers: A Survey on Expectations and Realities in Special Secondary Schools in Kenya

Authors: Mary Cheptanui Sambu

Abstract:

Teaching practice is an integral component of students who are training to be teachers, as it provides them with an opportunity to gain experience in an actual teaching and learning environment. This study explored the experiences of trainee teachers from a local university in Kenya, undergoing a three-month teaching practice in Special Secondary schools in the country. The main aim of the study was to understand the trainees’ experiences, their expectations, and the realities encountered during the teaching practice period. The study focused on special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment. A descriptive survey design was employed and a sample size of forty-four respondents from special secondary schools for learners with hearing impairment was purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered to the respondents and the data obtained analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Preliminary analysis shows that challenges facing special secondary schools include inadequate teaching and learning facilities and resources, low academic performance among learners with hearing impairment, an overloaded curriculum and inadequate number of teachers for the learners. The study findings suggest that the Kenyan government should invest more in the education of special needs children, particularly focusing on increasing the number of trained teachers. In addition, the education curriculum offered in special secondary schools should be tailored towards the needs and interest of learners. These research findings will be useful to policymakers and curriculum developers, and will provide information that can be used to enhance the education of learners with hearing impairment; this will lead to improved academic performance, consequently resulting in better transitions and the realization of Vision 2030.

Keywords: hearing impairment, special secondary schools, trainee, teaching practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1792 Teaching Children With Differential Learning Needs By Understanding Their Talents And Interests

Authors: Eunice Tan

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to look at an alternative to the approach and methodologies of working with special needs. The strength-based approach to education embodies a paradigm shift. It is a strategy to move away from a deficit-based methodology which inadvertently may lead to an extensive list of things that the child cannot do or is unable to do. Today, many parents of individuals with special needs are focused on the child’s deficits rather than on his or her strengths. Even when parents Recognise and identify their child’s strengths to be valuable and wish to develop their abilities, they face the challenge that there are insufficient programs committed to supporting the development and improvement of such abilities. What is a strength-based approach in education? A strength-based approach in education focuses on students' positive qualities and contributions to class instead of the skills and abilities they may not have. Many schools are focused on the child’s special educational needs rather than the whole child. Parents interviewed have said that they have to engage external tutors to help hone in on their child’s interests and strengths.

Keywords: differential learning needs, special needs, instructional style, talents

Procedia PDF Downloads 42