Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: confession

7 Confess Your Sins to One Another: An Exploration of the Biblical Validity and the Psychological Efficacy of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Catholic Church

Authors: M. B. Peter


The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has long been upheld, by the Catholic Church, as one of the Sacraments of healing, mainly due to the sense of peace, tranquility and psychological quiescence it accords the penitent upon receiving Sacramental absolution of sin through the action of the priest. This paper explores the Sacramental character of this practice and the psychological benefits of the celebration of the Sacrament. This is achieved in two parts: firstly, by the intellectual engagement of Sacred Scripture and the consolidated Sacred Tradition that the Catholic magisterium protects and, secondly, via a broad survey of the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Orval Hobart Mowrer regarding confession and forgiveness. The former will serve to demonstrate the Catholic belief of the divine institution of the Sacrament whilst the latter will demonstrate how this belief, coupled with the existing benefit of confessing guilt, collectively bolsters the Sacrament’s overall psychological efficacy. Fundamentally, the analysis of Jung and Mowrer’s works demonstrate that man, as a naturally religious being, has an inherent need for the confession of his wrong that he might be alleviated of psychological guilt in obtaining forgiveness of a (divinely ordained) minister who is sanctioned to absolve, i.e. the priest. The paper also presents the curative effect of the celebration of this Sacrament, illustrating how, without the act of confession, man remains in moral isolation from God and man; and, that with it, man is relieved of the mysterious feeling of guilt which lies at the root of his disquiet of mind and disturbance of will. Thus, the paper penultimately establishes how the Sacrament of Reconciliation is positioned in that place where psychology and theology meet: man’s sense of guilt. It is Jung’s views on confession and forgiveness that ultimately bridge the chasm between psychology and Christianity.

Keywords: Catholic, confession, Jung, Mowrer, penance, psychology, Sacrament of Reconciliation

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6 Deceptive Behaviors of Young Children in a Guessing Game

Authors: Desiderio S. Camitan IV


The standard view of lay people in the Philippine society is that young children do not lie and that if they do, their lies are easily detectable. The present study investigated the deceptive behaviors of 373 children aged 2-8 using the temptation resistance paradigm. Children were instructed that they will participate in a game where they are to guess the color of a candy placed inside a downward facing cup. After the instruction was given to them, they are left alone in a room with the cup on top of a table for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the number of children who peeked at the card as well as number of those who confessed to the said act. Age, gender, IQ, and having autism seem to influence the frequency of peeking and confession of the participants.

Keywords: cheating, lying, dishonesty, young children, guessing game, autism

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5 Reduction of Process of Evidence in Specific Forms of Criminal Proceeding: Problems and Risks

Authors: Filip Ščerba, Veronika Pochylá


Performing of the acts within criminal proceedings usually takes too long and thus this phenomenon can be regarded as one of the most burning problems which have plagued the criminal justice not only in the Czech Republic but at least all over Europe for the last few decades. This problem obviously has to be dealt with and thus the need to tackle this issue has resulted in the trend which is sometimes called Criminal Justice Rationalization, i.e. introducing and enforcing methods supporting the increase in efficiency of the criminal justice in order to make the criminal proceedings shorter and administrative procedure easier. This resulted in the introduction of institutes such as e.g. diversions in criminal proceedings or other forms of shortened pre-trial proceedings, which may be used primarily for dealing with less serious crimes. But also the institute, which was originally mentioned in connection with the system of criminal law in the countries belonging to the Anglo-Saxon legal order where it is frequently called of plea bargaining, has been introduced into the criminal law of many European countries, and it may be applied also in cases of serious crimes. All these special and shortened forms of criminal proceedings are connected with limited extent of process of evidence; in fact, some of these specific forms of criminal proceedings are designed for the purpose to simplify the process of evidence. That is also the reason, why some of these procedures are conditioned with the defendant’s confession. Main hypothesis: Limited process of evidence represents also a potential conflict with certain fundamental principles upon which the criminal proceeding in the Continental legal system is based. (A conflict with principle of material truth may be considered as the most important problem. This principle states that the bodies in criminal proceedings must clarify the facts of the case beyond reasonable doubt to such extent that a decision can be made; the defendant’s confession does not mean that these bodies are freed from the duty to review all the circumstances and facts of the case. Such principle is typical for criminal law in Central European region.) Basic methodologies: The paper is going to analyze such a problem of weakening of the principle of material truth in modern criminal law. Such analysis will be provided primarily on the base of the Czech criminal law, but also other legal regulations will be taken into consideration, and its result may have some relevance for all legal regulations belonging to the Continental legal system, so the paper offers also a comparison with legal systems of other Central European countries.

Keywords: burden of proof, central European countries, criminal justice rationalization, criminal proceeding, Czech legislation, Czech republic, defendant, diversions, evidence, fundamental principles, plea bargaining, pre-trial proceedings, principle of material truth, process of evidence, process of evidence

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4 Forensic Science in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: Trails of Utterson's Quest

Authors: Kyu-Jeoung Lee, Jae-Uk Choo


This paper focuses on investigating The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde from Utterson’s point of view, referring to: Gabriel John Utterson, a central character in the book. Utterson is no different from a forensic investigator, as he tries to collect evidence on the mysterious Mr. Hyde’s relationship to Dr. Jekyll. From Utterson's perspective, Jekyll is the 'victim' of a potential scandal and blackmail, and Hyde is the 'suspect' of a possible 'crime'. Utterson intends to figure out Hyde's identity, connect his motive with his actions, and gather witness accounts. During Utterson’s quest, the outside materials available to him along with the social backgrounds of Hyde and Jekyll will be analyzed. The archives left from Jekyll’s chamber will also play a part providing evidence. Utterson will investigate, based on what he already knows about Jekyll his whole life, and how Jekyll had acted in his eyes until he was gone, and finding out possible explanations for Jekyll's actions. The relationship between Jekyll and Hyde becomes the major question, as the social background offers clues pointing in the direction of illegitimacy and prostitution. There is still a possibility that Jekyll and Hyde were, in fact, completely different people. Utterson received a full statement and confession from Jekyll himself at the end of the story, which gives the reader the possible truth on what happened. Stevenson’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde led readers, as it did Utterson, to find the connection between Hyde and Jekyll using methods of history, culture, and science. Utterson's quest to uncover Hyde shows an example of applying the various fields to in his act to see if Hyde's inheritance was legal. All of this taken together could technically be considered forensic investigation.

Keywords: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, forensic investigation, illegitimacy, prostitution, Robert Louis Stevenson

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3 Understanding Music through the Framework of Feminist Confessional Literary Criticism: Heightening Audience Identification and Prioritising the Female Voice

Authors: Katharine Pollock


Feminist scholars assert that a defining aspect of feminist confessional literature is that it expresses both an individual and communal identity, one which is predicated on the commonly-shared aspects of female experience. Reading feminist confessional literature in this way accommodates a plurality of readerly experiences and textual interpretations. It affirms the individual whilst acknowledging those experiences which bind women together, and refuses traditional objective criticism. It invites readers to see themselves reflected in the text, and encourages them to share their own stories. Similarly, music which communicates women’s personal experience, fictive or not, expresses a dual identity. There is an inherent risk of imposing a confessional reading upon a musical or literary text. Understanding music as being multivocal in the same way as confessional literature negates this patriarchal tendency, and allows listeners to engage with both the subjective and collective aspects of a text. By hearing their own stories reflected in the music, listeners engage in an ongoing dialogic process in which female stories are prioritised. This refuses patriarchal silencing and ensures a diversity of female voices. To demonstrate the veracity of these claims, literary criticism is applied to Lily Allen’s music, and memoir My Thoughts Exactly.

Keywords: confession, female, feminist, literature, music

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2 Reclaiming the Lost Jewish Identity of a Second Generation Holocaust Survivor Raised as a Christian: The Role of Art and Art Therapy

Authors: Bambi Ward


Children of Holocaust survivors have been described as inheriting their parents’ trauma as a result of ‘vicarious memory’. The term refers to a process whereby second generation Holocaust survivors subconsciously remember aspects of Holocaust trauma, despite not having directly experienced it. This can occur even when there has been a conspiracy of silence in which survivors chose not to discuss the Holocaust with their children. There are still people born in various parts of the world such as Poland, Hungary, other parts of Europe, USA, Canada and Australia, who have only learnt of their Jewish roots as adults. This discovery may occur during a parent’s deathbed confession, or when an adult child is sorting through the personal belongings of a deceased family member. Some Holocaust survivors chose to deny their Jewish heritage and raise their children as Christians. Reasons for this decision include the trauma experienced during the Holocaust for simply being Jewish, the existence of anti-Semitism, and the desire to protect one’s self and one’s family. Although there has been considerable literature written about the transgenerational impact of trauma on children of Holocaust survivors, there has been little scholarly investigation into the effects of a hidden Jewish identity on these children. This paper presents a case study of an adult child of Hungarian Holocaust survivors who was raised as a Christian. At the age of eight she was told about her family’s Jewish background, but her parents insisted that she keep this a secret, even if asked directly. She honoured their request until she turned forty. By that time she had started the challenging process of reclaiming her Jewish identity. The paper outlines the tension between family loyalty and individual freedom, and discusses the role that art and art therapy played in assisting the subject of the case study to reclaim her Jewish identity and commence writing a memoir about her spiritual journey. The main methodology used in this case study is creative practice-led research. Particular attention is paid to the utilisation of an autoethnographic approach. The autoethnographic tools used include reflective journals of the subject of the case study. These journals reflect on the subject’s collection of autobiographical data relating to her family history, and include memories, drawings, products of art therapy, diaries, letters, photographs, home movies, objects, and oral history interviews with her mother. The case study illustrates how art and art therapy benefitted a second generation Holocaust survivor who was brought up having to suppress her Jewish identity. The process allowed her to express subconscious thoughts and feelings about her identity and free herself from the burden of the long term secret she had been carrying. The process described may also be of assistance to other traumatised people who have been trying to break the silence and who are seeking to express themselves in a positive and healing way.

Keywords: art, hidden identity, holocaust, silence

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1 Health and Disease, Sickness and Well Being: Depictions in the Vinaya Pitaka and Jataka Narratives

Authors: Abhimanyu Kumar


The relationship between religion and medicine is much evident in the context of Buddhism. This paper is an attempt to look at the processes of social and cultural evolution of scientific creativity in the field of medicine and institutionalization of medical practices. The objective of the paper is to understand the Buddhist responses towards health as understood from the Vinaya Piṭaka and the Jātaka. This work is a result of the analysis of two important Buddhist texts: the Vinaya Piṭaka and the Jātaka. Broadly the Vinaya Piṭaka is concerned with the growth of Buddhist monasticism. The Vinaya Piṭaka is considered one of the most important sacred texts of the Buddhists, and contains rules for monastic life. These rules deal with such aspects as formal meetings of the saṃgha (monastery), expiation, confession, training, and legal questions. The Jātaka stories, on the other hand, are in the form of folk narratives, and provide a major source of medical consultation for all classes. These texts help us to ascertain the ‘proficiency and perceptions’ of the prevailing medical traditions. The Jātakas are a collection of 547 stories about the past lives of the Buddha, who is represented in anthropomorphic and animal form. The Jātaka connects itself between existing cognitive environments related to ethics and Buddhist didacticism. These stories are a reflection of the connection between the past and contemporary times (in the sense of time of creation of the story) as well. This is visible through the narrative strategy of the text, where every story is sub-divided into the story of the past and story of the present, and there is a significant identification element or connection that established at the end of each story. The minimal presence of philosophical content and the adoption of a narrative strategy make it possible for more of everyday life. This study gives me an opportunity to raise questions about how far were the body and mind closely interrelated in the Buddhist perceptions, and also did the society act like a laboratory for the Buddhists to practice healing activities? How far did religious responses to afflictions, be they leprosy or plague or anger, influence medical care; what impact did medical practitioners, religious authorities and the regulation of medical activity and practice have on healing the body and the mind; and, how has the healing environment been viewed. This paper is working with the idea that medical science in early India was not only for the curative purpose of diseases, but it fulfilled a greater cause of promoting, maintaining and restoring human health. In this regard, studying these texts gives an insight regarding religious responses to epidemics, from leprosy to plague, as well as to behavioral disorder such as anger. In other words, it deals with the idea about healing the body and healing the soul from a religious perspective.

Keywords: food for health, folk narratives, human body, materia medica, social sickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 193