Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: translanguaging

8 Enabling Translanguaging in the EFL Classroom, Affordances of Learning and Reflections

Authors: Nada Alghali

Abstract:

Translanguaging pedagogy suggests a new perspective in language education relating to multilingualism; multilingual learners have one linguistic repertoire and not two or more separate language systems (García and Wei, 2014). When learners translanguage, they are able to draw on all their language features in a flexible and integrated way (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). In the Foreign Language Classroom, however, the tendency to use the target language only is still advocated as a pedagogy. This study attempts to enable learners in the English as a foreign language classroom to draw on their full linguistic repertoire through collaborative reading lessons. In observations prior to this study, in a classroom where English only policy prevails, learners still used their first language in group discussions yet were constrained at times by the teacher’s language policies. Through strategically enabling translanguaging in reading lessons (Celic and Seltzer, 2011), this study has revealed that learners showed creative ways of language use for learning and reflected positively on thisexperience. This case study enabled two groups in two different proficiency level classrooms who are learning English as a foreign language in their first year at University in Saudi Arabia. Learners in the two groups wereobserved over six weeks and wereasked to reflect their learning every week. The same learners were also interviewed at the end of translanguaging weeks after completing a modified model of the learning reflection (Ash and Clayton, 2009). This study positions translanguaging as collaborative and agentive within a sociocultural framework of learning, positioning translanguaging as a resource for learning as well as a process of learning. Translanguaging learning episodes are elicited from classroom observations, artefacts, interviews, reflections, and focus groups, where they are analysed qualitatively following the sociocultural discourse analysis (Fairclough &Wodak, 1997; Mercer, 2004). Initial outcomes suggest functions of translanguaging in collaborative reading tasks and recommendations for a collaborative translanguaging pedagogy approach in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: translanguaging, EFL, sociocultural theory, discourse analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
7 Translanguaging and Cross-languages Analyses in Writing and Oral Production with Multilinguals: a Systematic Review

Authors: Maryvone Cunha de Morais, Lilian Cristine Hübner

Abstract:

Based on a translanguaging theoretical approach, which considers language not as separate entities but as an entire repertoire available to bilingual individuals, this systematic review aimed at analyzing the methods (aims, samples investigated, type of stimuli, and analyses) adopted by studies on translanguaging practices associated with written and oral tasks (separately or integrated) in bilingual education. The PRISMA criteria for systematic reviews were adopted, with the descriptors "translanguaging", "bilingual education" and/or “written and oral tasks" to search in Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs, Eric, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for articles published between 2017 and 2021. 280 registers were found, and after following the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 24 articles were considered for this analysis. The results showed that translanguaging practices were investigated on four studies focused on written production analyses, ten focused on oral production analysis, whereas ten studies focused on both written and oral production analyses. The majority of the studies followed a qualitative approach, while five studies have attempted to study translanguaging with quantitative statistical measures. Several types of methods were used to investigate translanguaging practices in written and oral production, with different approaches and tools indicating that the methods are still in development. Moreover, the findings showed that students’ interactions have received significant attention, and studies have been developed not just in language classes in bilingual education, but also including diverse educational and theoretical contexts such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, task repetition, Science classes, collaborative writing, storytelling, peer feedback, Speech Act theory and collective thinking, language ideologies, conversational analysis, and discourse analyses. The studies, whether focused either on writing or oral tasks or in both, have portrayed significant research and pedagogical implications, grounded on the view of integrated languages in bi-and multilinguals.

Keywords: bilingual education, oral production, translanguaging, written production

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
6 Translanguaging as a Decolonial Move in South African Bilingual Classrooms

Authors: Malephole Philomena Sefotho

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a fact that the majority of people, worldwide, are bilingual rather than monolingual due to the surge of globalisation and mobility. Consequently, bilingual education is a topical issue of discussion among researchers. Several studies that have focussed on it have highlighted the importance and need for incorporating learners’ linguistic repertoires in multilingual classrooms and move away from the colonial approach which is a monolingual bias – one language at a time. Researchers pointed out that a systematic approach that involves the concurrent use of languages and not a separation of languages must be implemented in bilingual classroom settings. Translanguaging emerged as a systematic approach that assists learners to make meaning of their world and it involves allowing learners to utilize all their linguistic resources in their classrooms. The South African language policy also room for diverse languages use in bi/multilingual classrooms. This study, therefore, sought to explore how teachers apply translanguaging in bilingual classrooms in incorporating learners’ linguistic repertoires. It further establishes teachers’ perspectives in the use of more than one language in teaching and learning. The participants for this study were language teachers who teach at bilingual primary schools in Johannesburg in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to establish their perceptions on the concurrent use of languages. Qualitative research design was followed in analysing data. The findings showed that teachers were reluctant to allow translanguaging to take place in their classrooms even though they realise the importance thereof. Not allowing bilingual learners to use their linguistic repertoires has resulted in learners’ negative attitude towards their languages and contributed in learners’ loss of their identity. This article, thus recommends a drastic change to decolonised approaches in teaching and learning in multilingual settings and translanguaging as a decolonial move where learners are allowed to translanguage freely in their classroom settings for better comprehension and making meaning of concepts and/or related ideas. It further proposes continuous conversations be encouraged to bring eminent cultural and linguistic genocide to a halt.

Keywords: bilingualism, decolonisation, linguistic repertoires, translanguaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5 Understanding the Multilingualism of the Mauritian Multilingual Primary School Learner and Translanguaging: A Linguistic Ethnographic Study

Authors: Yesha Devi Mahadeo-Doorgakant

Abstract:

The Mauritian landscape is well-known for its multilingualism with the daily interaction of the number of languages that are used in the island; namely Kreol Morisien, the European languages (English and French) and the Oriental/Asian languages (Hindi, Arabic/Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi, Mandarin, etc.). However, within Mauritius’ multilingual educational system, English is the official medium of instruction while French is taught as compulsory subject till upper secondary and oriental languages are offered as optional languages at primary level. Usually, Mauritians choose one oriental language based on their ethnic/religious identity, when they start their primary schooling as an additional language to learn. In January 2012, Kreol Morisien, which is the considered the language of daily interaction of the majority of Mauritians, was introduced as an optional subject at primary level, taught at the same time as the oriental languages. The introduction of Kreol Morisien has spurred linguistic debates about the issue of multilingualism within the curriculum. Taking this into account, researchers have started pondering on the multilingual educational system of the country and questioning whether the current language curriculum caters for the complex everyday linguistic reality of the multilingual Mauritian learner, given most learners are embedded within an environment where the different languages interact with each other daily. This paper, therefore, proposes translanguaging as being a more befitting theoretical lens through which the multilingualism and the linguistic repertoire of Mauritian learners’ can best be understood.

Keywords: multilingualism, translanguaging, multilingual learner, linguistic ethnography

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
4 Communicating Meaning through Translanguaging: The Case of Multilingual Interactions of Algerians on Facebook

Authors: F. Abdelhamid

Abstract:

Algeria is a multilingual speech community where individuals constantly mix between codes in spoken discourse. Code is used as a cover term to refer to the existing languages and language varieties which include, among others, the mother tongue of the majority Algerian Arabic, the official language Modern Standard Arabic and the foreign languages French and English. The present study explores whether Algerians mix between these codes in online communication as well. Facebook is the selected platform from which data is collected because it is the preferred social media site for most Algerians and it is the most used one. Adopting the notion of translanguaging, this study attempts explaining how users of Facebook use multilingual messages to communicate meaning. Accordingly, multilingual interactions are not approached from a pejorative perspective but rather as a creative linguistic behavior that multilingual utilize to achieve intended meanings. The study is intended as a contribution to the research on multilingualism online because although an extensive literature has investigated multilingualism in spoken discourse, limited research investigated it in the online one. Its aim is two-fold. First, it aims at ensuring that the selected platform for analysis, namely Facebook, could be a source for multilingual data to enable the qualitative analysis. This is done by measuring frequency rates of multilingual instances. Second, when enough multilingual instances are encountered, it aims at describing and interpreting some selected ones. 120 posts and 16335 comments were collected from two Facebook pages. Analysis revealed that third of the collected data are multilingual messages. Users of Facebook mixed between the four mentioned codes in writing their messages. The most frequent cases are mixing between Algerian Arabic and French and between Algerian Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. A focused qualitative analysis followed where some examples are interpreted and explained. It seems that Algerians mix between codes when communicating online despite the fact that it is a conscious type of communication. This suggests that such behavior is not a random and corrupted way of communicating but rather an intentional and natural one.

Keywords: Algerian speech community, computer mediated communication, languages in contact, multilingualism, translanguaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3 The Dilemma of Translanguaging Pedagogy in a Multilingual University in South Africa

Authors: Zakhile Somlata

Abstract:

In the context of international linguistic and cultural diversity, all languages can be used for all purposes. Africa in general and South Africa, in particular, is not an exception to multilingual and multicultural society. The multilingual and multicultural nature of South African society has a direct bearing to the heterogeneity of South African Universities in general. Universities as the centers of research, innovation, and transformation of the entire society should be at the forefront in leading multilingualism. The universities in South Africa had been using English and to a certain extent Afrikaans as the only academic languages during colonialism and apartheid regime. The democratic breakthrough of 1994 brought linguistic relief in South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa recognizes 11 official languages that should enjoy parity of esteem for the realization of multilingualism. The elevation of the nine previously marginalized indigenous African languages as academic languages in higher education is central to multilingualism. It is high time that Afrocentric model instead of Eurocentric model should be the one which underpins education system in South Africa at all levels. Almost all South African universities have their language policies that seek to promote access and success of students through multilingualism, but the main dilemma is the implementation of language policies. This study is significant to respond to two objectives: (i) To evaluate how selected institutions use language policies for accessibility and success of students. (ii) To study how selected universities integrate African languages for both academic and administrative purposes. This paper reflects the language policy practices in one selected University of Technology (UoT) in South Africa. The UoT has its own language policy which depicts linguistic diversity of the institution and its commitment to promote multilingualism. Translanguaging pedagogy which accommodates minority languages' usage in the teaching and learning process plays a pivotal role in promoting multilingualism. This research paper employs mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative research) approach. Qualitative data has been collected from the key informants (insiders and experts), while quantitative data has been collected from a cohort of third-year students. A mixed methods approach with its convergent parallel design allows the data to be collected separately, analysed separately but with the comparison of the results. Language development initiatives have been discussed within the framework of language policy and policy implementation strategies. Theoretically, this paper is rooted in language as a problem, language as a right and language as a resource. The findings demonstrate that despite being a multilingual institution, there is a perpetuation of marginalization of African languages to be used as academic languages. Findings further display the hegemony of English. The promotion of status quo compromises the promotion of multilingualism, Africanization of Higher Education and intellectualization of indigenous African languages in South Africa under a democratic dispensation.

Keywords: afro-centric model, hegemony of English, language as a resource, translanguaging pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2 Creating a Critical Digital Pedagogy Context: Challenges and Potential of Designing and Implementing a Blended Learning Intervention for Adult Refugees in Greece

Authors: Roula Kitsiou, Sofia Tsioli, Eleni Gana

Abstract:

The current sociopolitical realities (displacement, encampment, and resettlement) refugees experience in Greece are a quite complex issue. Their educational and social ‘integration’ is characterized by transition, insecurity, and constantly changing needs. Based on the current research data, technology and more specifically mobile phones are one of the most important resources for refugees, regardless of their levels of conventional literacy. The proposed paper discusses the challenges encountered during the design and implementation of the educational Action 16 ‘Language Education for Adult Refugees’. Action 16 is one of the 24 Actions of the Project PRESS (Provision of Refugee Education and Support Scheme), funded by the Hellenic Open University (2016-2017). Project PRESS had two main objectives: a) to address the educational and integration needs of refugees in transit, who currently reside in Greece, and b) implement research-based educational interventions in online and offline sites. In the present paper, the focus is on reflection and discussion about the challenges and the potential of integrating technology in language learning for a target-group with many specific needs, which have been recorded in field notes among other research tools (ethnographic data) used in the context of PRESS. Action 16, explores if and how technology enhanced language activities in real-time and place mediated through teachers, as well as an autonomous computer-mediated learning space (moodle platform and application) builds on and expands the linguistic, cultural and digital resources and repertoires of the students by creating collaborative face-to-face and digital learning spaces. A broader view on language as a dynamic puzzle of semiotic resources and processes based on the concept of translanguaging is adopted. Specifically, designing the blended learning environment we draw on the construct of translanguaging a) as a symbolic means to valorize students’ repertoires and practices, b) as a method to reach to specific applications of a target-language that the context brings forward (Greek useful to them), and c) as a means to expand refugees’ repertoires. This has led to the creation of a learning space where students' linguistic and cultural resources can find paths to expression. In this context, communication and learning are realized by mutually investing multiple aspects of the team members' identities as educational material designers, teachers, and students on the teaching and learning processes. Therefore, creativity, humour, code-switching, translation, transference etc. are all possible means that can be employed in order to promote multilingual communication and language learning towards raising intercultural awareness in a critical digital pedagogy context. The qualitative analysis includes critical reflection on the developed educational material, team-based reflexive discussions, teachers’ reports data, and photographs from the interventions. The endeavor to involve women and men with a refugee background into a blended learning experience was quite innovative especially for the Greek context. It reflects a pragmatist ethos of the choices made in order to respond to the here-and-now needs of the refugees, and finally it was a very challenging task that has led all actors involved into Action 16 to (re)negotiations of subjectivities and products in a creative and hopeful way.

Keywords: blended learning, integration, language education, refugees

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1 A Multiple Case Study of How Bilingual-Bicultural Teachers' Language Shame and Loss Affects Teaching English Language Learners

Authors: Lisa Winstead, Penny Congcong Wang

Abstract:

This two-year multiple case study of eight Spanish-English speaking teachers explores bilingual-bicultural Latino teachers’ lived experiences as English Language Learners and, more recently, as adult teachers who work with English Language Learners in mainstream schools. Research questions explored include: How do bilingual-bicultural teachers perceive their native language use and sense of self within society from childhood to adulthood? Correspondingly, what are bilingual teachers’ perceptions of how their own language learning experience might affect teaching students of similar linguistic and cultural backgrounds? This study took place in an urban area in the Pacific Southwest of the United States. Participants were K-8 teachers and enrolled in a Spanish-English bilingual authorization program. Data were collected from journals, focus group interviews, field notes, and class artifacts. Within case and cross-case analysis revealed that the participants were shamed about their language use as children which contributed to their primary language loss. They similarly reported how experiences of mainstream educator and administrator language shaming invalidated their ability to provide support for Latino heritage ELLs, despite their bilingual-bicultural expertise. However, participants reported that counter-narratives from the bilingual authorization program, parents, community and church organizations, and cultural responsive teachers were effective in promoting their language retention, pride, and feelings of well-being.

Keywords: teacher education, bilingual education, English language learners, emergent bilinguals, social justice, language shame, language loss, translanguaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 82