Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: pornography

21 Korean Men’s Interest in Gonzo Pornography and Use of Condoms

Authors: Chyng Sun

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This brief report examines correlations between Korean men’s interest in gonzo pornography, perceptions of pornography’s functional value, and use of condoms. The report found that, neither a higher interest in gonzo or the perception that pornography is a source of sexual information was directly related to condom utilization. However, interest in gonzo pornography interacted with pornography perceptions to predict condomless sex. The findings suggest that Korean men who 1) had higher interest in viewing gonzo pornography, and 2) had a tendency to view pornography as a source of sexual information, are more likely to have sex without condoms. That is, when viewers consider pornography to be a form of sexual education, they are more likely to use the learned pornographic script to inform their sexual behavior.

Keywords: Korean, male, pornography, sexuality

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20 Internet Pornography Consumption and Relationship Commitment of Filipino Married Individuals

Authors: Racidon P. Bernarte, Vincent Jude G. Estella, Dominador Jr. M. Nucon, Jin Danniel O. Villatema

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Purpose: Internet pornography has many negative effects, but one of the disturbing phases of pornography usage is; users are insentient on how pornography influences and affects them. The acceptance of Internet pornography use in a relationship has been found to be higher among men than among women. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to the weakening of the relationship of the married individuals to their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, the size of the investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability, and viewing habits of the Filipino married individuals were also considered in determining the relationship of watching pornography online and the relationship commitment of the Filipino married individuals. Design/ Methodology/ Approach –The study used the quantitative research approach, specifically descriptive method and correlation in order to further analyze the gathered data. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400 selected Filipino married individuals who were married individuals that are watching pornography on the Internet who are living in Quezon City. Findings –It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has a negative effect on the relationship commitment of married individuals. Furthermore, watching pornography online weakened the relationship commitment of the Filipino married individuals that leads to an unstable relationship.

Keywords: internet pornography consumption, relationship commitment, married individuals, polytechnic university of the Philippines

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19 Making Sense of Cyber Pornography among Young Adult Couples

Authors: Marianne Lumacang, Jessarine Dultra, Joana Fenol

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Filipinos are known to be conservative, sex or pornography is not discussed openly in the Philippines, topic of sex, when raised, will most likely elicit snickers, jokes, and blushes in most Filipino or expressions of disgust. However, a lot of Filipinos are still engaging into this kind of activity for some reasons. The study aims to determine young adult’s point of view about cyber pornography viewing, as well as their reasons for engagement, and its effects on them and their relationship with their partner. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore how young adults make sense of cyber pornography viewing. The study focused on Filipino young adults who are in a romantic or married relationship, engage in cyber pornography viewing, and currently residing in Cavite, Philippines. A total of four young adult couples, four females and four males participated in the study as research participants. Data gathered from a total of four young adult couples resulted to a total of nine superordinate themes focusing on (1) exploring young adult couple’s rationales for cyber pornography viewing, (2) experiences of positive effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (3) experiences of negative effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (4) experience of infidelity, (5) experience of necessity, (6) females perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (7) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (8) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards romantic partner, and (9) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards others.

Keywords: cyberpornography, Filipino, interpretative phenomenological analysis, making sense of cyberpornography, young adult

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18 The Influence of Parental Media Mediation on Adolescents Risky Media Use: Controlled vs. Autonomy Supportive Strategies

Authors: Jeffrey L. Hurst, Sarah M. Coyne

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With the growth of technology and media, teens are increasingly exposed to media such as pornography and engaging in risky media use such as sexting. Parental media mediation strategies including controlling or autonomy supporting strategies can be an important protective factor against risky media uses. The purpose of this study is to examine how parental media mediation around media, influence adolescents’ behaviors including frequency of pornography use and sexting. We also examine the effects of parental media mediation on adolescents disclosing pornography use to parents and the amount of secrets that adolescents keep about pornography use. We hypothesize that controlling media mediation will result in more sexting, more frequency pornography use, more secrets about pornography and less disclosure to parents. We also predict that autonomy supportive media mediation will show the opposite pattern. Data for this study came from a nationally representative research project, Project M.E.D.I.A. Participants included 783 adolescents. 49% of the participants were male, and the mean age for boys was 15.44 years (SD= 3.34) and for girls was 15.3 years (SD=2.93). Parental media mediation was assessed using an eight-item measure with subscales of controlling and autonomy supporting media mediation. Participants were also asked if they have ever viewed pornography. If they answered yes, they were asked about the frequency of pornography use as well as if they have ever kept secrets from their parents about it and if they had ever disclosed their pornography use to their parents. The data analysis strategy for this study was a multiple group path analysis. Frequency of pornography use, sexting, secrets from parents and disclosure to parents were predicted by controlling and autonomy supporting parental media mediation, frequency of parents warning against pornography use, income and ethnicity. Groups were distinguished by boys and girls, allowing for sex differences. After running the model in MPLUS, we found partial support for our hypotheses. Autonomy supportive media mediation resulted in less sexting for boys (β= -.15, p < .05) and girls ( β= -.13, p < .05). Autonomy supportive media mediation also predicted keeping fewer secrets for girls (β=-.27, p < .01) but had no effect for boys. Controlling media mediation predicted more disclosure about pornography to parents for boys (β=.16, p < .05) and less disclosure to parents about pornography for girls (β=-.14, p < .05). Frequency of pornography was not predicted by any of the predictors in the model. Autonomy supportive media mediation was a very strong predictor of less sexting for both boys and girls. Parents should approach media mediation with this supportive and understanding mindset. Parental autonomy support allows adolescents to explore and develop their own moral beliefs without feeling guilt or shame from their parents. This need to have autonomy is also shown by girls disclosing less pornography use to their parents when parents are really controlling about media use. Interestingly, boys disclosed more to their parents when their parents were controlling. Further research is needed on why this is. Further research should also look at the effects that disclosing pornography use to parents has on future pornography use.

Keywords: media, moral development, parental mediation, pornography, sexting

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17 Development of a Fuzzy Logic Based Model for Monitoring Child Pornography

Authors: Mariam Ismail, Kazeem Rufai, Jeremiah Balogun

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A study was conducted to apply fuzzy logic to the development of a monitoring model for child pornography based on associated risk factors, which can be used by forensic experts or integrated into forensic systems for the early detection of child pornographic activities. A number of methods were adopted in the study, which includes an extensive review of related works was done in order to identify the factors that are associated with child pornography following which they were validated by an expert sex psychologist and guidance counselor, and relevant data was collected. Fuzzy membership functions were used to fuzzify the associated variables identified alongside the risk of the occurrence of child pornography based on the inference rules that were provided by the experts consulted, and the fuzzy logic expert system was simulated using the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox available in the MATLAB Software Release 2016. The results of the study showed that there were 4 categories of risk factors required for assessing the risk of a suspect committing child pornography offenses. The results of the study showed that 2 and 3 triangular membership functions were used to formulate the risk factors based on the 2 and 3 number of labels assigned, respectively. The results of the study showed that 5 fuzzy logic models were formulated such that the first 4 was used to assess the impact of each category on child pornography while the last one takes the 4 outputs from the 4 fuzzy logic models as inputs required for assessing the risk of child pornography. The following conclusion was made; there were factors that were related to personal traits, social traits, history of child pornography crimes, and self-regulatory deficiency traits by the suspects required for the assessment of the risk of child pornography crimes committed by a suspect. Using the values of the identified risk factors selected for this study, the risk of child pornography can be easily assessed from their values in order to determine the likelihood of a suspect perpetuating the crime.

Keywords: fuzzy, membership functions, pornography, risk factors

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16 Killed by the ‘Subhuman’: Jane Longhurst’s Murder and the Construction of the ‘Extreme Pornography’ Problem in the British National Press

Authors: Dimitrios Akrivos, Alexandros K. Antoniou

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This paper looks at the crucial role of the British news media in the construction of extreme pornography as a social problem, suggesting that this paved the way for the subsequent criminalization of such material through the introduction of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008. Focusing on the high-profile case of Graham Coutts, it examines the British national press’ reaction to Jane Longhurst’s murder through a qualitative content analysis of 251 relevant news articles. Specifically, the paper documents the key arguments expressed in the corresponding claims-making process. It considers the different ways in which the consequent ‘trial by media’ presented this exceptional case as the ‘tip of the iceberg’ and eventually translated into policy. The analysis sheds light on the attempts to ‘piggyback’ the issue of extreme pornography on child sexual abuse images as well as the textual and visual mechanisms used to establish an ‘us versus them’ dichotomy in the pertinent media discourse. Finally, the paper assesses the severity of the actual risk posed by extreme pornography, concluding that its criminalization should not merely be dismissed as the outcome of an institutionalized media panic.

Keywords: criminalization, extreme pornography, social problem, trial by media

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15 Legal Provisions on Child Pornography in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study on South Asian Landscape

Authors: Monira Nazmi Jahan, Nusrat Jahan Nishat

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'Child Pornography' is a sex crime that portrays illegal images and videos of a minor over the Internet and now has become a social concern with the increase of commission of this crime. The major objective of this paper is to identify and examine the laws relating to child pornography in Bangladesh and to compare this with other South Asian countries. In Bangladesh to prosecute under child pornography, provisions have been made in ‘Digital Security Act, 2018’ where it has been defined as involving child in areas of child sexuality or in sexuality and whoever commits the crime will be punished for 10 years imprisonment or 10 lac taka fine. In India, the crime is dealt with ‘The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012’ (POSCO) where the offenders for commission of this crime has been divided separately and has provision for punishments starting from three years to rigorous life imprisonment and shall also be liable to fine. In the Maldives, there is ‘Special Provisions Act to Deal with Child Sex Abuse Offenders, Act number 12/2009’. In this act it has been provided that a person is guilty of such an act if intentionally runs child prostitution, involves child in the creation of pornography or displays child’s sexual organ in pornography then shall be punished between 20 to 25 years of imprisonment. Nepal prosecutes this crime through ‘Act Relating to Children, 2018’ and the conviction of using child in prostitution or sexual services is imprisonment up to fifteen years and fine up to one hundred fifty thousand rupees. In Pakistan, child pornography is prosecuted with ‘Pakistan Penal Code Child Abuse Amendment Act, 2016’. This provides that one is guilty of this offence if he involves child with or without consent in such activities. It provides punishment for two to seven years of imprisonment or fine from two hundred thousand to seven hundred thousand rupees. In Bhutan child pornography is not explicitly addressed under the municipal laws. The Penal Code of Bhutan penalizes all kinds of pornography including child pornography under the provisions of computer pornography and the offence shall be a misdemeanor. Child Pornography is also prohibited under the ‘Child Care and Protection Act’. In Sri Lanka, ‘The Penal Code’ de facto criminalizes child prohibition and has a penalty of two to ten years and may also be liable to fine. The most shocking scenario exists in Afghanistan. There is no specific law for the protection of children from pornography, whereas this serious crime is present there. This paper will be conducted through a qualitative research method that is, the primary sources will be laws, and secondary sources will be journal articles and newspapers. The conclusion that can be drawn is except Afghanistan all other South Asian countries have laws for controlling this crime but still have loopholes. India has the most amended provisions. Nepal has no provision for fine, and Bhutan does not mention any specific punishment. Bangladesh compared to these countries, has a good piece of law; however, it also has space to broaden the laws for controlling child pornography.

Keywords: child abuse, child pornography, life imprisonment, penal code, South Asian countries

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14 The Survey of Sexual Health and Pornography among Divorce-Asking Women in West Azerbaijan-Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Soheila Rabiepoor, Elham Sadeghi

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Introduction: Divorce is both a personal and a social issue. Nowadays, due to various factors such as rapid social, economical, and cultural changes, the family structure has undergone many rough changes, out of 3 marriages 2 of them lead to divorce. One of the factors affecting the incidence of divorce and relationship problems between couples is the sexual and marital behaviors. There are several different reasons to suspect that pornography might affect divorce in either a positive or a negative way. Therefore this study evaluated the sexual health of divorce-asking in Urmia, Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and was conducted on 71 married women of Urmia, Iran in 2016. Participants were applicants of divorce (referred to divorce center) who were selected by using convenient sampling method. Data gathering tool included the scales for measuring demographic, sexual health (sexual satisfaction and function), and researcher made pornography questions. Data were analyzed based on the SPSS 16 software. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Investigation of demographic features showed that age average of studied samples was 28.98 ± 7.44, with a marriage duration average 8.12 ± 6.53 years (min 1 year/ max 28 years). Most of their education was at diploma (45.1%). 69 % of the women declared their income and expenditure as equal. Nearly 42% of women and 59% of their partner had watched sexual pornography clips. 45.5% of participants reported that they compared own sexual relationship with sexual pornography clips. In the other hand, sexual satisfaction total score was 51.50 ± 17.92. The mean total sexual function score was 16.62 ± 10.58. According to these findings, most of women were experienced sexual dissatisfaction and dysfunction. Conclusions: The results of the study indicated that who had low sexual satisfaction score, had higher rate of watching pornography clips. Based on current study, paying attention to family education and counseling programs especially in the sexual field will be more fruitful.

Keywords: divorce-asking, pornography, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, women

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13 Men Act, Women Are Acted Upon: Morphosyntactic Framing of the Sexual Intercourse in Online Pornography Titles

Authors: Aleksandra Tomic

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According to reliable sources, 4% of all websites is devoted to pornographic material, yet these estimates are often reported to be much higher. The largest internet pornography streaming website reports 21.2 billion visits in 2015 only. Considering the ubiquity of online pornography and the frequency of use, it is necessary to examine its potential influence on the construal of the sexual act and the roles of participants. Apart from the verbal and physical interactions in the pornographic movies themselves, the language in the titles of movies has the power to frame the sexual intercourse. In this study, Critical Discourse Analysis and corpus linguistics approaches will be used to examine the way the sexual intercourse and the roles of the participants are ideologically construed and perpetuated in the Internet pornography discourse. To this end, the study will explore the association between the specific morphosyntactic aspects of the references to performers of both genders, the person and the thematic role, and the gender of referred performer in the corpus of online pornographic movie titles. Distinctive collexeme analysis will be conducted to uncover possible associations between for gender of the performer denoted by the linguistic expression, and the person and thematic role assigned to it in the titles of online pornography movies. Initial results of the chi-square procedure performed on a sample of 295 online pornography movie titles on the largest pornography streaming website ‘Pornhub’ yielded significant results. The use of the three person categories was not equally distributed between genders, X2 (2, N = 106) = 32.52, p < 0.001, with female performers being referred to in the third person in 71.7% of the instances, and speaking in the first person 20.8% of the time, whereas male performers spoke in the first person 68% of the time, and were referred to in the third person in 17% of the instances. Moreover, there was a gender disparity in the assignment of thematic roles, with linguistic expressions for women being assigned the Patient role and men the Agent role in 58.8% of the cases, whereas the roles were reversed in 41.2% of the instances, X2 (1, N = 262) = 8.07633, p < 0.005. The results are discussed in terms of the ideologies surrounding female and male sexuality in the pornography discourse. Potential patterns of power imbalance, objectification, and discrimination are highlighted. Finally, the evidence from psycholinguistic studies on the influence of the language structure on event construal is related to the results of the study.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, gender studies, pornography, thematic roles

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12 Change through Stillness: Mindfulness Meditation as an Intervention for Men with Self-Perceived Problematic Pornography Use

Authors: Luke Sniewski, Pante Farvid, Phil Carter, Rita Csako

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Background and Aims: Self-Perceived Problematic Porn Use (SPPPU) refers to individuals who identify as or perceive themselves to be addicted to porn. These individuals feel they are unable to regulate their porn consumption and experience adverse consequences as a result of their use in everyday life. To the author’s best knowledge, this research represents the first study to intervene with pornography use with mindfulness meditation, and aims to investigate the experiences and challenges of men with SPPPU as they engage in a mindfulness meditation intervention. As meditation is commonly characterized by sitting and observing one’s internal experience with non-reaction and acceptance, the study’s principal hypothesis was that consistent practice of meditation would develop the participant’s capacity to respond to cravings, urges, and unwanted thoughts in less reactive, more productive ways. Method: This 12-mixed method research utilised Single Case Experimental Design (SCED) methodology, with a standard AB design. Each participant was randomly assigned to an initial baseline time period between 2 to 5 weeks before learning the meditation technique and practicing it for the remainder of the 12-week study. The pilot study included 3 participants, while the intervention study included 12. The meditation technique used for the study involved a 15-minute guided breathing exercise in the morning, along with a 15-minute guided concentration meditation in the evening. Results: At the time of submission, only pilot study results were available. Results from the pilot study indicate an improved capacity for self-awareness of the uncomfortable mental and emotional states that drove their participants’ pornography use. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in daily porn use, total weekly time spent viewing porn, as well as lowered Pornography Craving Questionnaire (PCQ) and Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) scores. Conclusion: Pilot study results suggest that meditation could serve as a complementary tool for health professionals to provide clients in conjunction with therapeutic interventions. Study limitations, directions for future research, and clinical implications to be discussed as well.

Keywords: meditation, behavioural change, pornography, mindfulness

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11 The Breakthrough of Sexual Cinematic Freedom in Denmark in the 1960s and 1970s

Authors: Søren Birkvad

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This paper traces the development of sexual cinematic freedom in the wake of an epoch-making event in Danish cultural history. As the first in the world, the Danes abolished all censorship for adults in 1969, making the tiny nation of Denmark the world’s largest exporter of pornography for several years. Drawing on the insights of social and cultural history and the focus point of the National Cinema direction of Cinema Studies, this study focuses on Danish film pornography in the 1960s and 1970s in its own right (e.g., its peculiar mix of sex, popular comedy and certain ‘feminist’ agendas). More importantly, however, it covers a broader pattern, namely the culturally deep-rooted tradition of freedom of speech and sexual liberalism in Denmark. Thus, the key concept of frisind (“free mind”) in Danish cultural history took on an increasingly partisan application in the 1960s and 1970s. It became a designation for all-is-permitted hippie excess but was also embraced by dissenting movements on the left, such as feminism, which questioned whether a free mind necessarily meant free love. In all of this, Danish cinema from the 1960s and 1970s offers a remarkable source of historical insight, simultaneously reminding us of a number of acute issues of contemporary society. These issues include gendered ideas of sexuality and freedom then and now and the equivalent clash of cultures between a liberal commercial industry and the accelerating political demands of the “sexual revolution.” Finally, these issues include certain tensions between, on the one hand, a purely materialistic idea of sexual freedom – incarnated by anything from pornography to many of the taboo-breaking youth films and avant-garde films in the wake of the 1968-rebellion – and, on the other hand, growing opposition to this anti-spiritual perception of human sexuality (represented by for instance the ‘closet conservatism’ of Danish art film star Lars von Trier of nowadays). All in all, this presentation offers a reflection on ideas of sexuality and gender rooted in a unique historical moment in cinematic history.

Keywords: Danish film history, cultural history, film pornography, history of sexuality, national cinema, sexual liberalism

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10 A Passive Digital Video Authentication Technique Using Wavelet Based Optical Flow Variation Thresholding

Authors: R. S. Remya, U. S. Sethulekshmi

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Detecting the authenticity of a video is an important issue in digital forensics as Video is used as a silent evidence in court such as in child pornography, movie piracy cases, insurance claims, cases involving scientific fraud, traffic monitoring etc. The biggest threat to video data is the availability of modern open video editing tools which enable easy editing of videos without leaving any trace of tampering. In this paper, we propose an efficient passive method for inter-frame video tampering detection, its type and location by estimating the optical flow of wavelet features of adjacent frames and thresholding the variation in the estimated feature. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the z-score thresholding and achieved an efficiency above 95% on all the tested databases. The proposed method works well for videos with dynamic (forensics) as well as static (surveillance) background.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, optical flow, optical flow variation, video tampering

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9 Trafficking in Children as a Qualified Form of the Crime of Trafficking in Human Beings

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

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Trafficking in children, especially vulnerable victims, is a qualified form of committing the crime of human trafficking, and a special form of abuse and violation of children's rights. Given that trafficking in children is dangerous, but also a specific form of crime in relation to trafficking in human beings, this paper will in the first part indicate the forms of trafficking in children (trafficking in children for sexual exploitation, child pornography, and pedophilia, exploitation of labor, begging, performance of criminal acts, adoption, marriage and participation in armed conflicts). The second part references the international documents which regulate this matter as well as the solutions in national criminal legislations of Republic of Croatia and Republic of Serbia. It points to the essential features and characteristics of the victims, according to sex, age, and citizenship, as well as the age of children at the stage of solicitation and recruitment and the status of the family from which the child comes from. The work includes a special emphasis on international police cooperation in the fight against trafficking in children. Concluding remarks set out proposals de lege ferenda that can be of significant impact, particularly on prevention, and then also on repression in combating this serious crime.

Keywords: trafficking in children, trafficking in human beings, child as a victim of human trafficking, children’s rights

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8 The Conflict between Empowerment and Exploitation: The Hypersexualization of Women in the Media

Authors: Seung Won Park

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Pornographic images are becoming increasingly normalized as innovations in media technology arise, the porn industry explosively grows, and transnational capitalism spreads due to government deregulation and privatization of media. As the media evolves, pornography has become more and more violent and non-consensual; this growth of ‘raunch culture’ reifies the traditional power balance between men and women in which men are dominant, and women are submissive. This male domination objectifies and commodifies women, reducing them to merely sexual objects for the gratification of men. Women are exposed to pornographic images at younger and younger ages, providing unhealthy sexual role models and teaching them lessons on sexual behavior before the onset of puberty. The increasingly sexualized depiction of women in particular positions them as appropriately desirable and available to men. As a result, women are not only viewed as sexual prey but also end up treating themselves primarily as sexual objects, basing their worth off of their sexuality alone. Although many scholars are aware of and have written on the great lack of agency exercised by women in these representations, the general public tends to view some of these women as being empowered, rather than exploited. Scholarly discourse is constrained by the popular misconception that the construction of women’s sexuality in the media is controlled by women themselves.

Keywords: construction of gender, hypersexualization, media, objectification

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7 The Impact of Cybercrime on Youth Development in Nigeria

Authors: Christiana Ebobo

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Cybercrime consists of numerous crimes that are perpetrated on the internet on daily basis. The forms include but not limited to Identity theft, Pretentious dating, Desktop counterfeiting, Internet chat room, Cyber harassment, Fraudulent electronic mails, Automated Teller Machine Spoofing, Pornography, Piracy, Hacking, Credit card frauds, Phishing and Spamming. The general term used among the youths for this type of crime in Nigeria is ‘Yahoo Yahoo’. Cybercrime is on the increase among the youths at all levels as such this study aims at examining the impact of cybercrime on youth development in Nigeria. The study examines the impact of cybercrime on youths’ academic performance, integrity, employment and religious practices. The study is a survey which made use of questionnaire and focus group discussion among 150 randomly selected youths in Gwagwalada LCDA, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. The study adopts the systems theory as its theoretical framework. The study also adopts the simple frequency table and percentage for its data analysis. The study reveals that cybercrime has eaten deep into the minds of some youths and some of them are practicing diabolic means to succeed in it. It is also reveals that majority (68%) of the respondents believe that cybercrime impacts negatively on youths’ academic performance in Nigeria. The major recommendation of this study is that cybercrime offenders should be treated like armed robbers in order to discourage other youths from getting involved in it.

Keywords: armed robber, cybercrime, integrity, youth

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6 Polish Catholic Discourse on Gender Equality in the Face of Social and Cultural Changes in Poland

Authors: Anna Jagielska

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Five years ago, the word ‘gender’ was discussed in Poland exclusively in academic contexts. One year later, it was chosen as the word of the year and omnipresent in the Polish media. The rapid career of this word is due to the involvement of the Polish church hierarchy who strategically brought this term into relation with abortion, pornography and paedophilia. ‘Gender’ is more than a political slogan. It is a symbol of social anxiety and moral panic in Poland which need to be historically considered. The aim of this paper is to present selected rhetorical strategies used by the Polish Catholic clergy who strive to have an impact on the current gender discourse in Poland. In particular, the gender debate, culminated in the pastoral letter of the Bishops' Conference of Poland, will be discussed. The church’s protest against the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence will be analyzed and the recent heated debates in Poland on contraception, abortion, in vitro fertilization, and sex education will be mentioned. To provide explanations on the specificity of Polish gender debates the role of the Catholic Church in the fall of communism in Poland as well as the charismatisation of Polish society by Pope John Paul II will be explained. The social constructions of communism and feminism which are manifested in both written and symbolic contracts on gender equality between the Church and the State will be demonstrated. At the end of the paper, theories about the changing role of religion in society will be applied.

Keywords: gender, Poland, religion, catholicism, feminism

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5 Social Change and Cultural Sustainability in the Wake of Digital Media Revolution in South Asia

Authors: Binod C. Agrawal

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In modern history, industrial and media merchandising in South Asia from East Asia, Europe, United States and other countries of the West is over 200 years old. Hence, continued external technology and media exposure is not a new experience in multi-lingual and multi religious South Asia which evolved cultural means to withstand structural change. In the post-World War II phase, media exposure especially of telecommunication, film, Internet, radio, print media and television have increased manifold. South Asia did not lose any time in acquiring and adopting digital media accelerated by chip revolution, computer and satellite communication. The penetration of digital media and utilization are exceptionally high though the spread has an unequal intensity, use and effects. The author argues that industrial and media products are “cultural products” apart from being “technological products”; hence their influences are most felt in the cultural domain which may lead to blunting of unique cultural specifics in the multi-cultural, multi-lingual and multi religious South Asia. Social scientists, political leaders and parents have voiced concern of “Cultural domination”, “Digital media colonization” and “Westernization”. Increased digital media access has also opened up doors of pornography and other harmful information that have sparked fresh debates and discussions about serious negative, harmful, and undesirable social effects especially among youth. Within ‘techno-social’ perspective, based on recent research studies, the paper aims to describe and analyse possible socio-economic change due to digital media penetration. Further, analysis supports the view that the ancient multi-lingual and multi-religious cultures of South Asia due to inner cultural strength may sustain without setting in a process of irreversible structural changes in South Asia.

Keywords: cultural sustainability, digital media effects, digital media impact in South Asia, social change in South Asia

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4 Factors Promoting French-English Tweets in France

Authors: Taoues Hadour

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Twitter has become a popular means of communication used in a variety of fields, such as politics, journalism, and academia. This widely used online platform has an impact on the way people express themselves and is changing language usage worldwide at an unprecedented pace. The language used online reflects the linguistic battle that has been going on for several decades in French society. This study enables a deeper understanding of users' linguistic behavior online. The implications are important and allow for a rise in awareness of intercultural and cross-language exchanges. This project investigates the mixing of French-English language usage among French users of Twitter using a topic analysis approach. This analysis draws on Gumperz's theory of conversational switching. In order to collect tweets at a large scale, the data was collected in R using the rtweet package to access and retrieve French tweets data through Twitter’s REST and stream APIs (Application Program Interface) using the software RStudio, the integrated development environment for R. The dataset was filtered manually and certain repetitions of themes were observed. A total of nine topic categories were identified and analyzed in this study: entertainment, internet/social media, events/community, politics/news, sports, sex/pornography, innovation/technology, fashion/make up, and business. The study reveals that entertainment is the most frequent topic discussed on Twitter. Entertainment includes movies, music, games, and books. Anglicisms such as trailer, spoil, and live are identified in the data. Change in language usage is inevitable and is a natural result of linguistic interactions. The use of different languages online is just an example of what the real world would look like without linguistic regulations. Social media reveals a multicultural and multilinguistic richness which can deepen and expand our understanding of contemporary human attitudes.

Keywords: code-switching, French, sociolinguistics, Twitter

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3 (De)Criminalising Sex Toys in Thailand: A Law and Economics Approach

Authors: Piyanee Khumpao

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Under the Thai Penal Code and Customs Act, sex toys are criminalized and completely prohibited through the legal interpretation as obscene objects by law enforcement, despite there is no explicit legal sanction against them. The purpose of preventing people from accessing sex toys is to preserve public morals. However, sex toys are still available, exposed, and sold publicly in main cities throughout Thailand. They are easily observed by people of any age. This paper argues that sexuality is human nature and human right. Human deserves sexual pleasure as long as getting sexual pleasure does not inflict any harm on others. Using sex toys in private (individually and/or as a couple with mutual consent) does not constitute any harm nor degrade public moral. Therefore, the complete ban of sex toys shall be lifted and decriminalized. Nevertheless, the economic analysis illustrates that criminalization and prohibition of sex toys would lead to its black market – higher price and lower quantity. Although it is socially desirable to have fewer sex toys in the market, there will usually be high demand for them because sexual pleasure is natural and, hence, people have a lower price elasticity of demand for such things, including pornography. Thus, its deterrent effect is not very effective. Moreover, sex toys vendors still always exist because higher price incentivizes them to act illegally and may gain benefits from selling low-quality sex toys. Consequently, consumers do not have a choice to select high-quality sex toys at a reasonable price. Then, they are forced to purchase low quality sex toys at a higher price. They also may suffer from health issues as well as other harms from its dangerous/toxic substances since lower quality products are manufactured poorly to save costs. A law and economics approach supports the decriminalization of sex toys in Thailand. Other measures to control its availability shall be adopted to protect the vulnerable, such as children. Options are i) zoning or regulation on-premises selling sex toys as in Singapore, Japan, and China, ii) regulations of sex toys as medical apparatus like in the state of Alabama, and iii) the prevention of sex toys exposure in the real (physical) appearance (i.e., allowing virtual exposure of sex toys) like in India.

Keywords: human nature, law and economics approach, sex toys, sexual pleasure

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2 Impact of Youth Corners and Knowledge about Human Sexuality among Young Adults and Adolescents of Nigerian Population in the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Gabriel I. Oke, Faremi O. Ayodeji

Abstract:

Background: Access to youth Friendly Health Corners is vital for ensuring sexual reproductive health and total well being of young Adults since human sexuality has been widely misunderstood. Meanwhile, behavior of young people towards it remains at variance with the alarm. This study attempt to access the impact of youth corners also called Adolescent Friendly Health Corners on manifestation of human sexual behavior among Nigerian adolescent and young adults. Description: Hundred young adults and adolescents of both sex between the Age range of 12-25years were randomly selected from 5 secondary schools and 3 prominent universities in Southwestern Nigeria and focal group discussions (FGD) were conducted among them. Fifty secondary and primary health facilities were visited between February and June 2017 to conduct interviews for health workers and to ascertain the presence or absence of youth corners. Results: 95% of the health facilities visited lack Youth Corners section neither are they willing to make provision for it due to lack of workmanship and sponsorship. However, 5% with Youth corners does not have well-trained Counselors or a Health Educator but health professionals from nursing profession. 90% of the respondents of which 16-17 years of Age is the mean age had their first sexual exposure with no use of protection even before been introduced to what Sexuality is all about. Virtually, none of the respondents had ever visited a Youth Corner before or heard the term before. 86% have heard about the term STI before of which 60% are using protection, 10% care less about any information attached to the term STI, 4% have not heard of the term STI before even when translated to their local dialect. 20% are abstaining as at the time the study was conducted and they attribute their sexual decision to religion and parental influence. Of the age group 20-25, 45% claimed they have had symptoms of one STI or the other and 40% claimed they have been tested positive for an STI before of which 12% have positive HIV status. Promiscuous behaviors were found among them before they reach the age 16years with pornography ranking the highest, followed by masturbation. Respondents blame this on peer pressure, the lack of Youth Friendly Centers in their locality and lack of proper Sexual Orientation on time. About half of the respondents make use of contraceptives while others have varying views. We found out that inability to access Youth Friendly Centers amongst the respondents might be one of the singular reasons of their early experimentation of their sex life and lack of healthy sexual lifestyle. (95% CI, P=0.922) Conclusion: The study reveals that a connection between youth Friendly Centers and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, therefore more sustainable Friendly Youth Corners with well-trained educators are needed in various Health facilities to checkmate the numerous risks of Young People along the path of adulthood.

Keywords: adolescents, sexually transmitted infections, reproductive health, youth corners

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1 'Sextually' Active: Teens, 'Sexting' and Gendered Double Standards in the Digital Age

Authors: Annalise Weckesser, Alex Wade, Clara Joergensen, Jerome Turner

Abstract:

Introduction: Digital mobile technologies afford Generation M a number of opportunities in terms of communication, creativity and connectivity in their social interactions. Yet these young people’s use of such technologies is often the source of moral panic with accordant social anxiety especially prevalent in media representations of teen ‘sexting,’ or the sending of sexually explicit images via smartphones. Thus far, most responses to youth sexting have largely been ineffective or unjust with adult authorities sometimes blaming victims of non-consensual sexting, using child pornography laws to paradoxically criminalise those they are designed to protect, and/or advising teenagers to simply abstain from the practice. Prevention strategies are further skewed, with sex education initiatives often targeted at girls, implying that they shoulder the responsibility of minimising the risks associated with sexting (e.g. revenge porn and sexual predation). Purpose of Study: Despite increasing public interest and concern about ‘teen sexting,’ there remains a dearth of research with young people regarding their experiences of navigating sex and relationships in the current digital media landscape. Furthermore, young people's views on sexting are rarely solicited in the policy and educational strategies aimed at them. To address this research-policy-education gap, an interdisciplinary team of four researchers (from anthropology, media, sociology and education) have undertaken a peer-to-peer research project to co-create a sexual health intervention. Methods: In the winter of 2015-2016, the research team conducted serial group interviews with four cohorts of students (aged 13 to 15) from a secondary school in the West Midlands, UK. To facilitate open dialogue, girls and boys were interviewed separately, and each group consisted of no more than four pupils. The team employed a range of participatory techniques to elicit young people’s views on sexting, its consequences, and its interventions. A final focus group session was conducted with all 14 male and female participants to explore developing a peer-to-peer ‘safe sexting’ education intervention. Findings: This presentation will highlight the ongoing, ‘old school’ sexual double standards at work within this new digital frontier. In the sharing of ‘nudes’ (teens’ preferred term to ‘sexting’) via social media apps (e.g. Snapchat and WhatsApp), girls felt sharing images was inherently risky and feared being blamed and ‘slut-shamed.’ In contrast, boys were seen to gain in social status if they accumulated nudes of female peers. Further, if boys had nudes of themselves shared without consent, they felt they were expected to simply ‘tough it out.’ The presentation will also explore what forms of supports teens desire to help them in their day-to-day navigation of these digitally mediated, heteronormative performances of teen femininity and masculinity expected of them. Conclusion: This is the first research project, within UK, conducted with rather than about teens and the phenomenon of sexting. It marks a timely and important contribution to the nascent, but growing body of knowledge on gender, sexual politics and the digital mobility of sexual images created by and circulated amongst young people.

Keywords: teens, sexting, gender, sexual politics

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