Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5549

Search results for: bilingual education

5549 Teacher Education in a Bilingual Perspective: Brazilian Sign Language and Portuguese

Authors: Neuma Chaveiro, Juliana Guimarães Faria

Abstract:

Introduction: The thematic that guides this study is teacher training for the teaching of sign language in a perspective of bilingual education – specifically aimed at Brazilian public schools that offer inclusive education, and that have, among its students, deaf children who use Brazilian Sign Language as a means of communication and expression. In the Teacher Training Course for Letters/Libras at the Universidade Federal de Goiás/UFG, we developed a bilingual education project for the deaf, linked to PIBID (Institutional Scholarship for Teaching Initiation Program), funded by the Brazilian Federal Government through CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel). Goals: to provide the education of higher education teachers to work in public schools in basic education and to insert students from the UFG’s Letters/Libras course in the school’s daily life, giving them the opportunity for the creation and participation in methodological experiences and of teaching practices in order to overcome the problems identified in the teaching-learning process of deaf students, in a bilingual perspective, associating Libras (Brazilian Sign Language) and Portuguese. Methodology: qualitative approach and research-action, prioritizing action – reflection – action of the people involved. The Letters-Libras PIBID of the College of Letters/UFG, in this qualitative context, is guided by the assumptions of investigation-action to contribute to the education of the Libras teacher. Results: production of studies and researches in the area of education, professionalization and teaching practice for the degree holder in Letters: Libras; b) studies, research and training in bilingual education; c) clarification and discussion of the myths that permeate the reality of users of sign languages; d) involving students in the development of didactic materials for bilingual education. Conclusion: the PIBID Project Letters/Libras allows, both to the basic education school and to the teachers in training for the teaching of Libras, an integrated and collective work partnership, with discussions and changes in relation to bilingual education for the deaf and the teaching of Libras.

Keywords: deaf, sign language, teacher training, educacion

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5548 Reflections on the Role of Cultural Identity in a Bilingual Education Program

Authors: Lina Tenjo, Ilba Rodríguez

Abstract:

The role of cultural identity in bilingual programs has been barely discussed in regards to SLA. This research focuses on providing relevant information that helps in having more knowledge about the experiences that an elementary student has during the second language learning process in a bilingual program within a multicultural context. This study explores the experience of 18 students in a dual language program, in a public elementary school in Northern Virginia, USA. It examines their dual language experience and the different ways this experience contributes to the formation of their cultural identity. The findings were studied with the purpose of determining the relationship between participants and certain aspects of cultural identity in a multicultural context. The reflections that originate from the voices of children are the key source that helps us to better understand the particular needs that young learners have during their participation in a DLP.

Keywords: acculturation, bilingual education, culture, dual language program, identity, second language acquisition

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5547 Effects of Bilingual Education in the Teaching and Learning Practices in the Continuous Improvement and Development of k12 Program

Authors: Miriam Sebastian

Abstract:

This research focused on the effects of bilingual education as medium of instruction to the academic performance of selected intermediate students of Miriam’s Academy of Valenzuela Inc. . An experimental design was used, with language of instruction as the independent variable and the different literacy skills as dependent variables. The sample consisted of experimental students comprises of 30 students were exposed to bilingual education (Filipino and English) . They were given pretests and were divided into three groups: Monolingual Filipino, Monolingual English, and Bilingual. They were taught different literacy skills for eight weeks and were then administered the posttests. Data was analyzed and evaluated in the light of the central processing and script-dependent hypotheses. Based on the data, it can be inferred that monolingual instruction in either Filipino or English had a stronger effect on the students’ literacy skills compared to bilingual instruction. Moreover, mother tongue-based instruction, as compared to second-language instruction, had stronger effect on the preschoolers’ literacy skills. Such results have implications not only for mother tongue-based (MTB) but also for English as a second language (ESL) instruction in the country

Keywords: bilingualism, effects, monolingual, function, multilingual, mother tongue

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5546 Accomplishing Mathematical Tasks in Bilingual Primary Classrooms

Authors: Gabriela Steffen

Abstract:

Learning in a bilingual classroom not only implies learning in two languages or in an L2, it also means learning content subjects through the means of bilingual or plurilingual resources, which is of a qualitatively different nature than ‘monolingual’ learning. These resources form elements of a didactics of plurilingualism, aiming not only at the development of a plurilingual competence, but also at drawing on plurilingual resources for nonlinguistic subject learning. Applying a didactics of plurilingualism allows for taking account of the specificities of bilingual content subject learning in bilingual education classrooms. Bilingual education is used here as an umbrella term for different programs, such as bilingual education, immersion, CLIL, bilingual modules in which one or several non-linguistic subjects are taught partly or completely in an L2. This paper aims at discussing first results of a study on pupil group work in bilingual classrooms in several Swiss primary schools. For instance, it analyses two bilingual classes in two primary schools in a French-speaking region of Switzerland that follows a part of their school program through German in addition to French, the language of instruction in this region. More precisely, it analyses videotaped classroom interaction and in situ classroom practices of pupil group work in a mathematics lessons. The ethnographic observation of pupils’ group work and the analysis of their interaction (analytical tools of conversational analysis, discourse analysis and plurilingual interaction) enhance the description of whole-class interaction done in the same (and several other) classes. While the latter are teacher-student interactions, the former are student-student interactions giving more space to and insight into pupils’ talk. This study aims at the description of the linguistic and multimodal resources (in German L2 and/or French L1) pupils mobilize while carrying out a mathematical task. The analysis shows that the accomplishment of the mathematical task takes place in a bilingual mode, whether the whole-class interactions are conducted rather in a bilingual (German L2-French L1) or a monolingual mode in L2 (German). The pupils make plenty of use of German L2 in a setting that lends itself to use French L1 (peer groups with French as a dominant language, in absence of the teacher and a task with a mathematical aim). They switch from French to German and back ‘naturally’, which is regular for bilingual speakers. Their linguistic resources in German L2 are not sufficient to allow them to (inter-)act well enough to accomplish the task entirely in German L2, despite their efforts to do so. However, this does not stop them from carrying out the task in mathematics adequately, which is the main objective, by drawing on the bilingual resources at hand.

Keywords: bilingual content subject learning, bilingual primary education, bilingual pupil group work, bilingual teaching/learning resources, didactics of plurilingualism

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5545 Models of Bilingual Education in Majority Language Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Bilingual Programmes in Qatari Primary Schools

Authors: Fatma Al-Maadheed

Abstract:

Following an ethnographic approach this study explored bilingual programmes offered by two types of primary schools in Qatar: international and Independent schools. Qatar with its unique linguistic and socio-economic situation launched a new initiative for educatiobnal development in 2001 but with hardly any research linked to theses changes. The study reveals that the Qatari bilingual schools context was one of heteroglossia, with three codes in operation: Modern Standard Arabic, Colloquial Arabic dialects and English. The two schools adopted different models of bilingualism. The international school adopted a strict separation policy between the two languages following a monoglossic belief. The independent school was found to apply a flexible language policy. The study also highlighted the daily challnges produced from the diglossia situation in Qatar, the difference between students and teacher dialect as well as acquiring literacy in the formal language. In addition to an abscence of a clear language policy in Schools, the study brought attention to the instructional methods utilised in language teaching which are mostly associated with successful bilingual education.

Keywords: diglossia, instructional methods, language policy, qatari primary schools

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5544 A Multiple Case Study of How Bilingual-Bicultural Teachers' Language Shame and Loss Affects Teaching English Language Learners

Authors: Lisa Winstead, Penny Congcong Wang

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This two-year multiple case study of eight Spanish-English speaking teachers explores bilingual-bicultural Latino teachers’ lived experiences as English Language Learners and, more recently, as adult teachers who work with English Language Learners in mainstream schools. Research questions explored include: How do bilingual-bicultural teachers perceive their native language use and sense of self within society from childhood to adulthood? Correspondingly, what are bilingual teachers’ perceptions of how their own language learning experience might affect teaching students of similar linguistic and cultural backgrounds? This study took place in an urban area in the Pacific Southwest of the United States. Participants were K-8 teachers and enrolled in a Spanish-English bilingual authorization program. Data were collected from journals, focus group interviews, field notes, and class artifacts. Within case and cross-case analysis revealed that the participants were shamed about their language use as children which contributed to their primary language loss. They similarly reported how experiences of mainstream educator and administrator language shaming invalidated their ability to provide support for Latino heritage ELLs, despite their bilingual-bicultural expertise. However, participants reported that counter-narratives from the bilingual authorization program, parents, community and church organizations, and cultural responsive teachers were effective in promoting their language retention, pride, and feelings of well-being.

Keywords: teacher education, bilingual education, English language learners, emergent bilinguals, social justice, language shame, language loss, translanguaging

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5543 The Efficiency of the Use of Medical Bilingual Dictionary in English Language Teaching in Vocational College

Authors: Zorana Jurinjak, Christos Alexopoulos

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The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of using a medical bilingual dictionary in teaching English in a vocational college. More precisely, to what extent the use of bilingual medical dictionary in relation to the use of Standard English bilingual dictionaries influences the results on tests, and thus the acquisition of better competence of students mastering the subject terminology. Secondary interest in this paper would be to raise awareness among students and teachers about the advantages of dictionary use. The experiment was conducted at College of Applied Health Sciences in Ćuprija on a sample of 90 students. The respondents translated three medical texts with 42 target terms. Statistical analyses of the data obtained show that the differences in average time and correct answers favor the students who used medical dictionary.

Keywords: bilingual medical dictionary, standard english bilingual dictionary, medical terminology, EOS, ESP

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5542 Early Childhood Education for Bilingual Children: A Cross-Cultural Examination

Authors: Dina C. Castro, Rossana Boyd, Eugenia Papadaki

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Immigration within and across continents is currently a global reality. The number of people leaving their communities in search for a better life for them and their families has increased dramatically during the last twenty years. Therefore, young children of the 21st century around the World are growing up in diverse communities, exposed to many languages and cultures. One consequence of these migration movements is the increased linguistic diversity in school settings. Depending on the linguistic history and the status of languages in the communities (i.e., minority-majority; majority-majority) the instructional approaches will differ. This session will discuss how bilingualism is addressed in early education programs in both minority-majority and majority-majority language communities, analyzing experiences in three countries with very distinct societal and demographic characteristics: Peru (South America), the United States (North America), and Italy (European Union). The ultimate goal is to identify commonalities and differences across the three experiences that could lead to a discussion of bilingualism in early education from a global perspective. From Peru, we will discuss current national language and educational policies that have lead to the design and implementation of bilingual and intercultural education for children in indigenous communities. We will also discuss how those practices are being implemented in preschool programs, the progress made and challenges encountered. From the United States, we will discuss the early education of Spanish-English bilingual preschoolers, including the national policy environment, as well as variations in language of instruction approaches currently being used with these children. From Italy, we will describe early education practices in the Bilingual School of Monza, in northern Italy, a school that has 20 years promoting bilingualism and multilingualism in education. While the presentations from Peru and the United States will discuss bilingualism in a majority-minority language environment, this presentation will lead to a discussion on the opportunities and challenges of promoting bilingualism in a majority-majority language environment. It is evident that innovative models and policies are necessary to prevent inequality of opportunities for bilingual children beginning in their earliest years. The cross-cultural examination of bilingual education experiences for young children in three part of the World will allow us to learn from our success and challenges. The session will end with a discussion of the following question: To what extent are early care and education programs being effective in promoting positive development and learning among all children, including those from diverse language, ethnic and cultural backgrounds? We expect to identify, with participants to our session, a set of recommendations for policy and program development that could ensure access to high quality early education for all bilingual children.

Keywords: early education for bilingual children, global perspectives in early education, cross-cultural, language policies

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5541 Creativity in the Use of Sinhala and English in Advertisements in Sri Lanka: A Morphological Analysis

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

Abstract:

Sri Lanka has lived with the English language for more than 200 years. Although officially considered a link language, the phenomenal usage of English by the Sinhala-English bilingual has given rise to a mixed code with identifiable structural characteristics. The extensive use of the mixed language by the average Sri Lankan bilingual has resulted in it being used as a medium of communication by creative writers of bilingual advertisements in Sri Lanka. This study analyses the way in which English is used in bilingual advertisements in both print and electronic media in Sri Lanka. The theoretical framework for the study is based on Kachru’s analysis of the use of English by the bilingual, Muysken’s typology on code mixing theories in colonial settings and Myers-Scotton’s theory on the Matrix Language Framework Model. The study will look at a selection of Sinhala-English advertisements published in newspapers from 2015 to 2016. Only advertisements using both Sinhala and English are used for the analysis. To substantiate data collected from the newspapers, the study will select bilingual advertisements from television advertisements. The objective of the study is to analyze the mixed patterns used for creative purposes by advertisers. The results of the study will reveal the creativity used by the Sinhala –English bilingual and the morphological processes used by the creators of Sinhala-English bilingual advertisements to attract the masses.

Keywords: bilingual, code mixing, morphological processes, mixed code

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5540 BiLex-Kids: A Bilingual Word Database for Children 5-13 Years Old

Authors: Aris R. Terzopoulos, Georgia Z. Niolaki, Lynne G. Duncan, Mark A. J. Wilson, Antonios Kyparissiadis, Jackie Masterson

Abstract:

As word databases for bilingual children are not available, researchers, educators and textbook writers must rely on monolingual databases. The aim of this study is thus to develop a bilingual word database, BiLex-kids, an online open access developmental word database for 5-13 year old bilingual children who learn Greek as a second language and have English as their dominant one. BiLex-kids is compiled from 120 Greek textbooks used in Greek-English bilingual education in the UK, USA and Australia, and provides word translations in the two languages, pronunciations in Greek, and psycholinguistic variables (e.g. Zipf, Frequency per million, Dispersion, Contextual Diversity, Neighbourhood size). After clearing the textbooks of non-relevant items (e.g. punctuation), algorithms were applied to extract the psycholinguistic indices for all words. As well as one total lexicon, the database produces values for all ages (one lexicon for each age) and for three age bands (one lexicon per age band: 5-8, 9-11, 12-13 years). BiLex-kids provides researchers with accurate figures for a wide range of psycholinguistic variables, making it a useful and reliable research tool for selecting stimuli to examine lexical processing among bilingual children. In addition, it offers children the opportunity to study word spelling, learn translations and listen to pronunciations in their second language. It further benefits educators in selecting age-appropriate words for teaching reading and spelling, while special educational needs teachers will have a resource to control the content of word lists when designing interventions for bilinguals with literacy difficulties.

Keywords: bilingual children, psycholinguistics, vocabulary development, word databases

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5539 Translanguaging and Cross-languages Analyses in Writing and Oral Production with Multilinguals: a Systematic Review

Authors: Maryvone Cunha de Morais, Lilian Cristine Hübner

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Based on a translanguaging theoretical approach, which considers language not as separate entities but as an entire repertoire available to bilingual individuals, this systematic review aimed at analyzing the methods (aims, samples investigated, type of stimuli, and analyses) adopted by studies on translanguaging practices associated with written and oral tasks (separately or integrated) in bilingual education. The PRISMA criteria for systematic reviews were adopted, with the descriptors "translanguaging", "bilingual education" and/or “written and oral tasks" to search in Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs, Eric, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for articles published between 2017 and 2021. 280 registers were found, and after following the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 24 articles were considered for this analysis. The results showed that translanguaging practices were investigated on four studies focused on written production analyses, ten focused on oral production analysis, whereas ten studies focused on both written and oral production analyses. The majority of the studies followed a qualitative approach, while five studies have attempted to study translanguaging with quantitative statistical measures. Several types of methods were used to investigate translanguaging practices in written and oral production, with different approaches and tools indicating that the methods are still in development. Moreover, the findings showed that students’ interactions have received significant attention, and studies have been developed not just in language classes in bilingual education, but also including diverse educational and theoretical contexts such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, task repetition, Science classes, collaborative writing, storytelling, peer feedback, Speech Act theory and collective thinking, language ideologies, conversational analysis, and discourse analyses. The studies, whether focused either on writing or oral tasks or in both, have portrayed significant research and pedagogical implications, grounded on the view of integrated languages in bi-and multilinguals.

Keywords: bilingual education, oral production, translanguaging, written production

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5538 A Corpus-Based Analysis on Code-Mixing Features in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children in Singapore

Authors: Xunan Huang, Caicai Zhang

Abstract:

This paper investigated the code-mixing features in Mandarin-English bilingual children in Singapore. First, it examined whether the code-mixing rate was different in Mandarin Chinese and English contexts. Second, it explored the syntactic categories of code-mixing in Singapore bilingual children. Moreover, this study investigated whether morphological information was preserved when inserting syntactic components into the matrix language. Data are derived from the Singapore Bilingual Corpus, in which the recordings and transcriptions of sixty English-Mandarin 5-to-6-year-old children were preserved for analysis. Results indicated that the rate of code-mixing was asymmetrical in the two language contexts, with the rate being significantly higher in the Mandarin context than that in the English context. The asymmetry is related to language dominance in that children are more likely to code-mix when using their nondominant language. Concerning the syntactic categories of code-mixing words in the Singaporean bilingual children, we found that noun-mixing, verb-mixing, and adjective-mixing are the three most frequently used categories in code-mixing in the Mandarin context. This pattern mirrors the syntactic categories of code-mixing in the Cantonese context in Cantonese-English bilingual children, and the general trend observed in lexical borrowing. Third, our results also indicated that English vocabularies that carry morphological information are embedded in bare forms in the Mandarin context. These findings shed light upon how bilingual children take advantage of the two languages in mixed utterances in a bilingual environment.

Keywords: bilingual children, code-mixing, English, Mandarin Chinese

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5537 The Influence of Language and Background Culture on Speakers from the Viewpoint of Gender and Identity

Authors: Yuko Tomoto

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The purpose of this research is to examine the assumption that female bilingual speakers more often change the way they talk or think depending on the language they use compared with male bilingual speakers. The author collected data through questionnaires on 241 bilingual speakers. Also, in-depth interview surveys were conducted with 13 Japanese/English bilingual speakers whose native language is Japanese and 16 English/Japanese bilingual speakers whose native language is English. The results indicate that both male and female bilingual speakers are more or less influenced consciously and unconsciously by the language they use, as well as by the background cultural values of each language. At the same time, it was found that female speakers are much more highly affected by the language they use, its background culture and also by the interlocutors they were talking to. This was probably due to the larger cultural expectations on women. Through conversations, speakers are not only conveying a message but also attempting to express who they are, and what they want to be like. In other words, they are constantly building up and updating their own identities by choosing the most appropriate language and descriptions to express themselves in the dialogues. It has been claimed that the images of ideal L2 self could strongly motivate learners. The author hopes to make the best use of the fact that bilingual speakers change their presence depending on the language they use, in order to motivate Japanese learners of English, especially female learners from the viewpoint of finding their new selves in English.

Keywords: cultural influence, gender expectation, language learning, L2 self

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5536 A Bilingual Didactic Sequence about Biological Control to Develop the Scientific Literacy on High School Students

Authors: André Melo Franco Lorena De Barros, Elida Geralda Campos

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The bilingual education has just started in Brazils public schools. This paper is a didactic sequence of biology bilingual lessons about biologic control in the Brazilian Savana. This sequence has been applied in the first year of a bilingual education program in the only public English and Portuguese bilingual high school in Brazil. The aim of this work is to develop and apply a didactic sequence capable of developing the scientific literacy through the bilingual education associated with Problem Based Learning. This didactic sequence was applied in a class of 30 students. It was divided in three lessons. In the first lesson the students were divided in groups and received a fiction Letter from a mayor explaining the problem and asking students for help. The organic soy plantation of the mayor’s is been attacked by caterpillars. The students read the text then raised hypothesis of how they could solve the problem. In the second lesson the students searched online to verify if theirs hypothesis were correct and to find answers for the question proposed. In the third lesson the groups got together and discussed about their results and wrote a final essay with the answers for the problem proposed. The tools used to acquire information about the didactic sequence were: researcher’s diary, survey, interview and essay developed by the students. Most of the initial hypothesis couldn’t answer the problem properly. By the second lesson most of the students could answer properly. During the third lesson all the groups figured out suitable answers. The forms of biological control, birds habits and transgenic were deeply studied by the students. This methodology was successful for developing the scientific literacy with most of the students and also concluded that the quality of learning is directly associated with the effort of each student during the process. [ARAÚJO, Denise Lino de. O que é (e como se faz) sequência didática. Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, v. 3, n. 3, p.322-334, jul. 2013.] [FRANCO, Aline Aparecida et al. Preferência alimentar de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) por cultivares de soja. Científica: Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Jaboticabal, v. 1, n. 42, p.32-38, 29 jan. 2014.] [RIBEIRO, Luis Roberto de Camargo. Aprendizagem baseada em problemas (PBL): Uma experiência no ensino superior. São Carlos: Editora da Universidade Federal de São Carlos Ribeiro, 2008. 151 p.] [TRIVELATO, Sílvia L. Frateschi; TONIDANDEL, Sandra M. Rudella. Ensino Por Investigação: Eixos Organizadores Para Sequências De Ensino De Biologia. Ensaio Pesquisa em Educação em Ciências, Belo Horizonte, v. 17, n. especial, p.97-114, nov. 2015.].

Keywords: Bilingual Education, Environmental Education, Problem Based Learning, Science education

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5535 Interactive Teaching and Learning Resources for Bilingual Education

Authors: Sarolta Lipóczi, Ildikó Szabó

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The use of ICT in European Schools has increased over the last decade but there is still room for improvement. Also interactive technology is often used below its technical and pedagogical potentials. The pedagogical potential of interactive technology in classrooms has not yet reached classrooms in different countries and in a substantial way. To develop these materials cooperation between educational researchers and teachers from different backgrounds is necessary. INTACT project brings together experts from science education, mathematics education, social science education and foreign language education – with a focus on bilingual education – and teachers in secondary and primary schools to develop a variety of pedagogically qualitative interactive teaching and learning resources. Because of the backgrounds of the consortium members INTACT project focuses on the areas of science, mathematics and social sciences. To combine these two features (science/math and foreign language) the project focuses on bilingual education. A big issue supported by ‘interactiveness’ is social and collaborative learning. The easy way to communicate and collaborate offered by web 2.0 tools, mobile devices connected to the learning material allows students to work and learn together. There will be a wide range of possibilities for school co-operations at regional, national and also international level that allows students to communicate and cooperate with other students beyond the classroom boarders while using these interactive teaching materials. Opening up the learning scenario enhance the social, civic and cultural competences of the students by advocating their social skills and improving their cultural appreciation for other nations in Europe. To enable teachers to use the materials in indented ways descriptions of successful learning scenarios (i.e. using design patterns) will be provided as well. These materials and description will be made available to teachers by teacher trainings, teacher journals, booklets and online materials. The resources can also be used in different settings including the use of a projector and a touchpad or other technical interactive devices for the input i.e. mobile phones. Kecskemét College as a partner of INTACT project has developed two teaching and learning resources in the area of foreign language teaching. This article introduces these resources as well.

Keywords: bilingual educational settings, international cooperation, interactive teaching and learning resources, work across culture

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5534 A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use of Iranian Kurdish Bilingual and Persian Monolingual in EFL Context

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini

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This study was an attempt to investigate the difference between learners of Iranian Kurdish–Persian bilingual language and Persian monolinguals, regarding language strategy use (LLS). The participants of the study were 120 monolingual Persian and 120 bilingual Kurdish studying English as a foreign language (EFL). Data were collected using strategy inventory for language learning SILL. The results show bilingual reported higher use of language learning strategies in all categories of SILL except memory strategies.

Keywords: language learning, memory, monolingual, comparative study

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5533 Bilingual Creative Education: Empirical Findings

Authors: Anatoliy Kharkhurin

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This presentation picks up on a widely discussed topic in both multilingualism and creativity research that comes from pedagogical considerations. The research conducted by the author over last 10 years has delivered a solid argument that speaking more than one language facilitates an individual’s creative capacities. The author has expanded the scope of his research and implemented these findings in education. After reviewing the empirical evidence concerning a relationship between multilingual practice and creative behavior, he proposes a new program that includes teaching strategies from both fields, a unified Bilingual Creative Education program. The program is grounded in several conceptual premises. Specifically, it aims at facilitation of the overall linguistic, intellectual and creative competences of young children regardless of their intellectual and creative predispositions thereby meeting the recommendations of a number of governmental policies. It is designed for both migrants who speak their native language and attempt to acquire the language of the migration country and autochthones who want to acquire a foreign language simultaneously with their mother tongue. The purpose of the program is to introduce students to a school curriculum in two languages and to foster four defining aspects of creativity, novelty, utility, aesthetics and authenticity. To accomplish this goal, the program utilizes the holistic approach which combines cognitive, personal and environmental factors in education. The presentation discusses the empirical findings for the implementation of the program.

Keywords: bilingualism, creativity, education, autochthones

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5532 The Assessment of Bilingual Students: How Bilingual Can It Really Be?

Authors: Serge Lacroix

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The proposed study looks at the psychoeducational assessment of bilingual students, in English and French in this case. It will be the opportunity to look at language of assessment and specifically how certain tests can be administered in one language and others in another language. It is also a look into the questioning of the validity of the test scores that are obtained as well as the quality and generalizability of the conclusions that can be drawn. Bilingualism and multiculturalism, although in constant expansion, is not considered in norms development and remains a poorly understood factor when it is at play in the context of a psychoeducational assessment. Student placement, diagnoses, accurate measures of intelligence and achievement are all impacted by the quality of the assessment procedure. The same is true for questionnaires administered to parents and self-reports completed by bilingual students who, more often than not, are assessed in a language that is not their primary one or are compared to monolinguals not dealing with the same challenges or the same skills. Results show that students, when offered to work in a bilingual fashion, chooses to do so in a significant proportion. Recommendations will be offered to support educators aiming at expanding their skills when confronted with multilingual students in an assessment context.

Keywords: psychoeducational assessment, bilingualism, multiculturalism, intelligence, achievement

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5531 A Study of Taiwanese Students' Language Use in the Primary International Education via Video Conferencing Course

Authors: Chialing Chang

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Language and culture are critical foundations of international mobility. However, the students who are limited to the local environment may affect their learning outcome and global perspective. Video Conferencing has been proven an economical way for students as a medium to communicate with international students around the world. In Taiwan, the National Development Commission advocated the development of bilingual national policies in 2030 to enhance national competitiveness and foster English proficiency and fully launched bilingual activation of the education system. Globalization is closely related to the development of Taiwan's education. Therefore, the teacher conducted an integrated lesson through interdisciplinary learning. This study aims to investigate how the teacher helps develop students' global and language core competencies in the international education class. The methodology comprises four stages, which are lesson planning, class observation, learning data collection, and speech analysis. The Grice's Conversational Maxims are adopted to analyze the students' conversation in the video conferencing course. It is the action research from the teacher's reflection on approaches to developing students' language learning skills. The study lays the foundation for mastering the teacher's international education professional development and improving teachers' teaching quality and teaching effectiveness as a reference for teachers' future instruction.

Keywords: international education, language learning, Grice's conversational maxims, video conferencing course

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5530 Assessing Language Dominance in Mexican Deaf Signers with the Bilingual Language Profile (BLP)

Authors: E. Mendoza, D. Jackson-Maldonado, G. Avecilla-Ramírez, A. Mondaca

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Assessing language proficiency is a major issue in psycholinguistic research. There are multiple tools that measure language dominance and language proficiency in hearing bilinguals, however, this is not the case for Deaf bilinguals. Specifically, there are few, if not none, assessment tools useful in the description of the multilingual abilities of Mexican Deaf signers. Because of this, the linguistic characteristics of Mexican Deaf population have been poorly described. This paper attempts to explain the necessary changes done in order to adapt the Bilingual Language Profile (BLP) to Mexican Sign Language (LSM) and written/oral Spanish. BLP is a Self-Evaluation tool that has been adapted and translated to several oral languages, but not to sign languages. Lexical, syntactic, cultural, and structural changes were applied to the BLP. 35 Mexican Deaf signers participated in a pilot study. All of them were enrolled in Higher Education programs. BLP was presented online in written Spanish via Google Forms. No additional information in LSM was provided. Results show great heterogeneity as it is expected of Deaf populations and BLP seems to be a useful tool to create a bilingual profile of the Mexican Deaf population. This is a first attempt to adapt a widely tested tool in bilingualism research to sign language. Further modifications need to be done.

Keywords: deaf bilinguals, assessment tools, bilingual language profile, mexican sign language

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5529 Comparing Phonological Processes in Persian-Arabic Bilingual Children and Monolingual Children

Authors: Vafa Delphi, Maryam Delphi, Talieh Zarifian, Enayatolah Bakhshi

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Bilingualism is a common phenomenon in many countries of the world and May be consistent consonant errors in the speech of bilingual children. The aim of this study was to evaluate Phonological skills include occurrence proportion, frequency and type of phonological processes in Persian-Arabic speaking children in Ahvaz city, the center of Khuzestan. Method: This study is descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional. Twenty-eight children aged 36-48 months were divided into two groups Persian monolingual and Persian-Arabic bilingual: (14 participants in each group). Sampling was recruited randomly based on inclusion criteria from kindergartens of the Ahvaz city in Iran. The tool of this study was the Persian Phonological Test (PPT), a subtest of Persian Diagnostic Evaluation Articulation and Phonological test. In this test, Phonological processes were investigated in two groups: structure and substitution processes. Data was investigated using SPSS software and the U Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the proportion occurrence of substitution process was significantly different between two groups of monolingual and bilingual (P=0/001), But the type of phonological processes didn’t show a significant difference in both monolingual and bilingual children of the Persian-Arabic.The frequency of phonological processes is greater in bilingual children than monolingual children. Conclusion: The study showed that bilingualism has no effect on type of phonological processes, but this can be effective on the frequency of processes. Since the type of phonological processes in bilingual children is similar to monolingual children So we can conclude the Persian_arabic bilingual children's phonological system is similar to monolingual children.

Keywords: Persian-Arabic bilingual child, phonological processes, the proportion occurrence of syllable structure, the proportion occurrence of substitution

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5528 Translanguaging as a Decolonial Move in South African Bilingual Classrooms

Authors: Malephole Philomena Sefotho

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a fact that the majority of people, worldwide, are bilingual rather than monolingual due to the surge of globalisation and mobility. Consequently, bilingual education is a topical issue of discussion among researchers. Several studies that have focussed on it have highlighted the importance and need for incorporating learners’ linguistic repertoires in multilingual classrooms and move away from the colonial approach which is a monolingual bias – one language at a time. Researchers pointed out that a systematic approach that involves the concurrent use of languages and not a separation of languages must be implemented in bilingual classroom settings. Translanguaging emerged as a systematic approach that assists learners to make meaning of their world and it involves allowing learners to utilize all their linguistic resources in their classrooms. The South African language policy also room for diverse languages use in bi/multilingual classrooms. This study, therefore, sought to explore how teachers apply translanguaging in bilingual classrooms in incorporating learners’ linguistic repertoires. It further establishes teachers’ perspectives in the use of more than one language in teaching and learning. The participants for this study were language teachers who teach at bilingual primary schools in Johannesburg in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to establish their perceptions on the concurrent use of languages. Qualitative research design was followed in analysing data. The findings showed that teachers were reluctant to allow translanguaging to take place in their classrooms even though they realise the importance thereof. Not allowing bilingual learners to use their linguistic repertoires has resulted in learners’ negative attitude towards their languages and contributed in learners’ loss of their identity. This article, thus recommends a drastic change to decolonised approaches in teaching and learning in multilingual settings and translanguaging as a decolonial move where learners are allowed to translanguage freely in their classroom settings for better comprehension and making meaning of concepts and/or related ideas. It further proposes continuous conversations be encouraged to bring eminent cultural and linguistic genocide to a halt.

Keywords: bilingualism, decolonisation, linguistic repertoires, translanguaging

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5527 Teaching English for Children in Public Schools Can Work in Egypt

Authors: Shereen Kamel

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This study explores the recent application of bilingual education in Egyptian public schools. It aims to provide an overall picture of bilingual education programs globally and examine its adequacy to the Egyptian social and cultural context. The study also assesses the current application process of teaching English as a Second Language in public schools from the early childhood education stage and onwards, instead of starting it from middle school; as a strategy that promotes English language proficiency and equity among students. The theoretical framework is based on Jim Cummins’ bilingual education theories and on recent trends adopting different developmental theories and perspectives, like Stephen Crashen’s theory of Second Language Acquisition that calls for communicative and meaningful interaction rather than memorization of grammatical rules. The question posed here is whether bilingual education, with its peculiar nature, could be a good chance to reach out to all Egyptian students and prepare them to become global citizens. In addition to this, a more specific question is related to the extent to which social and cultural variables can affect the young learners’ second language acquisition. This exploratory analytical study uses mixed-methods research design to examine the application of bilingual education in Egyptian public schools. The study uses a cluster sample of schools in Egypt from different social and cultural backgrounds to assess the determining variables. The qualitative emphasis is on interviewing teachers and reviewing students’ achievement documents. The quantitative aspect is based on observations of in-class activities through tally sheets and checklists. Having access to schools and documents is authorized by governmental and institutional research bodies. Data sources will comprise achievement records, students’ portfolios, parents’ feedback and teachers’ viewpoints. Triangulation and SPSS will be used for analysis. Based on the gathered data, new curricula have been assigned for elementary grades and teachers have been required to teach the newly developed materials all of a sudden without any prior training. Due to shortage in the teaching force, many assigned teachers have not been proficient in the English language. Hence, teachers’ incompetency and unpreparedness to teach this grade specific curriculum constitute a great challenge in the implementation phase. Nevertheless, the young learners themselves as well as their parents seem to be enthusiastic about the idea itself. According to the findings of this research study, teaching English as a Second Language to children in public schools can be applicable and is culturally relevant to the Egyptian context. However, there might be some social and cultural differences and constraints when it comes to application in addition to various aspects regarding teacher preparation. Therefore, a new mechanism should be incorporated to overcome these challenges for better results. Moreover, a new paradigm shift in these teacher development programs is direly needed. Furthermore, ongoing support and follow up are crucial to help both teachers and students realize the desired outcomes.

Keywords: bilingual education, communicative approach, early childhood education, language and culture, second language acquisition

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5526 Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual: The Effect of Language Learning on the Working Memory in Emerging Miao-Mandarin Juveniles in Rural Regions of China

Authors: Peien Ma

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Bilingual effect/advantage theorized the positive effect of being bilingual on general cognitive abilities, but it was unknown which factors tend to modulate these bilingualism effects on working memory capacity. This study imposed empirical field research on a group of low-SES emerging bilinguals, Miao people, in the hill tribes of rural China to investigate whether bilingualism affected their verbal working memory performance. 20 Miao-Chinese bilinguals (13 girls and 7 boys with a mean age of 11.45, SD=1.67) and 20 Chinese monolingual peers (13 girls and 7 boys with a mean age of 11.6, SD=0.68) were recruited. These bilingual and monolingual juveniles, matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educational status, completed a language background questionnaire and a standard forward and backward digit span test adapted from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The results showed that bilinguals earned a significantly higher overall mean score of the task, suggesting the superiority of working memory ability over the monolinguals. And bilingual cognitive benefits were independent of proficiency levels in learners’ two languages. The results suggested that bilingualism enhances working memory in sequential bilinguals from low SES backgrounds and shed light on our understanding of the bilingual advantage from a psychological and social perspective.

Keywords: bilingual effects, heritage language, Miao/Hmong language Mandarin, working memory

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5525 Heritage Spanish Speaker’s Bilingual Practices and Linguistic Varieties: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Ana C. Sanchez

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This paper will discuss some of the bilingual practices of Heritage Spanish speakers caused by living within two cultures and two languages, Spanish, the heritage language, and English, the dominant language. When two languages remain in contact for long periods, such as the case of Spanish and English, it is common that both languages can be affected by bilingual practices such as Spanglish, code-switching, borrowing, anglicisms and calques. Examples of these translingual practices will be provided, as well as HS speaker’s linguistic dialects, and the challenges they encounter with the standard variety used in the Spanish classroom.

Keywords: heritage, practices, Spanish, speakers translingual

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5524 Making Waves: Preparing the Next Generation of Bilingual Medical Doctors

Authors: Edith Esparza-Young, Ángel M. Matos, Yaritza Gonzalez, Kirthana Sugunathevan

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Introduction: This research describes the existing medical school program which supports a multicultural setting and bilingualism. The rise of Spanish speakers in the United States has led to the recruitment of bilingual medical students who can serve the evolving demographics. This paper includes anecdotal evidence, narratives and the latest research on the outcomes of supporting a multilingual academic experience in medical school and beyond. People in the United States will continue to need health care from physicians who have experience with multicultural competence. Physicians who are bilingual and possess effective communication skills will be in high demand. Methodologies: This research is descriptive. Through this descriptive research, the researcher will describe the qualities and characteristics of the existing medical school programs, curriculum, and student services. Additionally, the researcher will shed light on the existing curriculum in the medical school and also describe specific programs which help to serve as safety nets to support diverse populations. The method included observations of the existing program and the implementation of the medical school program, specifically the Accelerated Review Program, the Language Education and Professional Communication Program, student organizations and the Global Health Institute. Concluding Statement: This research identified and described characteristics of the medical school’s program. The research explained and described the current and present phenomenon of this medical program, which has focused on increasing the graduation of bilingual and minority physicians. The findings are based on observations of the curriculum, programs and student organizations which evolves and remains innovative to stay current with student enrollment.

Keywords: bilingual, English, medicine, doctor

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5523 Bilingual Siblings and Dynamic Family Language Policies in Italian/English Families

Authors: Daniela Panico

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Framed by language socialization and family language policy theories, the present study explores the ways the language choice patterns of bilingual siblings contribute to the shaping of the language environment and the language practices of Italian/English families residing in Sydney. The main source of data is video recordings of naturally occurring parent-children and child-to-child interactions during everyday routines (i.e., family mealtimes and siblings playtime) in the home environment. Recurrent interactional practices are analyzed in detail through a conversational analytical approach. This presentation focuses on the interactional trajectories developing during the negotiation of language choices between all family members and between siblings in face-to-face interactions. Fine-grained analysis is performed on language negotiation sequences of multiparty bilingual conversations in order to uncover the sequential patterns through which a) the children respond to the parental strategies aiming to minority language maintenance, and b) the siblings influence each other’s language use and choice (e.g., older siblings positioning themselves as language teachers and language brokers, younger siblings accepting the role of apprentices). The findings show that, along with the parents, children are active socializing agents in the family and, with their linguistic behavior, they contribute to the establishment of a bilingual or a monolingual context in the home. Moreover, by orienting themselves towards the use of one or the other language in family talk, bilingual siblings are a major internal micro force in the language ecology of a bilingual family and can strongly support language maintenance or language shift processes in such domain. Overall, the study provides insights into the dynamic ways in which family language policy is interactionally negotiated and instantiated in bilingual homes as well as the challenges of intergenerational language transmission.

Keywords: bilingual siblings, family interactions, family language policy, language maintenance

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5522 The Collaborative Advocacy Work of Language Teachers

Authors: Sora Suh, Catherine Michener

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This paper examines the collaborative forms of advocacy that a group of four public school teachers took for their emergent bilingual students in one public school district. While teacher advocacy takes many forms in and out of the classroom, much advocacy work is done by individuals and less by collective action. As a result, individual teachers risk isolation or marginalization in their school contexts when they advocate for immigrant youth. This paper is intended to contribute to the documentation and understanding of teachers’ advocacy work as a collaborative act in teacher education research. The increase of ELs in US classrooms and a corresponding lack of teacher preparation to meet the needs of ELs has motivated the training of educators in linguistically responsive education (e.g., ESL, sheltered English instruction [SEI], bilingual education). Drawing from educational theories of linguistically responsive teaching for preparing educators, we trace the linguistically responsive advocacy work of the teachers. The paper is a multiple case study that tracks how teachers’ discussions on advocacy during a teacher preparation program leading to collaborative actions in their daily teaching lives in and out of school. Data collected includes online discussion forums on the topic of advocacy, course assignments on the topic of advocacy, video-audio recordings of classroom teaching observations, and video-audio recordings of individual and focus group interviews. The findings demonstrate that the teachers’ understanding of advocacy developed through collaborative partnerships formed in the teacher preparation program and grew into active forms of collaborative advocacy in their teaching practice in and out of school. The teachers formed multi-level and collaborative partnerships with teachers, families, community members, policymakers from the local government, and educational researchers to advocate for their emergent bilingual students by planning advocacy events such as new family orientations for emergent bilinguals, professional development for general education teachers on the topic of linguistically responsive instruction, and family nights hosted by the district. The paper’s findings present types of advocacy work in which teachers engage (pedagogical, curricular, out-of-school work) and provide evidence of collaborative advocacy work by a group of engaged educators. The paper highlights the increased agency and effective advocacy of teachers through teacher education and collaborative partnerships and suggests a need for more research on collaborative forms of teacher advocacy for emergent bilinguals.

Keywords: language education, teacher advocacy, language instruction, teacher education

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5521 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

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The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition

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5520 Conflicts and Complexities: a Study of Hong Kong's Bilingual Street Signs from Functional Perspective on Translation

Authors: Ge Song

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Hong Kong’s bilingual street signs declare a kind of correspondence, equivalence and thus translation between the English and Chinese languages. This study finds four translation phenomena among the street signs: domestication with positive connotation, foreignization with negative connotation, bilingual incompatibilities, and cross-street complexities. The interplay of, and the tension between, the four features open up a space where the local and the foreign, the vulgar and the elegant, alternate and experiment with each other, creating a kaleidoscope of methods for expressing and domesticating foreign otherness by virtue of translation. An analysis of the phenomena from the functional perspective reveals how translation has been emancipated to inform a variety of dimensions. This study also renews our understanding of translation as both a concept and a practice.

Keywords: street signs, linguistic landscape, cultural hybridity, Hong Kong

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