Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1116

Search results for: prevention

1116 Men’s Engagement in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programs

Authors: Zeynep Turhan

Abstract:

This review emphasized the effectiveness of men’s participation, and whether non-violent (NV) boys’ and men’s perceptions of IPV prevention programs affect their involvement. Additionally, the review aimed to identify the barriers of non-engagement as well as the most effective approaches to end and prevent violence-against-women (VAW). The main goals of this assessment were to investigate 1) how NV men engage in anti-violence prevention programs that empower women, 2) what are the possible perceptions of NV men involved in prevention programs 3) how to identify effective approaches and strategies that encourage NV men to become involved in prevention programs. This critical review also included the overview of prevention programs such as The Mentors in Violence Prevention Programs (MVP), The White Ribbon Campaign (WRC), and Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership through Alliances (DELTA). The review recommended expanding these programs to reach more macro settings such as workplace, faith-based and other community-based organizations. Additionally, secondary and territory prevention programs need to expand through addressing the long-term effects of violence.

Keywords: engagement, non-violent men, prevention programs

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1115 Optimal Secondary Prevention and Background Risk

Authors: Mohamed Anouar Razgallah

Abstract:

This paper examines in the context of a one-period model the impact of background risk on the optimal secondary prevention. We conduct our study based on various configurations of the background risk. We intend to show that in most cases the level of secondary prevention effort varied after the introduction of background risk, however, in very few cases this level remains constant.

Keywords: secondary prevention, primary prevention, background risk, ecomomics

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1114 The Investigation on the Status of Disaster Prevention and Reduction Knowledge in Rural Pupils in China

Authors: Jian-Na Zhang, Xiao-Li Chen, Si-Jian Li

Abstract:

Objective: In order to investigate current status on knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction in rural pupils, to explore education method on disaster prevention and reduction for rural pupils. Method: A questionnaire was designed based on literature review. Convenient sampling was used in the survey. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 180 students from Huodehong town central primary school which located in Ludian county of Zhaotong city in Yunnan province, where 6.5 magnitude earthquake happened in 2014. The result indicated that the pupils’ knowledge and skills on disaster prevention and reduction relevant poor. The source for them to obtain the knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction included TV (68.9%), followed by their parents (43.9%), while only 24.4% of knowledge is from the teachers. The scores about different natural disaster are ranking in descending order: earthquake (5.39 ±1.27), floods (3.77 ±1.17); debris flow (2.81 ±1.05), family fire (2.16± 0.96). And the disaster experience did not help the pupils enhance the knowledge reserves. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in knowledge scores of disaster prevention and reduction between experienced and non-experienced group. Conclusion: The local disaster experiences did not draw the attention of parents and schools. Knowledge popularization of disaster for local pupils is extremely urgent. It is necessary to take advantage of more mediums to popularize the knowledge and skills about disaster prevention and reduction, for example, family education, school education, newspapers, brochures, etc. The training courses on disaster prevention and reduction which are based on the characteristics of the local rural pupils and the characteristics of the local disasters would be useful.

Keywords: rural, pupils, disaster prevention and reduction knowledge, popularization

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1113 The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches

Authors: Mark De Ste Croix, Jonathan Hughes, Francisco Ayala, Michal Lehnert

Abstract:

There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.

Keywords: coach education, injury prevention, knowledge, and understanding, youth

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1112 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

Abstract:

The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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1111 Prevention of the Post – Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS) by Implementation of an ICU Delirium Prevention Strategy (DPB)

Authors: Paul M. H. J. Roekaerts

Abstract:

In recent years, it became clear that much intensive care (ICU) survivors develop a post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) consisting of psychiatric, cognitive and physical problems for a prolonged period after their ICU stay. Physical inactivity and delirium during the ICU stay are the main determinants of the post-ICU PICS. This presentation will focus on delirium, its epidemiology, prevalence, effect on outcome, risk factors and the current standard of care for managing delirium. Because ICU delirium is a predictor of prolonged length-of-stay in the ICU and of death, the use of a delirium prevention bundle (DPB) becomes mandatory in every ICU. In this presentation, a DPB bundle will be discussed consisting of six components: pain, sedation, sleep, sensory and intellectual stimulation, early mobilization, and hydration. For every of the six components, what to do and what not to do will be discussed. The author will present his own institutional policy on pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the management of delirium. The component ‘early mobilization’ will be discussed more in detail, as this component is extremely important in the prevention of delirium as well as in the prevention of the PICS. The author will conclude his presentation with the remaining areas of uncertainties/work and research to be done.

Keywords: delirium, delirium prevention bundle, early mobilisation in intensive care (ICU), post-intensive care syndrome (PICS)

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1110 Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: children, adolescents, suicide, positive

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1109 Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention

Authors: Alexander Glebovskiy

Abstract:

Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.

Keywords: criminogenesis, fraud triangle, fraud prevention, organizational culture

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1108 How to Reach Adolescents Vulnerable for Suicidal Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Birgit Reime, Sonja Gscheidle, Toni Hübener, Lara Hübener

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Suicide in individuals under 30 years is a global public health concern. The objective of this study was to identify strategies for the prevention of suicide and suicidal behavior preferred by adolescents and young adults who are vulnerable to suicidal behavior and by relevant experts. Using semi-structured interviews with n= 17 adolescents and young adults (18-25 years of age) and with n= 11 experts from relevant fields, we have applied an inductive approach and applied thematic content analysis. Six strategies for suicide prevention in young individuals were reported. These were digital solutions with appealing designs, anonymous support, trained peer support, spiritual support, improving existing structures, and raising suicide literacy. Accessibility of anonymous digital support may contribute to suicide prevention in young people.

Keywords: suicide prevention, adolescents, E-health, Germany

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1107 Prevention of Corruption in Public Purchases

Authors: Anatoly Krivinsh

Abstract:

The results of dissertation research "Preventing and combating corruption in public procurement" are presented in this publication. The study was conducted 2011 till 2013 in a Member State of the European Union, in the Republic of Latvia. Goal of the thesis is to explore corruption prevention and combating issues in public procurement sphere, to identify the prevalence rates, determinants and contributing factors and prevention opportunities in Latvia. In the first chapter the author analyses theoretical aspects of understanding corruption in public procurement, with particular emphasis on corruption definition problem, its nature, causes and consequences. A separate section is dedicated to the public procurement concept, mechanism and legal framework. In the first part of this work the author presents cognitive methodology of corruption in public procurement field, based on which the author has carried out an analysis of corruption situation in public procurement in Republic of Latvia. In the second chapter of the thesis, the author analyzes the problem of corruption in public procurement, including its historical aspects, typology and classification of corruption subjects involved, corruption risk elements in public procurement and their identification. During the development of the second chapter author's practical experience in public procurements was widely used. The third and fourth chapter deals with issues related to the prevention and combating corruption in public procurement, namely the operation of the concept, principles, methods and techniques, subjects in Republic of Latvia, as well as an analysis of foreign experience in preventing and combating corruption. The fifth chapter is devoted to the corruption prevention and combating perspectives and their assessment. In this chapter the author has made the evaluation of corruption prevention and combating measures efficiency in Republic of Latvia, assessment of anti-corruption legislation development stage in public procurement field in Latvia.

Keywords: prevention of corruption, public purchases, good governance, human rights

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1106 Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness Assessment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majid Al-Eissa, Hassan Saleheen, Fatimah Al Shehri, Maha AlMuneef

Abstract:

Global efforts are being made to combat child maltreatment (CM); however, in 2011 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s (KSA) response to this issue was found to be mediocre. Several developments have been implemented in KSA since then, and reevaluation is now necessary. The aim of this study is to assess the CM-prevention readiness (CMPR) of KSA in regard to implementing large-scale, evidence-based CM-prevention programs. Participants were decision makers and senior managers in the field of CM. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the participants’ offices. This was a cross-sectional study. We used the multi-dimensional tool “Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment - short version,” which examines ten dimensions concerning this topic. Comparison between the results of this study and those of the 2011 examination was performed to determine how the situation in KSA has changed. Sixty informants were interviewed; the majority being females (57%) and from governmental institutions (56%). The average total score for the ten dimensions was 47.4%, an increase from the 43.7% reported in 2011. The strongest dimensions were legislations and mandates (8.3/10), followed by knowledge (7.1/10) and institutional links and resources (5.8/10). The lowest scores concerned human and technical resources (1.7/10) and attitude towards CM (2.8/10). Compared to the 2011 results, some dimensions showed significant improvements, but the majority had remained consistent. Time and commitment are necessary to secure CMPR improvement. Periodic assessment of CMPR is required to provide proper recommendations to the government regarding the progress of CM-prevention strategies.

Keywords: assessment, child maltreatment, prevention, readiness, Saudi Arabia

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1105 Study on Disaster Prevention Plan for an Electronic Industry in Thailand

Authors: S. Pullteap, M. Pathomsuriyaporn

Abstract:

In this article, a study of employee’s opinion to the factors that affect to the flood preventive and the corrective action plan in an electronic industry at the Sharp Manufacturing (Thailand) Co., Ltd. has been investigated. The surveys data of 175 workers and supervisors have, however, been selected for data analysis. The results is shown that the employees emphasize about the needs in a subsidy at the time of disaster at high levels of 77.8%, as the plan focusing on flood prevention of the rehabilitation equipment is valued at the intermediate level, which is 79.8%. Demonstration of the hypothesis has found that the different education levels has thus been affected to the needs factor at the flood disaster time. Moreover, most respondents give priority to flood disaster risk management factor. Consequently, we found that the flood prevention plan is valued at high level, especially on information monitoring, which is 93.4% for the supervisor item. The respondents largely assume that the flood will have impacts on the industry, up to 80%, thus to focus on flood management plans is enormous.

Keywords: flood prevention plan, flood event, electronic industrial plant, disaster, risk management

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1104 The Phenomenon of Suicide in the Social Consciousness: Recommendations for the Educational Strategy of the Society and Prevention of Suicide

Authors: Aldona Anna Osajda

Abstract:

Suicide is a phenomenon that worries both the public and scientists in various fields. In society, suicide is a taboo subject, and in addition, there are many myths and stereotypes that are detrimental to the proper understanding and appropriate response of a person at risk of suicide. It is necessary to educate society and the suicide prevention system for various age groups. The research covers the level of knowledge and views of Polish society, including teachers and youth, regarding suicides. The main research problem is to establish the level of awareness of Polish society about the phenomenon of suicides. The study will be based on the diagnostic survey method, using the survey technique. Information about the research will be disseminated electronically on the Internet via social messaging. The collected data will be analyzed using appropriate statistics. On the basis of the obtained results, answers will be given to research questions, which will become the basis for designing an appropriate educational strategy for the society in the field of suicide and developing recommendations and recommendations for teachers to conduct classes in the field of suicide prevention for children and adolescents.

Keywords: phenomenon of suicides, suicide, suicide prevention, suicidology

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1103 Sports: A Vital Tool for Promotion of Good Health and Prevention of Diseases

Authors: Agburuga Obi, Madumere Akuego Jane

Abstract:

This paper explores the important role sports can play in the promotion of good health and prevention of diseases. Technological advancements in today’s world has come along with some difficulties to man. This is because work formally done by man has been taken over by machines, thus, man has become sedentary. This has created a lot of health problems to man such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. To nip this ugly situation in the bud, the following recommendations are made: specific measures should be taken to raise the awareness within the government, key sectors and the population of the diverse benefits or physical activity and sports and the risk and costs of inactivity, provision of equipment, facilities for sports and recreational activities in every community, participation in physical activities in sports if not on daily basis at least thrice a week.

Keywords: physical activities, sport, good health, prevention, diseases

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1102 Nutritional Benefits of Soy: An Implication for Health Education

Authors: Mbadugha Esther Ifeoma

Abstract:

Soybeans, like other legumes are rich in nutrients. However, the nutrient profile of soybeans differs in some important ways from most other legumes. Among other nutrients, soy is high in protein, carbohydrates, and fibers, is rich in vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids and is low in saturated fatty acids. Because of its high nutritional value, it has been rated to be equivalent to meats, eggs and milk. Soy has many health benefits including prevention of coronary heart disease, prevention of cancer growth, improvement of cognitive function, promotion of bone health, prevention of obesity, prevention of type II diabetes and promotion of growth of normal floras in the colon. Soybean consumption is also associated with some side effects which include allergy, flatulence and abdominal discomfort. Nurses/health care providers should therefore, educate clients on the precautionary measures to be taken in preparing soy food products in order to reduce to the barest minimum the side effects, while encouraging them to include soy as part of their daily meals for optimal health and vitality.

Keywords: health benefit, health education, nutritional benefit, soybeans

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1101 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: school, suicide, prevention, programs

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1100 Safe Zone: A Framework for Detecting and Preventing Drones Misuse

Authors: AlHanoof A. Alharbi, Fatima M. Alamoudi, Razan A. Albrahim, Sarah F. Alharbi, Abdullah M Almuhaideb, Norah A. Almubairik, Abdulrahman Alharby, Naya M. Nagy

Abstract:

Recently, drones received a rapid interest in different industries worldwide due to its powerful impact. However, limitations still exist in this emerging technology, especially privacy violation. These aircrafts consistently threaten the security of entities by entering restricted areas accidentally or deliberately. Therefore, this research project aims to develop drone detection and prevention mechanism to protect the restricted area. Until now, none of the solutions have met the optimal requirements of detection which are cost-effectiveness, high accuracy, long range, convenience, unaffected by noise and generalization. In terms of prevention, the existing methods are focusing on impractical solutions such as catching a drone by a larger drone, training an eagle or a gun. In addition, the practical solutions have limitations, such as the No-Fly Zone and PITBULL jammers. According to our study and analysis of previous related works, none of the solutions includes detection and prevention at the same time. The proposed solution is a combination of detection and prevention methods. To implement the detection system, a passive radar will be used to properly identify the drone against any possible flying objects. As for the prevention, jamming signals and forceful safe landing of the drone integrated together to stop the drone’s operation. We believe that applying this mechanism will limit the drone’s invasion of privacy incidents against highly restricted properties. Consequently, it effectively accelerates drones‘ usages at personal and governmental levels.

Keywords: detection, drone, jamming, prevention, privacy, RF, radar, UAV

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1099 Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria

Authors: Amos Olusola Akinola

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.

Keywords: internal control, internal system, internal audit, fraud prevention, fraud detection

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1098 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Prevention of Autism Before and During Pregnancy

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari

Abstract:

Objectives: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that has negative effects on verbal, mental and behavioral development. Studies have shown the role of a maternal dietary pattern before and during pregnancy. The relation of exerting of nutritional management programs in prevention of Autism has been approved. This review article has been made to investigate the role of nutritional management strategies before and during pregnancy in the prevention of Autism. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 67 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 20 article with criteria such as including maternal lifestyle, nutritional deficiencies and Autism prevention were selected. Results: Maternal dietary pattern and health before and during pregnancy have important roles in the incidence of Autism. Studies have suggested that high dietary fat intake and obesity can increase the risk of Autism in offspring. Maternal metabolic condition specially gestational diabetes (GDM) (p-value < 0.04) and folate deficiency (p-value = 0.04) is associated with risk of Autism. Studies have shown that folate intake in mothers with autistic children is less than mothers who have typically developing children (TYP) (p-value<0.01). As folate is an essential micronutrient for fetus mental development, consumption of average 600 mcg/day especially in P1 phase of pregnancy results in significant reduction in incidence of Autism (OR:1.53, 95%CI=0.42-0.92, p-value = 0.02). furthermore, essential fatty acid deficiency especially omega-3 fatty acid increases the rate of Autism and consumption of supplements and food sources of omega-3 can decrease the risk of Autism up to 34% (RR=1.53, 95%CI=1-2.32). Conclusion: regards to nutritional deficiency and maternal metabolic condition before and during pregnancy in prevalence of Autism, carrying out the appropriate nutritional strategies such as well-timed folate supplementation before pregnancy and healthy lifestyle adherence for prevention of metabolic syndrome (GDM) seems to help Autism prevention.

Keywords: autism, autism prevention, dietary inadequacy, maternal lifestyle

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1097 Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Layegheh Daliri

Abstract:

Introduction: Leishmaniasis occurs in infectious diseases of Leishmania protozoa in Afghanistan, anthroponotic leishmaniasis and common cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). Anthroponotic skin leishmania tropica may cause urban diseases and transmitted by Phlebotomus Sergenti. In different parts of Afghanistan, different species of Leishmania are observed. We report the epidemiological characteristics of prevention and treatment in this study. Methods: This study examines the epidemiology and prevention of religious diseases in Afghanistan. Knowledge gaps were analyzed and collected with our own data. Results: In Afghanistan, most of the Lishmania Tropic seekers are Four species of Leishmania in northern Afghanistan, including Leishmania Tropica, L. Major and L. Donovani, cause skin lesions, but L. Donovani and L. infantum are visible. Even combined prevention can significantly reduce the amount of infection. Conclusion: Skinny, as well as visceral leishmaniasis, can occur among the returnees from Afghanistan. Unusual and poor skin lesions can be created by L. Donovani. In most pathogenic areas, the transmission of common diseases between humans and animals. Home dogs are the main reservoir, transferring in some areas such as India and Sudan.

Keywords: leishmania donovani, leishmania tropica, treatment, disease, epidemiology

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1096 Strategies to Combat the Covid-19 Epidemic

Authors: Marziye Hadian, Alireza Jabbari

Abstract:

Background: The World Health Organization has identified COVID-19 as a public health emergency and is urging governments to stop the virus transmission by adopting appropriate policies. In this regard, the countries have taken different approaches to cutting the chain or controlling the spread of the disease. Methods: The present study was a systematize review of publications relating to prevention strategies for covid-19 disease. The study was carried out based on the PRISMA guidelines and CASP for articles and AACODS for grey literature. Finding: The study findings showed that in order to confront the COVID-19 epidemic, in general, there are three approaches of "mitigation", "active control" and "suppression" and four strategies of "quarantine", "isolation", "social distance" as well as "lockdown" in both individual and social dimensions to deal with epidemics that the choice of each approach requires specific strategies and has different effects when it comes to controlling and inhibiting the disease. Conclusion: The only way to control the disease is to change your behavior and lifestyle. In addition to prevention strategies, use of masks, observance of personal hygiene principles such as regular hand washing and non-contact of contaminated hands with the face, as well as observance of public health principles such as control of sneezing and coughing, safe extermination of personal protective equipment, etc. have not been included in the category of prevention tools. However, it has a great impact on controlling the epidemic, especially the new coronavirus epidemic.

Keywords: novel corona virus, COVID-19, prevention tools, prevention strategies

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1095 General Principles of Accident Prevention in Built Environment Rehabilitation

Authors: Alfredo Soeiro

Abstract:

Rehabilitation in construction or built environment is a particular type of operations when concerning prevention of accidents. In fact, it is also a different type of task in construction itself. Therefore, due to the complex characteristics of construction rehabilitation tasks and due to the intrinsic difficulty of preventing accidents in construction, a major challenge faces the responsibility for implementing adequate safety levels in this type of safety management. This paper addresses a set of proposed generic measures to face the unknown characteristics of built environment in terms of stability, materials and actual performance of buildings or other constructions. It is also addressed the necessary adaptation of preventive guidelines to this type of delicate refurbishing and renovating of existing facilities. Training, observation and reflective approaches are necessary to perform this safety management in the rehabilitation of built environment.

Keywords: built environment, rehabilitation, construction safety, accident prevention, safety plan

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1094 The Increase of Adolescent Obesity Rates after the COVID-19 Pandemic and Possible Obesity Prevention Programs for Implementation

Authors: Tatiana Pratt, Benyamin Hanasabzadeh, Panayiota Courelli

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the largest global public health issues of this current century. COVID-19 puts people diagnosed with obesity at higher risk of not only contracting the virus but also being hospitalized and dying, making this a vital time to implement obesity prevention programs. However, COVID-19 is predicted to rapidly increase the obesity rate in the United States due to the mandatory sedentary lifestyle the pandemic demands; this is especially harmful to adolescent-aged children because it creates lifelong unhealthy habits and behaviors. Adolescent obesity prevention programs have been rigorously implemented throughout the last century to help diminish the ever-increasing adolescent obesity rate. Since the pandemic kept adolescents inside and away from in-person school, many programs have now become ineffective due to their in-person participation. Examples of in-person participation programs include school lunch programs, OSNAP and New Moves. Therefore, online programs or remote intervention measures are now more essential. This leads to programs such as Time2bHealthy, HEALTH[e]TEEN, and SWITCH should be looked at with more vitality. Adolescents have intertwined their lives with technology and screen usage. Therefore, online and remote prevention programs will continue to play a large role in the post-pandemic era. This literature review will be reviewing past and current adolescent obesity prevention programs and their effectiveness with the new remote, sedentary lifestyle adolescents. Furthermore, it will suggest new ways to more productively decrease adolescent obesity rates by analyzing the harmful factors that COVID-19 introduced into their lifestyles.

Keywords: adolescent, obesity, overweight, COVID-19, preventative care, public health, public policy, obesity prevention programs, online programs

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1093 Effectiveness of Cranberry Ingesting for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Yu-Chieh Huang, Pei-Shih Chen, Tao-Hsin Tung

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection to our best knowledge. Objective: This study is to investigate whether cranberry ingesting could improve the urinary tract infection. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 9 March 1994 and June 30, 2017, with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search terms included (cranberry OR Vaccinium macrocarpon OR Vaccinium oxy-coccus OR Vaccinium microcarpum OR Vaccinium erythrocarpum OR Vaccinium) AND (urinary tract infection OR bacteriuria OR pyuria) AND (effect OR effective-ness OR efficacy) AND (random OR randomized). Results: There were 26 studies met the selection criteria included among 4709 eligible participants. We analyzed all trials in meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for the group using cranberry versus using placebo was 0.75; 95%CI[0.63, 0.880]; p-value=0.0002) and heterogeneity was 56%. Furthermore, we divided the subjects into different subgroup to analysis. Ingesting cranberry seemed to be more effective in some subgroups, including the patients with recurrent UTI (RR, 0.71; 95%CI[0.54,0.93]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 65%) and female population (RR, 0.73, 95%CI[0.58,0.92]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 59%). The prevention effect was not different between cranberry and trimethoprim (RR, 1.25, 95%CI[0.67, 2.33]; p-value=0.49) (I²= 68%). No matter the forms of cranberry were capsules or juice, the efficacy was useful. Conclusions: It is showed that cranberry ingesting is usefully associated with prevention UTI. There are more effective in prevention of UTI in some groups.

Keywords: cranberry, effectiveness, prevention, urinary tract infect

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1092 Perception of Nurses and Caregivers on Fall Preventive Management for Hospitalized Children Based on Ecological Model

Authors: Mirim Kim, Won-Oak Oh

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify hospitalized children's fall risk factors, fall prevention status and fall prevention strategies recognized by nurses and caregivers of hospitalized children and present an ecological model for fall preventive management in hospitalized children. Method: The participants of this study were 14 nurses working in medical institutions and having more than one year of child care experience and 14 adult caregivers of children under 6 years of age receiving inpatient treatment at a medical institution. One to one interview was attempted to identify their perception of fall preventive management. Transcribed data were analyzed through latent content analysis method. Results: Fall risk factors in hospitalized children were 'unpredictable behavior', 'instability', 'lack of awareness about danger', 'lack of awareness about falls', 'lack of child control ability', 'lack of awareness about the importance of fall prevention', 'lack of sensitivity to children', 'untidy environment around children', 'lack of personalized facilities for children', 'unsafe facility', 'lack of partnership between healthcare provider and caregiver', 'lack of human resources', 'inadequate fall prevention policy', 'lack of promotion about fall prevention', 'a performanceism oriented culture'. Fall preventive management status of hospitalized children were 'absence of fall prevention capability', 'efforts not to fall', 'blocking fall risk situation', 'limit the scope of children's activity when there is no caregiver', 'encourage caregivers' fall prevention activities', 'creating a safe environment surrounding hospitalized children', 'special management for fall high risk children', 'mutual cooperation between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'implementation of fall prevention policy', 'providing guide signs about fall risk'. Fall preventive management strategies of hospitalized children were 'restrain dangerous behavior', 'inspiring awareness about fall', 'providing fall preventive education considering the child's eye level', 'efforts to become an active subject of fall prevention activities', 'providing customed fall prevention education', 'open communication between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'infrastructure and personnel management to create safe hospital environment', 'expansion fall prevention campaign', 'development and application of a valid fall assessment instrument', 'conversion of awareness about safety'. Conclusion: In this study, the ecological model of fall preventive management for hospitalized children reflects various factors that directly or indirectly affect the fall prevention of hospitalized children. Therefore, these results can be considered as useful baseline data for developing systematic fall prevention programs and hospital policies to prevent fall accident in hospitalized children. Funding: This study was funded by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (grant number NRF-2016R1A2B1015455).

Keywords: fall down, safety culture, hospitalized children, risk factors

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1091 Suicide Prevention among Young People: Findings from the Evaluation of Youth Aware of Mental Health in Australian Secondary Schools

Authors: Lauren McGillivray, Michelle Torok, Alison Calear

Abstract:

Suicide is the leading cause of death for Australians aged 15-24 years, with rates increasing over the past decade. As young people can be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems and suicidal behavior, they are an essential and obvious target for suicide prevention efforts. This study investigates the effectiveness of the universal mental health promotion and suicide prevention program, Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), to reduce suicidal ideation and attempts and increase help-seeking in young people. This trial took place in Australian schools across four regions in New South Wales that form part of LifeSpan, a larger multilevel suicide prevention research trial. The YAM program was delivered to Year 9 students in up to 78 schools over two years (from January 2017 to December 2019). All schools were invited to participate in YAM's evaluation, which included completing a student questionnaire at three time-points: baseline, 3-month post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome is suicidal ideation severity. Secondary outcomes are new reports of suicide attempts, stigma towards suicide, knowledge about suicide, help-seeking intentions and behaviors, and depressive symptoms. Results from pre-post and follow-up data will be presented. These research findings are promising and will contribute to the evidence-based for YAM and suicide prevention programs in Australian schools. These findings are also expected to promote YAM's value and sustainability to be more widely delivered in Australian secondary schools.

Keywords: adolescent mental health, suicidal ideation, suicide prevention, universal program

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1090 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Kwang-Woo Nam

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: CCTV, safe city, crime prevention, spatial analysis

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1089 Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) in Cloud Computing Using Anomaly-Based and Signature-Based Detection Techniques

Authors: John Onyima, Ikechukwu Ezepue

Abstract:

Virtualization and cloud computing are among the fast-growing computing innovations in recent times. Organisations all over the world are moving their computing services towards the cloud this is because of its rapid transformation of the organization’s infrastructure and improvement of efficient resource utilization and cost reduction. However, this technology brings new security threats and challenges about safety, reliability and data confidentiality. Evidently, no single security technique can guarantee security or protection against malicious attacks on a cloud computing network hence an integrated model of intrusion detection and prevention system has been proposed. Anomaly-based and signature-based detection techniques will be integrated to enable the network and its host defend themselves with some level of intelligence. The anomaly-base detection was implemented using the local deviation factor graph-based (LDFGB) algorithm while the signature-based detection was implemented using the snort algorithm. Results from this collaborative intrusion detection and prevention techniques show robust and efficient security architecture for cloud computing networks.

Keywords: anomaly-based detection, cloud computing, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, signature-based detection

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1088 Developmental Differences of Elementary School Children in Knowledge Acquisition Following a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

Authors: Chrysanthi Nega, Fotini-Sonia Apergi

Abstract:

Child sexual abuse (CSA) in Greece is a highly prevalent phenomenon and yet remains largely underreported. CSA can negatively impact cognitive, emotional and psychosocial development, as well as personality formation and capacity for initiation and maintenance of healthy interpersonal relationships. It is particularly important for school-based prevention programs to be implemented early in elementary school, as they are reportedly effective in lowering abuse incidences and providing knowledge for coping in threatening environments. The purpose of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a school-based CSA prevention program (Safe-Touches) on Greek elementary school students (grades 1-3, N=272) and explore the effect of age and time of testing (academic term). There was a significant effect of age in the knowledge of Inappropriate Touch, when comparing pre and post-intervention assessments, with third graders showing greatest gains in knowledge, followed by second and first graders. Time of testing during the academic year also had a significant effect, as first graders tested later in the school year, scored higher on knowledge of Inappropriate Touch. The findings of the current study provide insight into the optimal timing to implement CSA prevention programs. Exposure to such programs and incorporation in the school curricula could largely benefit children of the Greek community in terms of safety and awareness.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, Safe-Touches, school-based prevention, schooling

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1087 Implementing a Prevention Network for the Ortenaukreis

Authors: Klaus Froehlich-Gildhoff, Ullrich Boettinger, Katharina Rauh, Angela Schickler

Abstract:

The Prevention Network Ortenaukreis, PNO, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, aims to promote physical and mental health as well as the social inclusion of 3 to 10 years old children and their families in the Ortenau district. Within a period of four years starting 11/2014 a community network will be established. One regional and five local prevention representatives are building networks with stakeholders of the prevention and health promotion field bridging the health care, educational and youth welfare system in a multidisciplinary approach. The regional prevention representative implements regularly convening prevention and health conferences. On a local level, the 5 local prevention representatives implement round tables in each area as a platform for networking. In the setting approach, educational institutions are playing a vital role when gaining access to children and their families. Thus the project will offer 18 month long organizational development processes with specially trained coaches to 25 kindergarten and 25 primary schools. The process is based on a curriculum of prevention and health promotion which is adapted to the specific needs of the institutions. Also to ensure that the entire region is reached demand oriented advanced education courses are implemented at participating day care centers, kindergartens and schools. Evaluation method: The project is accompanied by an extensive research design to evaluate the outcomes of different project components such as interview data from community prevention agents, interviews and network analysis with families at risk on their support structures, data on community network development and monitoring, as well as data from kindergarten and primary schools. The latter features a waiting-list control group evaluation in kindergarten and primary schools with a mixed methods design using questionnaires and interviews with pedagogues, teachers, parents, and children. Results: By the time of the conference pre and post test data from the kindergarten samples (treatment and control group) will be presented, as well as data from the first project phase, such as qualitative interviews with the prevention coordinators as well as mixed methods data from the community needs assessment. In supporting this project, the Federal Ministry aims to gain insight into efficient components of community prevention and health promotion networks as it is implemented and evaluated. The district will serve as a model region, so that successful components can be transferred to other regions throughout Germany. Accordingly, the transferability to other regions is of high interest in this project.

Keywords: childhood research, health promotion, physical health, prevention network, psychological well-being, social inclusion

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