Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 372

Search results for: mothers

372 Investigating Problems and Social Support for Mothers of Poor Households

Authors: Niken Hartati


This study provides a description of the problem and sources of social support that given to 90 mothers from poor households. Data were collected using structured interviews with the three main questions: 1) what kind of problem in mothers daily life, 2) to whom mothers ask for help to overcome it and 3) the form of the assistances that provided. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques were then coded and categorized. The results of the study illustrate the problems experienced by mothers of poor households in the form of: subsistence (37%), child care (27%), management of money and time (20%), housework (5%), bad place of living (5%), the main breadwinner (3%), and extra costs (3%). While the sources of social support that obtained by mothers were; neighbors (10%), extended family (8%), children (8%), husband (7%), parents (7%), and siblings (5%). Unfortunately, more mothers who admitted not getting any social support when having problems (55%). The form of social support that given to mother from poor household were: instrumental support (91%), emotional support (5%) and informational support (2%). Implications for further intervention also discussed in this study.

Keywords: household problems, social support, mothers, poor households

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371 Experienced Chronic Sorrow in Mothers of Children with Cancer: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Nikfarid Lida, Maryam Rassouli, Leili Borimnejad, Hamid Alavi Majd


Purpose: Chronic sorrow is experienced by mothers of children with cancer. It is a multidimensional concept and is experienced by mothers in different ways depends on their various contexts. Little is known about the concept of chronic sorrow in mothers of children with cancer living in Iran. This study aimed to clarify the concept and explain lived experiences of chronic sorrow in Iranian mothers of children with cancer. Methods: In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, 8 mothers of children with cancer participated in semi structured in-depth interviews about their experiences of chronic sorrow. Interviews continued until data saturation was reached. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, analyzed, and interpreted using 7 steps of the Dickelman et al’s phenomenological approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from mothers’ experiences of chronic sorrow related to child’s cancer. These main themes were ‘climbing up shaky rocks,’ ‘fear and hope,’ and ‘continuous role changing.’ Each of these themes consisted of several subthemes. Conclusion: There are similarities in experiencing chronic sorrow by mothers of children with chronic diseases in different societies. However some experiences are unique in Iranian mothers of children with cancer.

Keywords: cancer, children, mothers, Iran, phenomenology

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370 Concerns, Attitudes and Perceptions of Mothers about Child Vulnerability for Sexual Abuse

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Khadija Rasheed


This research explored general concerns, attitudes and perceptions of Pakistani mothers about their children’s vulnerability for sexual abuse and it also examined the effect of education and work status of mothers on their concerns and attitudes about the safety of their children. The sample consisted of 166 mothers comprising of 4 groups i.e. educated-working mothers, uneducated working mothers, educated non-working mothers and uneducated non-working mothers. This research comprised of two studies. Study 1 was carried out to construct two separate scales namely Maternal Concerns and Attitudes Scale for safety of Daughters (MCA-SD) and Maternal Concerns and Attitudes Scale for safety of Sons (MCA-SS) for assessing maternal concerns and attitudes about safety and protection of daughters and sons. These scales were used in study 2 with the objective to explore mothers’ general concerns, attitudes and perceptions of about child vulnerability for sexual abuse. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and independent-samples t-test. Educated mothers had more sense of responsibility, ensured more safety and provide more information about self-protection to their children as compared to uneducated mothers. Similarly non-working mothers showed more sense of responsibility and provided more information on self-protection to their children as compared to working mothers. Moreover, mothers living in nuclear family system trusted more on their relatives and other people for the protection of their children and ensured more safety of children than those living in joint family system. Findings have very important implications for protecting children from likely sexual abuse.

Keywords: mothers’ concerns, attitudes, perceptions, child vulnerability, child sexual abuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
369 Factors Adversely Associated with Breastfeeding among Obese Mothers in Malaysia

Authors: Syahrul Bariah Abdul Hamid, Colin W. Binns, Jun Hui Chih


The total of obese mothers is growing throughout Asia. Breastfeeding provides the perfect nutrition for infants, by promoting a higher IQ and protecting against childhood and adult diseases. A prospective cohort study was carried out of mothers attending eight antenatal clinics run by the Ministry of Health in Selangor, Malaysia to document the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with breastfeeding outcomes. Mothers were enrolled during the antenatal period and followed up until 6 months postpartum to document breastfeeding outcomes. A total of 652 Malay mothers were recruited for the study a response rate of 93.1 %. The pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of the mothers showed that 36.5% of the mothers were overweight or obese. There were a total of 78 obese mothers in the sample and 41 (52.6%) of these mothers were able to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth compared to 238/337 (70.6 %, χ² 9.35, p<0.001) of those with a normal BMI. At 6 months, 23.1 % of obese mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants, compared to 56.0 % of the normal BMI mothers. On the other hand, the rate of infant formula feeding was higher in the obese mothers by 53.8 % compared to 19.0 % among normal weight mothers, χ² 37.6, p<0.001). Further analysis suggested these factors were found to be positively associated with discontinued exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months among obese mothers; mothers whom delayed breastfeeding initiation, had health problems during pregnancy, caesarean delivery, reported had insufficient colostrum/milk and babies had sucking problems at or before 4 weeks. Besides that, mothers who perceived their biological mothers had preference towards formula feeding or were ambivalent about the feeding method and had biological mothers without experience in breastfeeding for more than 1 month also were more likely to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months. These findings suggested that the greater the pre-pregnant BMI, the earlier the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and they were also less likely to initiate breastfeeding and have less adequate milk supply. Future investigations of the effects of maternal obesity on breastfeeding outcomes should be conducted along with effective interventions to advance the care of obese women at reproductive age and their children.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding discontinuation, maternal obesity

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368 Analysis of the Demographic Variable Associated with Common Pregnancy Related Illnesses among Pregnant Mothers in Anambra

Authors: Nkiru Nnaemezie, J. O. Okafor


The high mortality as a result of pregnancy related illnesses is a global public health problem and a source of concern to most countries including Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the Demographic Variables associated with common pregnancy related illnesses among pregnant mothers in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. The design of the study was an expost-facto research design. All the folders of the pregnant mothers that were studied from 2010-2014 formed the population of the study which included 10,250 folders. Based on the content of the folders, a researcher developed pro-forma (RDP) was used for data collection. Five research questions and five hypotheses were postulated for the study. Research questions postulated were answered using simple percentage. Hypotheses stated were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance using chi-square (X²) statistics. The result among others showed that pregnant mothers within 15-29 years had the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers on other age brackets. Pregnant mothers with 0-1 parity level experienced the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers on other parity levels. Public servants experienced the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers in other occupations. Married pregnant mothers experienced the most pregnancy related illnesses than single mothers. Pregnant mothers with secondary education had the most pregnancy related illnesses than mothers in other education levels. There were significant differences in the common pregnancy related illnesses among the pregnant mothers of the study in relation to the demographic variables of the study which included age, parity, occupation, marital status and educational level. Based on the findings, conclusions were drawn, and the following recommendations among others were made: there is need for health education in terms of educating those pregnant mothers during antenatal clinics; single mothers should be advised to register for antenatal early enough.

Keywords: analysis, demographic variables, pregnancy related illnesses, pregnant mothers

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367 Concurrent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Lactating Mothers and Their Infants 6-23 Months of Age in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Kedir Teji Roba, Thomas P. O’Connor, Tefera Belachew, Nora M. O’Brien


Micronutrient deficiencies of ferritin, zinc and haemoglobin are prevalent among the mothers and their infants in developing countries. But little attention has been given to these vulnerable groups. No study has been done on co-existence of the deficiencies among lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants in two different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants (aged 6-23 months) who were living in two different agro-ecological zones. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood test for Zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation and Chi square test were used to determine the association among nutritional status and agro ecological zones. Results: Iron deficiency was found in 44.4% of the infants and 19.8% of the mothers. Zinc deficiency was found in 72.2% of the infants and 67.3% of the mothers. Of the study subject 52.5% of the infants and 19.1% of the mothers were anaemic, and 29.6% of the infants and 10.5% of the mothers had iron deficiency anaemia. Among the mothers with iron deficiency, 81.2% and 56.2% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron respectively. Similarly, among the zinc deficient mothers, 75.2% and 45.3% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron. There was a strong correlation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and the infants on status of ferritin, zinc and anaemia (P < 0.001). There is also statistically significant association between micronutrient deficiency and agro-ecological zones among the mothers (p < 0.001) but not with their infants. Deficiency in one, two, or three, micronutrients was observed in 48.1%, 16.7% and 9.9% of the mothers and 35.8%, 29.0%, and 23.5%, of their infants respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that iron and zinc deficiencies are the prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among the lactating mothers and their infants, with variation of the magnitude across the agro-ecological zones. This finding calls for a need to design effective preventive public health nutrition programs to address both the mothers’ and their infants’ needs.

Keywords: ferritin/iron, zinc, anaemia, agroecology, malnutrition

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366 Defending Motherhood: Strategic Comparisons and the Management of Moral Self-Worth among Ex-Offender Mothers

Authors: Geniece Mondé


This article examines how formerly incarcerated mothers deploy strategic comparisons to support their claims of moral self-worth. In depth interviews with 69 ex-offender mothers show that although women occupy a morally ambiguous space, they frame their roles as “good” mothers as independent of past illegal activity. In substantiating the “good” mother narrative women draw comparisons with two groups of women. Some respondents identify individuals perceived as morally disadvantaged and draw comparisons that illustrate their comparative strength in relation to mothers who fail to adequately meet the needs of their children. Women also compared themselves to morally advantaged mothers and expressed a desire to embody the ideals and values of women they viewed as superior mothers. Findings reveal that respondents’ use of strategic comparisons substantiates their framing of personal moral identity, as well as their goals for the future. The paper concludes by examining the theoretical implications of strategic comparisons for the study of morality and identity construction.

Keywords: Ex-Offender, Rehabilitation, Incarceration, Motherhood

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365 Comparative Evaluation of Weaning Knowledge, Attitudes and Feeding Practices among Mothers in Benue and Zamfara States of Nigeria

Authors: Apityan Tume, Sefater Gbashi, Stephanie Dillon


The present study was aimed at investigating the weaning knowledge, attitudes and practices among mothers with infants in Benue and Zamfara States, Nigeria. A questionnaire consisting of both open and close-ended questions was adopted for this study. Socio-demographic information was captured with this questionnaire. This is in addition to capturing data linked to respondents' knowledge and attitude to weaning and the weaning practice itself. 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 329 was filled and returned. Results obtained from the study revealed that the mother's location; mother's level of education, her occupation, her age; and her level of education would have an effect on her practice of and attitude to weaning. Essentially, mothers based in Zamfara who were full-time housewives, tailor or trader were more likely to start weaning at a later age than mothers who have the same occupation but based in Benue. Furthermore, the results revealed mothers who were uneducated and based in Zamfara were more likely to wean their babies later than the uneducated mothers, mothers educated to primary, secondary or tertiary level based in Benue. It was also evident that mothers who were low-income earners and based in Zamfara were more likely to start weaning later than the low, average or high-income earning mothers in Benue. Moreover, younger mothers in Zamfara age 20-25 years were more likely to start weaning later than mothers of other age groups. In overall, mothers had a good understanding of best practices with regards to weaning. Notwithstanding, mothers could be further encouraged and educated about the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as well as the benefits therein to enhance the healthy growth of the children.

Keywords: breastfeeding, complementary feeding, socio-demographic, weaning

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364 First 1000 Days of Life: Mothers' Economic Hardship of Caring for Their Babies

Authors: Athena Pedro, Laura Bradfield, Mike Dare, Zandile Bantwana, Ashley Nayman


The purpose of the research was to explore mother’s unique experience and knowledge of mothering in the first 1000 day of their child’s life, from birth to age 2. The study used a qualitative research methodology with an exploratory research design. A sample of 12 mothers was used, comprising different racial backgrounds from low income areas in the Western Cape. The data was collected by means of semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which were transcribed verbatim, analysed using Braun’s and Clark’s (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. Some of the findings revealed that the mothers who participated in the study were consistently unable to feed their children and themselves due to profound and extreme situations of poverty, stress, and lack of infrastructural support. These mothers residing in low-income communities are not adequately supported both financially and socially and are often unable to meet the needs of their infants within the first 1000 days. Given the consequential nature of this period, it is imperative that mothers are able to access such support. Single mothers especially are in need of social and financial support. Appropriate interventions are required to assist mothers generally but more specifically, mothers who have children within the first 1000 days of life. By implementing appropriate interventions to address these needs, it will assist mothers to ensure optimal developmental growth of their children. This will positively impact the developmental trajectory of children in South Africa.

Keywords: caring, economic hardship, first one thousand days, mothers

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363 The Effect of Empathy Training Given to Midwives on Mothers’ Satisfaction with Midwives and Their Birth Perception

Authors: Songul Aktas, Turkan Pasinlioglu, Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik


Introduction: Emphatic approach during labor increases both quality of care and birth satisfaction of mothers. Besides; maternal satisfaction statements and expressions about midwives who assist labor contribute to a positive birth perception and wish to give vaginal delivery again. Aim: The study aimed at investigating the effect of empathy training given to midwives on mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception. Material/Method: This experimental study was undertaken between February 2013 and January 2014 at a public hospital in Trabzon Province. The population of the study was composed of mothers who gave vaginal delivery and the sample was composed of 222 mothers determined with power analyzes. Ethical approval and written informed consents were obtained. Mothers who were assisted by midwives during 1st, 2nd and 3rd phases of delivery and first two postpartum hours were included. Empathy training given to midwives included didactic narration, creative drama, psychodrama techniques and lasted 32 hours. The data were collected before the empathy training (BET), right after empathy training (RAET) and 8 weeks later after birth (8WLAB). Mothers were homogenous in terms of socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics. Data were collected with a questionnaire and were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Findings: Rate of mother’s satisfaction with midwives was 36.5% in BET, 81.1% in RAET and 75.7% in 8WLAB. Key mother’s satisfaction with midwives were as follows: 27.6% of mothers told that midwives were “smiling-kind” in BET, 39.6% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 31% of mothers told that midwives were “understanding” in BET, 38.2% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 15.7% of mothers told that midwives were “reassuring” in BET, 44.9% of them in RAET and 39.3% of them in 8WLAB;19.5% of mothers told that midwives were “encouraging and motivating” in BET, 39.8% of them in RAET and 19.8% of mothers told that midwives were “informative” in BET, 45.6% of them in RAET and 35.1% of them in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Key mother’s dissatisfaction with midwives were as follows: 55.3% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-informed” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 27.7% of them in 8WLAB; 56.9% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-listening” in BET, 17.6% of them in RAET and 25.5% of them in 8WLAB; 53.2% of mothers told that midwives were “judgmental-embarrassing” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 29.8% of them in 8WLAB; 56.2% of mothers told that midwives had “fierce facial expressions” in BET, 15.6% of them in RAET and 28.1% of them in 8WLAB. Rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “easy” were 8.1% in BET, 21.6% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB and rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “very difficult and tiring” were 41.9% in BET, 5.4% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of empathy training given to midwives upon statements that described mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception was positive. Note: This study was financially funded by TUBİTAK project with number 113S672.

Keywords: empathy training, labor perception, mother’s satisfaction with midwife, vaginal delivery

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362 The Meaning of Adolescent Mothers' Experience with Childrearing and Studying Simultaneously

Authors: Benyapa Thitimapong


Teenage pregnancy and adolescent mothers have become a matter of increasing concern in Thailand. Since adolescent mothers have been a big problem for two main consequences; health outcomes and socio-economic impacts. Adolescent mothers often endure poor living conditions; limited financial resources while also experience high stress, family instability, and limited educational opportunities. These disadvantages are negative and have long-term effects on adolescent mothers, their families, and the community. The majority of pregnant students and adolescent mothers dropped out of school after becoming pregnant, and some of them return to study again after they gave birth. This research aimed to explain the meaning of adolescent mothers who had undergone with childrearing and studying simultaneously after childbirth. A phenomenological qualitative approach was undertaken to investigate this study. The participants were 20 adolescent mothers each of whom became a mother and a student concurrently within less than 2 years after giving birth to a healthy baby and had also undergone the experience of childrearing and studying in non-formal education. In-depth interview was carried out for data collection, and the data were analyzed using content analysis method. ‘Learning to move forward’ was the meaning of adolescent mothers who experienced with childrearing and studying simultaneously. Their expressions were classified into two categories 1) having more responsibility, and 2) conceding and going on. The result of this study can be used as evidence for health care providers, especially nurses to facilitate and support pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers to continue their education. Also, it can be used to guide policy to promote in all educational system to enable these groups to remain in school for their life-long success in the future.

Keywords: adolescent mothers, childrearing, studying, teenage pregnancy

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361 Indigenous Conceptualization of School Readiness: Mother's Perspective in Pakistan

Authors: Ayesha Inam, R. Moazzam, Z. Akhtar


School readiness plays a significant role in helping a child deal with various school demands and expectations as well as in determining academic success outcomes. There is a scarcity of data concerning the condition of school readiness in Pakistan. This qualitative research seeks to examine the perspective of mothers about school readiness along with its four domains (self-care, socio-emotional, physical and cognitive) as well as about the appropriate age of entry into formal preschool. Fifteen interviews were conducted with mothers of pre-school children in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. It was found that mothers shared the common perception that children should be socially, emotionally, physically and cognitively prepared to be ready for pre-school. The results concluded that the mothers unanimously agreed in their perceptions that three to four years was the appropriate age range for children to begin pre-school and that early or late entry into pre-school had negative implications for children’s ability to learn and understand, and hence, their school readiness. Mental age was perceived as a more important criterion for deciding when to send children to pre-school. Mothers were found to send their children to school earlier, and children were found to be increasingly exposed to technology, both of which were found to influence children’s readiness for school. Both schools and mothers were found to play an instrumental role in preparing children for school and in school adjustment by nurturing their skills and abilities.

Keywords: perception of mothers, Pakistan, school readiness, entry to preschool

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360 Mothers' Perspective on Services for Children with Autism in Indonesia

Authors: Wike Wike


The aim of this study is to investigate the experience of mothers of autistic children in Indonesia in raising the children and obtaining services for them through the adequate of information. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge emerging from the women as a mother of children with autism on health and disability area. There is silence in the Indonesian literature on this perspective, especially about the parents and/or mothers of autistic children that is the focus of this analysis. Therefore, in order to capture the points of view emerging from the mothers, a qualitative study design has been applied. The main data for this qualitative study was collected from interviews (semi-structured interview and focus group discussion) with the mothers of children with autism who are member of parenting group in autistic schools and rehabilitation centers in one of Indonesian regional cities. This study reveals that the mothers’ experience in raising a child who is diagnosed with autism is rooted in limited knowledge on autism, limited knowledge on availability of services and limited knowledge on service options. Compounding this is limited availability and accessibility of the services that are important to their child's development. An important contribution of this study is to show how tapping into the experience of mothers can provide much needed information to policy making and service planners and implementers that can improve the services for children with autism and their families.

Keywords: mothers, children with autism, disability services and policy, services

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359 Quality of Life among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Asma Alsaleh, Kara Makara


Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties with communication and interaction. Besides presenting challenges for the ASD individual, the condition can entail negative outcomes for those who care for them, most often mothers. While this issue has been studied substantially in Western society, less is known about how mothers in the Arab world are affected by raising an ASD child. This study sought to gain insights into this area by assessing quality of life and stress in mothers with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) ASD children in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) by using, respectively, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). Data pertaining to income and education were also attained to investigate how socioeconomic factors interact with the above-mentioned variables. The analysis revealed that total stress scores and scores on the individual subscales of the PSI-SF were significantly higher for the mothers with an ASD child compared to those without an ASD child, though the opposite was true of quality of life scores. Moreover, increased income was associated with increased quality of life and decreased stress. While there were not main effects of education, there were interactions between education, whether children were ASD or non-ASD, and the outcome variables. These results suggest that mothers of ASD children in an Arab culture are at increased risk of negative outcomes relative to mothers of typically developing children, and, therefore, this study may act as a foundation for the delivery of interventions to assist mothers in this position.

Keywords: autism, education, income, mothers, quality of life, stress

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358 Education of Mothers and Influence on the Development of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

Authors: Sabina Garayeva


To determine the significant risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we carried out a thorough study of the social status of the parents of children with IUGR. We observed 315 mothers who gave birth to children with (IUGR), of which 172 mothers with asymmetric type and 143 mothers with symmetric type of IUGR. Through a detailed survey was gathered detailed information about education of parents. The results show that the majority of mothers with IUGR had secondary education (44,8 ± 2,8%), and fathers - higher education (35,2 ± 2,7%). Whereas in the control group, the largest number of parents had higher education (mother 35,3 ± 4,4%, fathers 42,9 ± 4,5%). Number of mothers with secondary education with IUGR was significantly (p1 <0,01; χ2 = 22,67) differs from the number of mothers with physiological pregnancy with the same level of education. Meanwhile, in the group with a symmetrical embodiment of IUGR mothers with secondary formation of significantly greater 53,1 ± 4,2%, than the asymmetric embodiment IUGR 37,8 ± 3,7% (p2 <0,05; χ2 = 8 06). Among fathers with secondary education significant difference was noted in the symmetric version of IUGR 37,8 ± 4,1% more than in the control group (p1 <0,05), and among parents of children with asymmetric IUGR option prevailed fathers with higher education - 37 2 ± 3,7%. Thus, our results revealed a low educational level of the mother as a risk factor for IUGR, which further help to develop preventive and therapeutic measures to eliminate the severity of its consequences. As seen from the data presented, mothers of children with asymmetric IUGR had a school education and fathers - higher education, while in the symmetric type of both parents had secondary education. It is found that frequency of children, born with IUGR, of mothers - housewives and fathers, engage in physical labor, was high. Thus, the analysis conducted by the social status of the parents with IUGR revealed a low level of education and unemployed mothers as risk factors for this disease, which in the future will help to develop preventive and therapeutic measures to eliminate the severity of its.

Keywords: intrauterine growth restriction, education of mothers, education influence, IUGR

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357 Maternal Awareness of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Jordanian Study

Authors: Nemeh Ahmad Al-Akour, Ibrahem Alfaouri


Objective: To examine the level of maternal awareness of SIDS and its prevention amongst Jordanian mothers in the north of Jordan, as well as to determine their SIDS-related infant care practices. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was conducted in maternal out-patients clinics of two teaching hospitals and three maternal and child health clinic in three major health care centers in Northern Jordan. Participants: A total of 356 mothers of infants attending the maternal and child health clinics were included in this study. Measurements and findings: A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data study. In this study, 64%of mothers didn’t hear about SIDS, while only 7% of mothers were able to identify factors risk-reducing recommendations. Avoidance of prone sleeping was the most frequently identified recommendation (5%). There were 67.7% of mothers who put their infant in a lateral position to sleep, 61% used soft mattress surface for their babies sleep and 25.8% who shared a bed with their babies. Employed mother, mothers of higher age, and mothers living within a nuclear family were the only factors associated with maternal awareness of SIDS. Friends were the highest a source of knowledge of SIDS for mothers (44.7%). Key conclusions: There was a low level of awareness of SIDS and its associated risk factor among the mothers in Jordan. The mothers' misconception about smoking and sleeping position for their infants requires further efforts. Implications for practice: To ensure raising awareness of infant care practice regarding SIDS, a national educational intervention on SIDS risk reduction strategies and recommendations is necessary for maintaining a low rate of SIDS in the population.

Keywords: bed sharing, infant care, Jordan, sleep position, sudden infant death

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356 Social Discourses on Lone Motherhood in South Korea: Social Prejudice and Process of Resistance, Adaptation and Negotiation

Authors: Thi Thu Van Nguyen


In South Korea, Confucianism has not only played a crucial position in Korean traditional culture but also deeply rooted in people’s mind. Confucianism bears a special emphasis on the traditional family pattern characterized by paternalism. Therefore, non-paternity families are barely recognized and unwed mothers are faced with numerous prejudices in their life. Prejudice to unwed mothers in Korea is believed to stem from social discourses against lone motherhood which is the way how people look and talk about unwed mothers and from the early time these social discourses have big impacts on their daily lives. However, after the 1990s, along with the rapid transformation of family pattern and support from social welfare organizations, unwed mothers have gradually got to escape from the social prejudice then established themselves as a new family form. This study is aimed at researching social discourses on lone motherhood in Korea and the process of resistance, adaptation and negotiation of unwed mothers in three different stages: the antenatal, postnatal stages and social inclusion. The anthropological method is employed. Twenty single young mothers of the Korean Unwed Mothers Families' Association were engaged in the author’s detailed interviews. The study’s frame analysis is based on the theoretical framework on social discourses on lone motherhood by Simon Duncan and Rosalind Edwards (1999). This study is an effort to comprehend and investigate the difficulties experienced by unwed mothers living in negative social discourses and the way they overcome the difficulties.

Keywords: unwed mothers, gender, social discourses, social prejudice, Confucianism

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355 Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Sajed Yaghoubnezhad, Mina Karimi, Seyede Marjan Modirkhazeni


The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).

Keywords: codependency, social support, depression, mothers of children with ID

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354 A Study of Challenges Faced and Support Systems Available for Emirati Student Mothers Post-Childbirth

Authors: Martina Dickson, Lilly Tennant


The young Emirati female university students of today are the first generation of women in the UAE for whom higher education as become not only a possibility, but almost an expectation. Young women in the UAE today make up around 77% of students in higher education institutes in the country. However, the societal expectations placed upon these women in terms of early marriage, child-bearing and rearing are similar to those placed upon their mothers and grandmothers in a time where women were not expected to go to university. A large proportion of female university students in the UAE are mothers of young children, or become mothers whilst at the university. This creates a challenging situation for young student mothers, where two weeks’ maternity leave is typical across institutions. The context of this study is in one such institution in the UAE. We have employed a mixed method approach to gathering interview data from twenty mothers, and survey data from over one hundred mothers. The main findings indicate that mothers have strong desires for their institution to support them more, for example by the provision of nursery facilities and resting areas for new mothers, and giving them greater flexibility over course selections and schedules including the provision of online learning. However, the majority felt supported on a personal level by their tutors. The major challenges which they identified in returning to college after only two weeks’ leave included the inevitable health and lack of sleep issues when caring for a newborn, struggling to catch up with missed college work and handling their course load. We also explored the women's’ home support systems which were provided from a variety of extended family, spouses and paid domestic help.

Keywords: student mothers, challenges, supports, United Arab Emirates

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353 Mothering in Self- Defined Challenging Circumstances: A Photo-Elicitation Study of Motherhood and the Role of Social Media

Authors: Joanna Apps, Elena Markova


Concepts of the ideal mother and ideal mothering are disseminated through familial experiences, religious and cultural depictions of mothers and the national media. In recent years social media can also be added to the channels by which mothers and motherhood are socially constructed. However, the gulf between these depictions, -or in the case of social media ‘self-curations’ - of motherhood and lived experience has never been wider, particularly for women in disadvantaged or difficult circumstances. We report on a study of four lone mothers who were living with one or more of the following: limiting long term illness, large families, in temporary accommodation and on low incomes. The mothers were interviewed 3 times and invited to take a series of photos reflecting their lives in between each of the interviews. These photographs were used to ground the interviews in lived experience and as stimuli to discuss how the images within them compared to portrayals of mothers and motherhood that participants were exposed to on social media. The objectives of the study were to explore how mothers construct their identity in challenging and disadvantaged circumstances; to consider what their photographs of everyday life tell us about their experiences and understand the impact idealised images of motherhood have on real mothers in difficult circumstances. The results suggested that the mothers both strived to adhere to certain ideals of motherhood and acknowledged elements of these as partially or wholly impossible to achieve. The lack of depictions, in both national and social media, of motherhood that corresponded with their lived experience inhibited the mothers’ use of social media. Other themes included: lack of control, frustration and strain; and parental pride, love, humour, resilience, and hope.

Keywords: motherhood, social media, photography, poverty

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352 A Qualitative Study to Explore the Social Perception and Stigma around Disability, and Its Impact on the Caring Experiences of Mothers of Children with Physical Disability in Bangladesh

Authors: Farjina Malek, Julie King, Niki Edwards


Across the globe more than a billion people live with a disability and a further billion people, mostly carers, are indirectly impacted. While prevalence data is problematic, it is estimated that more than 15% of the population in Bangladesh live with a disability. Disability service infrastructure in Bangladesh is under-developed; and consequently, the onus of care falls on family, especially on mothers. Within the caring role, mothers encounter many challenging experiences which are not only due to the lack of support delivered through the Bangladeshi health care system but also related to the existence of stigma and perception around disability in the Bangladeshi society. Within this perception, the causes of disability are mostly associated with 'God’s will'; 'possession of ghosts on the disabled person'; and 'karma or the result of past sins of the family members especially the mothers'. These beliefs are likely to have a significant impact on the well-being of mothers and their caring experience of children with disability. This is an ongoing qualitative study which is conducting in-depth interviews with 30 mothers from five districts (Dhaka, Mymensingh, Manikganj, Tangail, and Gazipur) of Bangladesh with the aim to explore the impact of social perception and stigma around physical disability on the caring role of the mothers of children with physical disability. The major findings of this study show that the social perception around disability and the social expectation from a mother regarding her caring role have a huge impact on the well-being of mothers. Mothers are mostly expected to take their child on their lap to prove that they are ‘good mother’. These practices of lifting their children with physical disability and keeping them on the lap for a long time often cause chronic back pain of the mothers. Existing social beliefs consider disability as a ‘curse’ and punishment for the ‘sins’ of the family members, most often by the mother. Mothers are blamed if they give birth to ‘abnormal’ children. This social construction creates stigma, and thus, the caring responsibility of mothers become more challenging. It also encourages the family and mothers to hide their children from the society and to avoid seeking accessible disability services. The mothers also compromise their careers and social interaction as they have to stay with their children at home, and that has a significant impact on personal wellbeing, income, and empowerment of the mothers. The research is informed by intersectional theory and employed an interpretive phenomenological methodology to explore mothers’ experience of caring their children with physical disability, and the contribution and impact of key relationships within the family and the intersection with community and services.

Keywords: mother, family carer, physical disability, children, social stigma, key relationship

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351 Parenting Stress and Maternal Psychological Statues in Mothers of Dual Diagnosis Children

Authors: Deena Moustafa


The purpose of this paper is to describe the sources of parenting stress in mothers of Dual Diagnosis children (n =60) and examine the relationship between parenting stress and maternal psychological status (depression and well-being), also examine if there is any difference between the previous variables in different disabilities associated with Autism. A descriptive correlational design was used. Data were collected via online questionnaires. The study finds that there was no significant relationship between Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) scores and types of disability which associated with Autism, although Mothers with deaf autistic reported more parenting stress, Similar findings were found regarding Depressive Symptoms, as there was no significant relationship between (CESD-R) scores and types of disability which associated with Autism, also study finds that there was a significant correlation of the (APSI) with the (CESD-R) Mothers with higher overall parenting stress reported more depressive symptoms. Likewise, there was also a significant correlation between the (APSI) and the (RPWB) Mothers reporting more parenting stress also reported lower levels of well-being.

Keywords: parenting stress, maternal psychological statues, mothers of dual diagnosis, autism

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350 Motherhood Practices and Symbolic Capital: A Study of Teen Mothers in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Ampai Muensit, Maniemai Thongyou, Patcharin Lapanun


Teen mothers have been viewed as ‘a powerless’ facing numerous pressures including poverty, immaturity of motherhood, and especially social blame.This paper argues that, to endure as an agent, they keep struggling to overcome all difficulties in their everyday life by using certain symbols to negotiate the situations they encounter, and to obtain a social position without surrendering to the dominating socio-cultural structure. Guided by Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this study looks at how teen mothers use symbolic capital in their motherhood practices. Although motherhood practices can be found in different contexts with various types of capital utilization, this paper focuses on the use of symbolic capitals in teen mothers’ practices within the contexts of the community. The study employs a qualitative methodology; data was collected from 12 informants through life history, in-depth interview, observation and the content analytical method was employed for data analysis. The findings show that child and motherhood were key symbolic capitals in motherhood practices. Employing such capitals teen mothers can achieve an acceptance from community – particularly from the new community. These symbolic capitals were the important sources of teen mothers’ power to turn the tide by changing their status – from “the powerless” to be “the agent”. The use of symbolic capitals also related to habitus of teen mothers in better compromising for an appropriate social position.

Keywords: teen mother, motherhood practice, symbolic capital, community

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349 Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Its Association with Attachment: The Case of Arab Infants and Mothers in Israel

Authors: Gubair Tarabeh, Ghadir Zriek, David Oppenheim, Avi Sagi-Schwartz, Nina Koren-Karie


Introduction: Mind-Mindedness (MM) focuses on mothers' attunement to their infant's mental states as reflected in their speech to the infant. Appropriate MM comments are associated with attachment security in individualistic Western societies where parents value their children’s autonomy and independence, and may therefore be more likely to engage in mind-related discourse with their children that highlights individual thoughts, preferences, emotions, and motivations. Such discourse may begin in early infancy, even before infants are likely to understand the semantic meaning of parental speech. Parents in collectivistic societies, by contrast, are thought to emphasize conforming to social norms more than individual goals, and this may lead to parent-child discourse that emphasizes appropriate behavior and compliance with social norms rather than internal mental states of the self and the other. Therefore, the examination of maternal MM and its relationship with attachment in Arab collectivistic culture in Israel was of particular interest. Aims of the study: The goal of the study was to examine whether the associations between MM and attachment in the Arab culture in Israel are the same as in Western samples. An additional goal was to examine whether appropriate and non-attuned MM comments could, together, distinguish among mothers of children in the different attachment classifications. Material and Methods: 76 Arab mothers and their infants between the ages of 12 and 18 months were observed in the Strange Situation Procedure (49 secure (B), 11 ambivalent (C), 14 disorganized (D), and 2 avoidant (A) infants). MM was coded from an 8-minute free-play sequence. Results: Mothers of B infants used more appropriate and less non-attuned MM comments than mothers of D infants, with no significant differences with mothers of C infants. Also, mothers of B infants used less non-attuned MM comments than both mothers of D infants and mothers of C infants. In addition, Mothers of B infants were most likely to show the combination of high appropriate and low non-attuned MM comments; Mothers of D infants were most likely to show the combination of high non-attuned and low appropriate MM comments; and a non-significant trend indicated that mothers of C infants were most likely to show a combination of high appropriate and high non-attuned MM comments. Conclusion: Maternal MM was associated with attachment in the Arab culture in Israel with combinations of appropriate and non-attuned MM comments distinguishing between different attachment classifications.

Keywords: attachment, maternal mind-mindedness, Arab culture, collectivistic culture

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348 The Relationship between Mothers’ Attachment Style, Mindful Parenting and Perception of the Child

Authors: Brigitta Szabo, Miklosi Monika


Background/Aims: In early childhood, the context of development is the caregiver-child relationship. Maternal attachment style plays a major role in the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the mothers’ attachment style, mindful parenting, and perception of the child. Method: Data was collected from 144 non-clinical mothers who have a child below the age of 3 years. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires, including the following scales: a demographic questionnaire, Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP), and the Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF). K-means cluster analysis was used to identify the mothers’ attachment styles. Mediation analyses with Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF) positive emotions and dominance subscales as dependent variables, mothers’ attachment style (ASQ) as an independent variable, and mindful parenting (IMP) as a mediator were conducted. Results: Four attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, dismissing) were identified. The relationship between mothers’ attachment style and mindful parenting was significant (R2 = .51; F(4,139) = 36.60; p < .001). Compared to the secure attachment style as a reference group, both preoccupied and dismissing styles were related to lower levels of mindful parenting; however, this relationship was the strongest in case of fearful style. In mediation analysis the direct effects of mothers’ attachment style on the perception of the child were not significant (MORS positive emotions: R2= .29; F(5,138) = 11.22; p < .001; MORS dominance: R2= .39 F(5,138) = 17.54, p < .001). However, indirect effects through mindful parenting were significant; higher levels of mindful parenting were associated with higher levels of MORS positive emotions and lower levels of MORS dominance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that attachment styles are related to the perception of the child through mindful parenting. Mindfulness-based parenting training might be useful in case of attachment-related problems to improve the parent-child relationship.

Keywords: mindfulness, mindful parenting, attachement, perception

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347 Comparing Abused and Normal Male Students in Tehran Guidance Schools: Emphasizing the Co-Dependency of Their Mothers

Authors: Mohamad Saleh Sangin Ostadi, Esmail Safari, Somayeh Akbari, Kaveh Qaderi Bagajan


The aim of this study is to compare abused and normal male students in Tehran guidance schools with emphasis on the co-dependency of their mothers. The method of this study is based on survey method and comparison (Ex-Post Facto). The method of sampling is also multi-stage cluster. Accordingly, we did sampling from secondary schools of education and training in Tehran, including 12 schools with levels of first, second and third. Each of the schools represents the three – high, medium and low- economic and social conditions. In the following, three classes from every school and 20 students from each class were randomly selected. By (CTQ) abused and normal students were separated that 670 children were recognized as normal and 50 children as abused. Then, 50 children were randomly selected from normal group and compared with abused group. Using Spanned-Fischer Co-dependency Scale, we compared mothers of abused and normal students. The results showed that mothers of the abused children have higher co- dependency average comparing to the mothers of the normal children.

Keywords: co-dependency, child abuse, abused children, parental psychological health

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346 Exploring Mothers' Knowledge and Experiences of Attachment in the First 1000 Days of Their Child's Life

Authors: Athena Pedro, Zandile Batweni, Laura Bradfield, Michael Dare, Ashley Nyman


The rapid growth and development of an infant in the first 1000 days of life means that this time period provides the greatest opportunity for a positive developmental impact on a child’s life socially, emotionally, cognitively and physically. Current research is being focused on children in the first 1000 days, but there is a lack of research and understanding of mothers and their experiences during this crucial time period. Thus, it is imperative that more research is done to help better understand the experiences of mothers during the first 1000 days of their child’s life, as well as gain more insight into mothers’ knowledge regarding this time period. The first 1000 days of life, from conception to two years, is a critical period, and the child’s attachment to his or her mother or primary caregiver during this period is crucial for a multitude of future outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ understanding and experience of the first 1000 days of their child’s life, specifically looking at attachment in the context of Bowlby and Ainsworths’ attachment theory. Using a qualitative methodological framework, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 12 first-time mothers from low-income communities in Cape Town. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that mothers articulated the importance of attachment within the first 1000 days of life and shared experiences of how they bond and form attachment with their babies. Furthermore, these mothers expressed their belief in the long-term effects of early attachment of responsive positive parenting as well as the lasting effects of poor attachment and non-responsive parenting. This study has implications for new mothers and healthcare staff working with mothers of new-born babies, as well as for future contextual research. By gaining insight into the mothers’ experiences, policies and intervention efforts can be formulated in order to assist mothers during this time, which ultimately promote the healthy development of the nation’s children and future adult generation. If researchers are also able to understand the extent of mothers’ general knowledge regarding the first 1000 days and attachment, then there will be a better understanding of where there may be gaps in knowledge and thus, recommendations for effective and relevant intervention efforts may be provided. These interventions may increase knowledge and awareness of new mothers and health care workers at clinics and other service providers, creating a high impact on positive outcome. Thus, improving the developmental trajectory for many young babies allows them the opportunity to pursue optimal development by reaching their full potential.

Keywords: attachment, experience, first 1000 days, knowledge, mothers

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345 Study on the Work-Life Balance of Selected Working Single Mothers in the Coastal Community of La Huerta, Paranaque

Authors: Idette Sheirina Biyo, Rhodora Lynn C. Lintag


This paper explores how the work-life balance of selected working single mothers situated in a coastal community is affecting their well-being. Working single mothers carry the responsibility of earning for their family while simultaneously exercising their motherhood. This study utilized a purposeful qualitative research through semi-structured interviews among ten working single mothers living in the coastal community of La Huerta, Parañaque in order to identify the following: a) experiences of the working single mothers, b) problems usually encountered, and c) how these problems are affecting their well-being. Dorothy Smith’s Feminist Standpoint theory is used as a theoretical lens in order to explain their work-life balance. Results have shown that despite their dual roles as the main income earners and heads of the households, they are not neglecting to care for their well-being. They consider getting sufficient rest, eating well, and going to church as forms of caring for their well-being. Other factors that affect their work-life balance include living arrangements, work hours, type of work, and income.

Keywords: coastal community, well-being, work-life balance, Working single mother

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344 The Impact of Maternity Leave Reforms: Evidence from Finland

Authors: Claudia Troccoli


Childbearing constitutes one of the key factors affecting labour market differences between men and women, accounting for almost a quarter of the gender wage gap. Family leave policies, such as maternity, paternity, and parental leave, represent potential key policy tools to address these inequalities, as they can promote mothers' job continuity and career progression. This paper analyses four major reforms implemented in Finland between the 1960s and the early 1980s. It studies the effects of these maternity and parental leave extensions on mothers' short- and long-run labour market outcomes. Eligibility to longer leave was determined on the basis of the child's date of birth. Therefore, estimation of the causal effects of the reforms is possible by exploiting random variation in children's birthdates and comparing the outcomes of mothers giving birth just before and just after the reform cutoff date. Overall, the three maternity leave reforms did not significantly improve mothers' earnings or employment rates. On the contrary, the estimates, although imprecise, seem to indicate negative effects on women's labour market outcomes. The extension of parental leave is, on the other hand, the only reform that improved mothers' short- and long-term labour market outcomes, both in terms of earnings and employment rate. At the same time, fathers appeared to be negatively affected by the reform. These results provide suggestive evidence that shareable parental leave might have more beneficial effects on mothers' job continuity, as it weakens the connotation of childcare as a task reserved for mothers.

Keywords: family policies, Finland, maternal labour market outcomes, maternity leave

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343 Influence of Mothers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Diet and Physical Activity of Their Pre-School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Semi-Urban Area of Nepal

Authors: Natalia Oli, Abhinav Vaidya, Katja Pahkala, Gabriele Eiben, Alexandra Krettek


The nutritional transition towards a high fat and energy dense diet, decreasing physical activity level, and poor cardiovascular health knowledge contributes to a rising burden of cardiovascular diseases in Nepal. Dietary and physical activity behaviors are formed early in life and influenced by family, particularly by mothers in the social context of Nepal. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitude and behavior of mothers regarding diet and physical activity of their pre-school children. Cross-sectional study was conducted in the semi-urban area of Duwakot and Jhaukhel communities near the capital Kathmandu. Between August and November 2014, nine trained enumerators interviewed all mothers having children aged 2 to 7 years in their homes. Questionnaire contained information about mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics; their knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding diet and physical activity as well as their children’s diet and physical activity. Knowledge, attitude and behavior responses were scored. SPSS version 22.0 was used for data analyses. Out of the 1,052 eligible mothers, 962 consented to participate in the study. The mean age was 28.9 ± 4.5 years. The majority of them (73%) were housewives. Mothers with higher education and income had higher knowledge, attitude, and behavior scores (All p < 0.001) whereas housewives and farmers had low knowledge score (p < 0.001). They, along with laborers, also exhibited lower attitude (p<0.001) and behavior scores (p < 0.001). Children’s diet score increased with mothers’ level of education (p <0.001) and income (p=0.041). Their physical activity score, however, declined with increasing level of their mothers’ education (p < 0.001) and income (p < 0.001). Children’s overall behavior score correlated poorly with mothers’ knowledge (r = 0.009, p=0.003), attitude (r =0.012, p=0.001), and behavior (r = 0.007, p= 0.008). Such poor correlation can be due to existence of the barriers among mothers. Mothers reported such barriers as expensive healthy food, difficulty to give up favorite food, taste preference of others family members and lack of knowledge on healthy food. Barriers for physical activity were lack of leisure time, lack of parks and playgrounds, being busy by caring for children and old people, feeling lazy and embarrassed in front of others. Additionally, among the facilitators for healthy lifestyle, mentioned by mothers, were better information, family eating healthy food and supporting physical activity, advice of medical personnel regarding healthy lifestyle and own ill health. The study demonstrated poor correlation of mothers’ knowledge and attitude with children’s behavior regarding diet and physical activity. Hence improving mothers’ knowledge or attitude may not be enough to improve dietary and physical activity habits of their children. Barriers and facilitators that affect mothers’ practices towards their children should also be addressed due to future intervention.

Keywords: attitude, behavior, diet, knowledge, mothers, physical activity

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