Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4232

Search results for: perceived stress

4232 Occupational Stress, Perceived Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Bank Workers in Nigeria

Authors: K. M. Ngbea, F. Ugwu, J. M. Uwouku, P. Atsehe, A. Ucho, P. N. Achakpa-Ikyo, P. Azende

Abstract:

This study examined occupational stress, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior among bank workers. The participants were 198 (118) males and (80) female's bank employees from selected banks within Makurdi metropolis and questionnaire were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and it was found that employees with high perception of occupational stress differ significantly from their counterparts at perceived fairness also influenced organizational citizenship behavior.On the other hand, there is no interaction effect of occupational stress and perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior. The implication of findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusions were discussed.

Keywords: occupational stress, perceived fairness, organizational citizenship, behavior

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4231 A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among First and Second Year Medical Students in South India

Authors: Nitin Joseph

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Objectives: This study was done to assess emotional intelligence levels and to find out its association with socio demographic variables and perceived stress among medical students. Material and Methods: This study was done among first and second year medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Emotional intelligence scores was found to significantly increase with age of the participants (F=2.377, P < 0.05). Perceived stress was found to be significantly more among first year (t=1.997, P=0.05). Perceived stress was found to significantly decrease with increasing emotional intelligence scores (r = – 0.226, P < 0.001). Conclusion: First year students were found to be more vulnerable to stress than their seniors probably due to lesser emotional intelligence. As both these parameters are related, ample measures to improve emotional intelligence needs to be supported in the training curriculum of beginners so as to make them more stress free during early student life.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, medical students, perceived stress, socio demographic variables

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4230 Comparative Study of Medical and Fine Art Students on the Level of Perceived Stress and Coping Skills

Authors: Bushra Mussawar, Saleha Younus

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Students often view their academic life demanding and stressful. However, apart from academics, stress springs from various other sources namely, finance, family, health, friends etc. The present study aims to assess the level of perceived stress in medical and fine arts students, and to determine the coping strategies used by the students to mitigate stress. The sample of the study consisted of 178 medical and fine arts students. The sample was selected through purposive sampling. Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test were used to analyze data. Results of the study revealed that there exists a positive relationship between perceived stress and coping strategies. Additionally, the two groups showed marked differences in terms of stress perception and coping styles. The level of perceived stress was found to be high in medical students nonetheless, they employed more positive coping strategies than fine arts students who scored high on negative coping strategies which are deleterious to the overall wellbeing.

Keywords: perceived stress, coping strategies, medical, fine arts students

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4229 The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

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The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping, psychological distress

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4228 The Effects of Cultural Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Acculturative Stress of International Postgraduate Students in the United Kingdom

Authors: Rhea Mathews

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The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy on the acculturative stress of international postgraduate students in the United Kingdom. The study adopted Berry, Kim, Minde & Mok’s (1987) acculturative framework on acculturative stress and examined the relationship between the variables. The study hypothesized that perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy would predict lower levels of acculturative stress among students. Postgraduate students in the United Kingdom (N = 76) completed three surveys measuring the variables; Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Cultural Self-efficacy for Adolescents. To evaluate the role of the perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy in determining the acculturative stress level of international students, multiple linear regression was employed. Both independent variables exhibited a significant, negative relationship with acculturative stress (p < 0.001; p < 0.01). Results described that cultural self-efficacy and perceived social support significantly predicted acculturative stress (p < 0.01). Together, the variables accounted for 22% of the variance in acculturative stress scores (adjusted R² = 0.22), with cultural self-efficacy playing a larger role in predicting the dependent variable. Limitations and implications of the study are noted. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to enhancing international students’ acculturative experience when relocating to a new environment.

Keywords: acculturative stress, coping, cultural adjustment, cultural self-efficacy, international education, international students, migration, perceived social support

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4227 Relationship between Quality of Life and Perceived Stress among Teachers of Physical Education

Authors: Minu Lakra

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The present study was done on 100 (male=50 and female=50) teachers of physical education at tertiary level from Varanasi city. They were chosen according to the stratified sampling method. Data collection tool was Perceived Stress Scale: 14 items (Cohen, Kamarck and mermelstain 1983) and Quality of Life was developed by THE WHOQOL GROUP in 1991. Data was analyzed with the help of correlation. Findings explore that perceived stress and quality of life has been positively correlated in female teachers of higher education from physical education whereas in male teachers the relationship was found insignificant.

Keywords: higher education, male and female teachers , percieved stress, quality of life

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4226 Happiness, Life Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, Coping Strategies and Perceived Stress among High School Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara, Mohsen Shahbakhti

Abstract:

The current study examined the relationship between happiness, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, coping strategies and perceived stress among high school students, Eshtehard city, Alboez province, Iran. One hundred and sixty-seven high school students were asked to complete the Subjective Happiness scale (SHS), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), General Self-efficacy (GSE), the Brief COPE, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results revealed a positive correlation between happiness with life satisfaction, self-efficacy, problem-focused coping, adopted coping and it was a negative correlation with stress. Self-efficacy is a significant positive correlated with life satisfaction, problem-focused coping and it is negative correlated with stress. However, the findings suggest that self-efficacy and problem-focused coping could influence on happiness and life satisfaction.

Keywords: happiness, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, perceived stress and coping strategies

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4225 Impacts of Social Support on Perceived Level of Stress and Self-Esteem among Students of Private Universities of Karachi-Pakistan

Authors: Sheeba Farhan

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This study is conducted to explore the predictive relationship of perceived stress and self-esteem with social support of students and to explore the factors, which contribute to develop or enhance the level of stress in students of private universities in Karachi-Pakistan. After literature review following hypotheses were formulated; 1)social support would predict perceived stress of students of business administration of private organizations of Higher education, 2) social support would predict the self-esteem of students of private organizations of Higher education, 3) there will be a relationship of perceived stress and self-esteem of students of private organizations of Higher education, 4) there will be a relationship of self esteem and social support of students of private organizations of Higher education. Sample of the study is comprise of 100 students of private organizations of Higher education in Karachi- Pakistan (i.e. males= 50 & females= 50). The age range of participants is 18-26 years. The measures, used in the study are: Demographic information form, a semi structured interview form, Rosenberg self esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and perceived stress scale (Cohen, Kamarck, and Mermelstein, 1983) and multidimensional scale of perceived social support (Zimet, 1988) Descriptive statistics is used for getting a better statistical view of characteristics of sample. Regression analysis is used to explore the predictive relationship of study related stress and self esteem with academic achievement of students of private organizations of Higher education. Percentages and ratios were calculated to explore the level of perceived stress with respect to Socio-demographic characteristics in students of private organizations of Higher education. Finding shows that social support is significantly associated with the higher level of self-esteem among students of graduation but insignificantly associated with stress that has been experienced by them. These results are correlated with a wide variety of studies in which social support has proposed to be a predictor of well being for the students.

Keywords: private universities of Karachi-Pakistan, Self-esteem, social support, stress

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4224 Non-Physician Medical Worker Experience during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: William Mahony, L. Jacqueline Hirth, Richard Rupp, Sandra Gonzalez, Roger Zoorob

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Background: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physicians has been considered by many researchers, but less is known about non-physician healthcare workers. The aim of this study is to examine the association of COVID-19 safety training and communication with stress. Methods: A 91-item online survey was distributed, starting January 2, 2021, to non-physician healthcare workers, including physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and medical assistants (MAs) in the United States through email and social media. A $1 donation was made to the Red Cross for each completed survey. The survey consisted of demographics, occupational questions, and perceived stress (perceived stress scale, PSS). Items on the PSS were combined for an overall score and categorized according to the severity of perceived stress. Chi-square tests were performed for bivariate analyses of categorical variables. Results: Of the 284 participants consenting to complete the survey, 197 participants completed the full survey. MAs made up most of the sample at 79%. Among all respondents, 47% had moderate PSS scores (scored between 14 and 26), and 51% had severe PSS scores (scored between 27 and 40). Unvaccinated participants reported statistically significantly lower levels of perceived stress (p = 0.002). Performing tasks outside of typical job responsibilities was not associated with PSS scores (p = .667). Discussion: Non-physician healthcare workers demonstrated a high level of perceived stress overall. The association between vaccination status and perceived stress should be examined in order to evaluate whether vaccination levels could be improved with further education about the virus and associated risks.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Cov-2, nursing, public health

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4223 A Cross-Sectional Study on Smartphone Addiction, Sleep Hygiene, and Perceived Stress

Authors: Kriti Singh, Saurabh Tripathi, Pankaj Chaudhary, Abid Ali Ansari, Seema Nigam

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Introduction: The introduction of android and iOS has changed our lives dramatically over the past few years. The new generation is more dependent on their mobile phones for carrying out their daily pursuits. Smartphones have revolutionized our lives. The cutdown in rates of mobile network services has been affecting us drastically. A new type of dependence is seen among the people for Smartphones. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the state of addiction among the group of medical students, along with its association with sleep hygiene and anxiety. Material and Method: Study included 50 individuals in the age group of 18-35 years. Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Perceived Stress Scales were used conducting the study. Results: Mean age of 22 years (12%). The majority of subjects were 20-year olds (15 out of 50), the majority were males with few females. Mean Smartphone addiction score 39 (very severe), Mean Sleep Hygiene Index score 26.76 (moderate maladaptive hygiene and Mean Perceived Stress score of 19.92 (moderate stress). Conclusion: In majority students were found to have a very severe Smartphone Addiction with moderate sleep hygiene and a moderate level of perceived stress. The Smartphone was being used was for surfing social media applications.

Keywords: addiction perceived stress, sleep hygiene index, smartphone

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4222 Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients' and Medical Students' Common Trait: Low Mindfulness Trait Associated with High Perceived Stress

Authors: Einat Peles, Anat Sason, Ariel Claman, Gabriel Barkay, Miriam Adelson

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Individuals with opioid addiction are characterized as suffering from stress responses disturbance, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and autonomic nervous system function. HPA axis is known to be stabilized during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Mindfulness (present-oriented, nonjudgmental awareness of cognitions, emotions, perceptions, and habitual behavioral reactions in daily life) counteracts stress. To our knowledge, the relation between perceived stress and mindfulness trait among MMT patients has never been studied. To measure indices of mindfulness and their relation to perceived stress among MMT patients, a cross-sectional random sample of current MMT patients was performed using questionnaires for perceived stress (PSS) and mindfulness trait (FFMQ- yields a total score and individual scores for five internally consistent mindfulness factors: Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness and consciousness, Non-judging the inner experience, Non-reactivity to the inner experience). Two additional groups were studied to serve as reference groups; Medical students that are known to suffer from stress, and Axis II psychiatric diagnosis patients that are known to characterized with poor mindfulness trait. Results: Groups included 41 MMT patients, 27 Axis II patients and 36 medical students. High perceived stressed (PSS≥18) defined among 61% of the MMT patients and 50% of the medical students. Highest mindfulness score observed among non-stressed MMT patients (153.5±17.2) followed by the groups of stressed MMT and non-stressed student (128.9±17.0 and 130.5±13.3 respectively), with the lowest score among stressed students (116.3±17.9) (multivariate analyses, corrected model p (F=14.3) < 0.0005, p (group) < 0.0005, p (stress) < 0.0005, p (interaction) =0.2). Linear inverse correlations were found between perceived stress score and mindfulness score among MMT patients (R=-0.65, p < 0.0005) and students (R=-0.51, p=0.002). Axis II patients had the lowest mindfulness score (103.4±25.3). Conclusion: High prevalence of high perceived stressed which characterized with poor mindfulness trait observed in both MMT patients and medical students, two different population groups. The effectiveness of mindfulness treatment in reducing stress and improve mindfulness trait should be evaluated to improve rehabilitation of MMT patients, and students success.

Keywords: mindfulness, stress, methadone maintenance treatment, medical students

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4221 Effects of the Gratitude Program on the Gratitude, Well-Being, Perceived Stress, and Stress Coping of Nurses

Authors: Yu H. Chen, Li C. Chen, Hsiang Y. Wu, Wan Y. Chen, Yin S. Lai, Sarah S. Chen

Abstract:

Little has been done to customize an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses, who work in high-stress environments. The purpose of this study is to design an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses and to investigate the effects of the program. Based on research done by Kaohsiung Medical University’s Positive Psychology Center, the only one of its kind in Taiwan, one of the top five strengths of nurses is gratitude. Instead of adapting from an older model created from past research, the Gratitude Workshop is developed from a quasi-experimental approach and designed with five additional dimensions that emphasize gratitude: thanking others, thanking one's surroundings, cherishing what one has, appreciating hardships, and appreciating the present. A sample of 84 nurses was randomly selected from the Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital; 43 of who participated in the nine-hour Gratitude Workshop that spanned over three weeks, while the other 41 were part of the waitlist control group. The pretest and posttest included five questionnaires: Inventory of Undergraduates' Gratitude, The Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Mental Health Continuum‐Short Form, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results of the research showed that the Gratitude Workshop elevates gratitude, well-being, and perceived stress on the nurses; however, it was also found in the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire that the Gratitude Workshop only heightened the regulation of emotions.

Keywords: gratitude, nurses, positive psychology, well-being

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4220 Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Game Playing, Internet Addiction and Perceived Stress Levels in University Students

Authors: Sevim Ugur, Cemile Kutmec Yilmaz, Omer Us, Sevdenur Koksaldi

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Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of digital game playing and Internet addiction on perceived stress levels in university students. Method: The descriptive study was conducted through face-to-face interview method with a total of 364 university students studying at Aksaray University between November 15 and December 30, 2017. The research data were collected using personal information form, a questionnaire to determine the characteristics of playing digital game, the Internet addiction scale and the perceived stress scale. In the evaluation of the data, Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-group comparison of the sample with non-normal distribution, Kruskal-Wallis H-test was used in the comparison of more than two groups, and the Spearman correlation test was used to determine the relationship between Internet addiction and the perceived stress level. Results: It was determined that the mean age of the students participated in the study was 20.13 ± 1.7 years, 67.6% was female, 35.7% was sophomore, and 62.1% had an income 500 TL or less. It was found that 83.5% of the students use the Internet every day and 70.6% uses the Internet for 5 hours or less per day. Of the students, 12.4% prefers digital games instead of spending time outdoors, 8% plays a game as the first activity in leisure time, 12.4% plays all day, 15.7% feels anger when he/she is prevented from playing, 14.8% prefers playing games to get away from his/her problems, 23.4% had his/her school achievement affected negatively because of game playing, and 8% argues with family members due to the time spent for gaming. Students who play games on the computer for a long time were found to feel back pain (30.8%), headache (28.6%), insomnia (26.9%), dryness and pain in the eyes (26.6%), pain in the wrist (21.2%), feeling excessive tension and anger (16.2%), humpback (12.9), vision loss (9.6%) and pain in the wrist and fingers (7.4%). In our study, students' Internet addiction scale mean score was found to be 45.47 ± 16.1 and mean perceived stress scale score was 28.56 ± 2.7. A significant and negative correlation (p=0.037) was found between the total score of the Internet addiction scale and the total score of the perceived stress scale (r=-0.110). Conclusion: It was found in the study that Internet addiction and perceived stress of the students were at a moderate level and that there was a negative correlation between Internet addiction and perceived stress levels. Internet addiction was found to increase with the increasing perceived stress levels of students, and students were found to have health problems such as back pain, dryness in the eyes, pain, insomnia, headache, and humpback. Therefore, it is recommended to inform students about different coping methods other than spending time on the Internet to cope with the stress they perceive.

Keywords: digital game, internet addiction, student, stress level

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4219 Relationship between Perceived Level of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Role Stress of Fire Fighters in Mumbai

Authors: Payal Maheshwari, Bansari Shah

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The research aimed to study the level of emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational role stress (ORS) of fire-fighters and the relationship between the two variables. Hundred and twenty fire-fighters were selected from different fire stations of Mumbai by purposive sampling. The firefighters who had the basic training, a minimum experience of 2 years and had been on the field during a crisis situation were selected for the study. The firefighters selected ranged from 23-58 years of age, and the number of years of experience ranged from 2 to 33 years. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the firefighters perceived themselves to be at an above average (57) and high (58) level of EI (M=429.35, SD=38.712). Domain-wise analysis disclosed that compared to self-awareness (92) and relationship management (93), more number of participants perceived themselves in the high category in the domains of self-management (108) and social management (106). Further, examination of the subdomain scores conveyed that a large number of participants rated themselves in the average level of these skills of accurate self-assessment (50), emotional self-control (50), adaptability (56) initiative (41), influence (66), change catalyst (53), and conflict management (50). With relation to the stress variable, it was found that almost half the number of the participants (59) rated themselves as having an average level of stress (M=137.44, SD=28.800). In most of the domains, majority of the participants perceived themselves as having an average level of stress, while in the domain of role isolation, self-role distance, and role ambiguity, majority of the firefighters rated themselves as having a low level of stress. A strong negative correlation (r=-.360**, p=.000) was found between EI and ORS. This study is a contribution to the literature and has implications for fire-fighters at the personal level, for the policymakers, and the fire department.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, organizational role stress, firefighters, relationship

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4218 Effect of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation on Perceived Stress and Sleep Quality in Adults

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla, Shashank Kulkarni, Shweta Singh

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Chronic stress and sleep quality reduces mental health and increases the risk of developing depression and anxiety as well. There is increasing evidence for the utility of meditation as an adjunct clinical intervention for conditions like depression and anxiety. The present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (SSM), a category of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation (ASTM), on perceived stress and sleep quality in adults. The study design was a single group pre-post assessment. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. Fifty-two participants filled PSS, and 60 participants filled PSQI at the beginning of the program (day 0), after two weeks (day 16) and at two months (day 60). Significant pre-post differences for the perceived stress level on Day 0 - Day 16 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.46) and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.76) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced reduction in the perceived stress. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small to medium, but on the 60th day, a medium to large effect size of the intervention was observed. In addition to this, significant pre-post differences for the sleep quality on Day 0 - Day 16 and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.05) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced improvement in the sleep quality. Compared with Day 0 assessment, participants demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of sleep on Day 16 and Day 60. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small, but on the 60th day, a small to medium effect size of the intervention was observed. In the current study we found out that after practicing SSM for two months, participants reported a reduction in the perceived stress, they felt that they are more confident about their ability to handle personal problems, were able to cope with all the things that they had to do, felt that they were on top of the things, and felt less angered. Participants also reported that their overall sleep quality improved; they took less time to fall asleep; they had less disturbances in sleep and less daytime dysfunction due to sleep deprivation. The present study provides clear evidence of the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions such as SSM in reducing stress and improving sleep quality. Thus, ASTM may be considered a useful intervention to reduce psychological distress in healthy, non-clinical populations, and it can be an alternative remedy for treating poor sleep among individuals and decreasing the use of harmful sedatives.

Keywords: automatic self transcending meditation, Sahaj Samadhi meditation, sleep, stress

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4217 Comparative Analysis of the Psychosocial Impact of Skin Diseases in India

Authors: Priyanka Jain, Sushila Pareek

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Skin disease is often considered to be ‘only cosmetic’ by many medical professionals and lay-people alike but unlike most internal illnesses, skin disease is often immediately visible to others and therefore people suffering from dermatological conditions may suffer serious social and emotional consequences. The purpose of this research was to compare patients suffering from acne, alopecia areata (AA) and melanosis on perceived stress, social appearance anxiety and coping. The study included 120 patients (acne = 40 AA = 40 melanosis = 40) ages ranged from 15 to 25 years. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), and The Brief COPE were administered to the patients. Analytical evaluation was done by Kruskal Wallis and ANOVA-tests. The results of the present study clearly revealed that perceived stress and social appearance anxiety were highest in patients with AA followed by acne patients and found least in patients with melanosis. With regard to coping, self-distraction as a coping technique was found highest in patients suffering from AA followed by acne and then melanosis. Denial was highest in acne patients followed by AA and experienced least by patients with melanosis. Behavioural disengagement was almost equal in patients with melanosis and acne and a little less in patients suffering from AA Acceptance was highest in patients with melanosis, followed by AA and least in acne patients. Self-blame was found highest in patients with acne, followed by AA patients further followed by patients suffering from melanosis. This study is an attempt to stimulate professionals working in the field of dermatology and mental health to explore their supportive communication and increase awareness regarding the difficulties that patients with skin disease can face.

Keywords: coping, dermatology, perceived stress, psychosocial impact, social appearance anxiety

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4216 Stress and Social Support as Predictors of Quality of Life: A Case among Flood Victims in Malaysia

Authors: Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Johana Johari, Nur Haffiza Rahaman

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects and relationship of stress and social support towards the quality of life among flood victims in Malaysia. A total of 764 respondents took part in the survey via random sampling. The depression, anxiety, and stress scales were utilized to measure stress while The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure the quality of life. The findings of this study indicate that there were significant correlations between variables in the study. The findings show a significant negative relation between stress and quality of life, and significant positive correlations between support from family as well as support from friends with the quality of life. Stress and support from family were found to be significant predictors and influences the quality of life among flood victims.

Keywords: stress, social support, quality of life, flood victims

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4215 Correlation of Empathy with Job Satisfaction and Stress of Social Workers

Authors: Theodosios Paralikas, Evangelia Kotrotsiou, Mairy Gouva, Manolis Mentis, Stiliani Stavrotheodorou, Stiliani Kotrotsiou, Maria Malliarou

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There is a big discussion in the international literature on empathy, job satisfaction and job occupational among various of disciplines, including social workers. Νevertheless these parameters have not been specifically studied in the Greek territory. This paper aims to study empathy of social workers, to produce results related to whether empathy is influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, marital status, level of education and study their perceived stress levels and also the satisfaction they derive from their work. For the first time, an attempt is made to link the empathy of these professionals to their job satisfaction and their anxiety. The sample of this survey consists of 165 social workers working on providers of public and private social services. The results showed that social workers have high levels of empathy contrary to the perceived stress levels which were low to moderate. Regarding the field of the job satisfaction, the survey showed that social workers are very satisfied with their workpiece and workplace. The survey shows no significant relationship between empathy and demographic factors, but there is a significant relationship between empathy and the workpiece/job satisfaction and the feeling of success.

Keywords: empathy, stress, job satisfaction, social workers

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4214 Stress and Dysfunctional Eating Behavior in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Vanshika Chutani, Priya Bhatnagar

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The pandemic has brought us to a standpoint where stress as a physical, cognitive, and behavioral construct is inevitable. The current research provides an overview of the relationship between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior during the challenging time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present paper also aims to highlight the gender-specific differences in perception of stress and its correlation with dysfunctional eating behavior in the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and Adult Eating Behavior questionnaire (AEBQ) were used on a heterogeneous sample between 20-40 years. The research was conducted on 50 participants, 25 male, and 25 female. Quantitative analysis was done with SPSS 22.0. The results of the investigation revealed a significant difference in stress level, t(48)=2.01, p<0.01, with women (M=22.24. SD=5.23) having a higher stress level than men (M=19.04, SD=4.89). There was no significant difference in dysfunctional eating behavior between males and females. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior in females, whereas, in males, there was no significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The research extrapolates that the pandemic led to elevated stress levels in both genders and gender differences existed, and males & females responded differently on dysfunctional eating behavior. The research has also outlined intervention to help individuals cope with stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The findings of the research propose the execution of different intervention programs and psychological first aid to help individuals who are predisposed to develop eating disorders.

Keywords: stress, dysfunctional eating behavior, gender-specific differences, COVID-19

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4213 Stress and Coping Strategies: A Correlational Analysis to Profiling Maladaptive Behaviors at Work

Authors: Silvia Riva, Ezekiel Chinyio

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Introduction: Workers in different sectors are prone to stress at varying levels. They also respond to stress in different ways. An inspiration was to study stress development amongst workers in a work dangerous setting (Construction Industry) as well as how they cope with specific stress incidences. Objective: The overarching objective of the study was to study and correlate between stress and coping strategies. The research was conducted in an organizational industrial setting, and its findings on the coping actions of construction workers are reported in this article. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 80 participants aged 18-62. These were working for three different construction organizations in the West Midland region of the UK. Their coping actions were assessed using the COPE Inventory (Carver, 2013) instrument while the level of stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, 1994). Results: Out of 80 workers (20 female, 25%, mean age 40.66), positive reinterpretation (M=4.15, SD=2.60) and active coping (M=4.18, SD=2.55) were the two most adaptive strategies reported by the workers while the most frequent maladaptive behavior was mental disengagement (M=3.62, SD=2.25). Among the maladaptive tactics, alcohol and drug abuse was a significant moderator in stress reactions (t=6.12, p=.000). Conclusion: Some maladaptive strategies are adopted by construction workers to cope with stress. So, it could be argued that programs of stress prevention and control in the construction industry have a basis to develop solutions that can improve and strengthen effective interventions when workers are stressed or getting stressed.

Keywords: coping, organization, strategies, stress

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4212 Enhancing Academic Achievement of University Student through Stress Management Training: A Study from Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Rizwana Amin, Afshan Afroze Bhatti

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The study was a quasi-experimental pre-post test design including two groups. Data was collected from 127 students through non-probability random sampling from Bahaudin Zakariya University Multan. The groups were given pre-test using perceived stress scale and information about academic achievement was taken by self-report. After screening, 27 participants didn’t meet the criterion. Remaining 100 participants were divided into two groups (experimental and control). Further, 4 students of experimental group denied taking intervention. Then 46 understudies were separated into three subgroups (16, 15 and 15 in each) for training. The experimental groups were given the stress management training, each of experimental group attended one 3-hour training sessions separately while the control group was only given pre-post assessment. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA method (analysis of covariance) t–test. Results of the study indicate that stress training will lead to increased emotional intelligence and academic achievement of students.

Keywords: stress, stress management, academic achievement, students

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4211 Mindfulness and Motivational Based Intervention for Pregnant Women with Tobacco Dependency: Pilot Study

Authors: Ilona Krone

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Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of perinatal/postnatal negative health outcomes; however, only 1 in 5 pregnant smokers quit smoking. That is a clinical and public health problem. Pregnant smokers have negative paternal support, and higher levels of perceived stress than non-smokers and quitters return to smoking in a stressful situation. A crisis like the COVID-19 outbreak causes significant uncertainty and stress. For pregnant women, additional stress may increase due to concerns for their fetus. Strategies targeting maternal stress and isolation may be particularly useful to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses. Within the post-doctoral study, cooperating with leading specialists, an innovative program for pregnant smokers will be developed. Feasibility for reducing craving, distress intolerance, Covid 19 related stress, and fear in pregnant women in Latvia will be assessed.

Keywords: COVID 19, mindfulness, motivation, pregnancy, smoking cessation

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4210 Quality of Working Life and Occupational Stress in High School Teachers

Authors: S. Silva

Abstract:

Some professions had an increased risk for occupational stress and less quality of working life. Among several professions this risk is particularly preoccupant in teachers, namely high school teachers. This study aims to characterize the work stress in teachers and understand how the work stress influences their quality of working life. One hundred teachers, 60 women and 40 men with mean age of 43,2 years (SD=7,8), from North Portugal teaching in several high schools filled in the following questionnaires: Social-Demographic Questionnaire, Teacher Stress Questionnaire and the Survey of Professional Life, during January to March 2015. The results of our study show that high school teachers have several occupational stressors (M=5) and poor perceived quality of working life. They are unsatisfied with their current job and they refer to a considerable job frustration. 33% referred to no expectations about a better future in these profession and 40% have no career development. There is a strong negative correlation between stress and teacher quality of working life (r=-.775). Moderate levels of stress are related to more favorable quality of working life (r=.632). Stress, frequent in teachers, is a significant predictor of poor quality of working life. There are several stressors affecting the teachers’ performance. Career development is not considered among this professional class and it seems related to current job frustration. Considering the role of high school teacher in the development and learning of students, these results should be taken in consideration when planning the graduation and interventions with teachers.

Keywords: career, quality of working life, stress, teachers

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4209 An Analysis of Structural Relationship among Perceived Restorative Environment, Relaxing Experience, Subjective Vitality and the Health-Related Quality of Life of the Participants in Nature-Based Urban Outdoor Recreation

Authors: Lee Jin-Eui, Kim Jin-OK, Han Seung-Hoon, Kim Nam-Jo

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a growing interest in wellbeing where individuals pursue a healthy life. About the half of world population is living in cities, and the urban environment is negatively affecting the mental health of modern people. The stress level of urban dwellers continues to increase, and they pursue nature-based recreation activities to relieve their stresses. It was found that activities in green spaces are improving concentration, relieving mental stress, and positively affecting physical activities and social relationship, thus enhancing the quality of life. For that reason, studies have been continuously conducted on the role of nature, which is a green space for pursuing health and relieving the stress of urban dwellers. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of experiencing a restoration from nature-based outdoor recreation activities of urban dwellers on their quality of life for the groups with high and low-stress levels. The results of the analysis against visitors who trekked and climbed Mt. Bukhan National Park in Seoul, South Korea showed that the effect of perceiving restorative environment on relaxation, calmness and subjective vitality, and the effect of relaxation and calmness on the quality of life were similar in both groups. However, it was found that subjective vitality affected the quality of life in the group with the high-stress group, while it did not show a significant result in the low-stress group. This is because the high-stress group increased their belief in the future and themselves and vitality through nature-based outdoor activities, which in turn affected their quality of life, while people in the low-stress group normally have subjective vitality in their daily lives, not affected by nature-based outdoor recreation. This result suggests that urban dwellers feel relaxed and calm through nature-based outdoor recreation activities with perceived restorative environment, and such activities enhance their quality of life. Therefore, a wellbeing policy is needed to enhance the quality of life of citizens by creating green spaces in city centers for the promotion of public health.

Keywords: healing tourism, nature-based outdoor recreation, perceived restorative environment, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
4208 Supervisory Emotional Display Affects Employee’s Well-Being

Authors: Huan Zhang, Darius K. S Chan

Abstract:

Despite a large number of studies linking emotional labor and its detrimental impact for laborer, research on how emotional labor would influence the receiver is still in its infancy. Especially under the call for “people management”, supervisors inside the organization are more inclined to display happy mood to support their employees, thus endorsing emotional labor. The present study focuses on the employees in the service industry as emotional labor recipients and investigates how they respond to their supervisors’ emotional display, given their sensitivity to emotional cues. Targeted at a sample of 250 survey data from a wide range of customer service professions, this ongoing study examines how perceived supervisory emotional labor would moderate the relationship between employees surface acting and their well-being. Our major hypotheses are that employees’ surface acting predicts well-being level, and that perceived supervisory emotional labor to moderate the surface acting—outcome links. Preliminary findings have provided some support to the hypothesized model. Specifically, supervisors who are perceived to be high in surface acting are also regarded as fake and pseudo, hence the enhancing the detrimental effect of employees’ surface acting is attenuated, resulting in lower job satisfaction, higher physical stress and burnout; whereas perceived high supervisor’s deep acting, as associated with genuine and authenticity, buffers the negative impact and leads to higher job satisfaction, lower physical stress and burnout. This study first confirms the negative impacts of the surface acting on well-being for service industry employees as laborer and then extends the emotional labor studies by considering them as recipients of supervisory emotional labor. The findings provide insights for leaders by pointing out the importance of authentic emotional expression in workplace.

Keywords: perceived supervisory emotional labor, surface acting, well-being

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4207 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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4206 An Examination of the Role of Perceived Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among Selected Bank Employees

Authors: Solomon Ojo

Abstract:

The study set out to investigate the role of perceived leadership style on achievement motivation of selected bank employees. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 585 bank workers took part in the study; 283 (48.4%) were males while 302% (51.6%) were females. Mean age of 31.8 yrs (SD = 7.8 yrs) was reported for the participants for the study. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic. The t- test for independent measures was used to test all the hypotheses, using the statistical package for social sciences version 21.0. The results in the study revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style of leadership reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style of leadership [t(583) = 16.43, p<.001]; bank employees who perceived their leaders as high in initiating structure style reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low in initiating structure style [t(583)=12.06, p<.01]. The results showed further the influence of perceived leadership styles on all measures of job satisfaction. First, the result showed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with hours worked each day than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 9.23, p<.01]. Second, the results revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with flexibility in scheduling than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 8.80, p<.01]. Third, it was shown that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with location of work than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 14.17, p<.01] e.t.c. The results were extensively discussed in relation to relevant body of literature.

Keywords: leadership styles, job satisfaction, bank employees, perceived

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4205 The Prevalence of Postpartum Stress among Jordanian Women

Authors: Khitam Ibrahem Shlash Mohammad

Abstract:

Background: Postnatal depression is a focus of considerable research attention, but little is known about the pattern of stress across this period. Objective: to investigate the prevalence of stress after childbirth for Jordanian women and identify associated risk factors. Method: Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited six to eight weeks postpartum, provided personal, social and obstetric information, and completed the stress subscale of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-S), the Maternity Social Support Scale (MSSS), and Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES). Setting: maternal and child health care clinics in four health care centres in Maan city in Southern Jordan. Participants: Arabic speaking women (n = 324) between the ages of 18 and 45 years, six to eight weeks postpartum, primiparous or multiparous at low risk for obstetric complications. Data collection took place between October 2015 and January 2016. Ethical clearance was obtained prior to data collection. Results: The prevalence of postpartum stress among Jordanian women was 39.8 %. A regression analysis revealed that occupation, low social support, financial problems, difficult marital relationships, difficult relationship with family-in-law, giving birth to a female baby, difficult childbirth, and low self-efficacy were associated with postpartum stress. Conclusions and implications for practice: Jordanian women need support during pregnancy, during and after childbirth. Postpartum emotional support and assessment of symptoms of stress need to be incorporated into routine practice. The opportunity for open discussion along with increased awareness and clarification of common misconceptions about postpartum stress is necessary.

Keywords: prevalence, postpartum, stress, Jordanian women

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4204 Factors Impact Satisfaction and Continuance Intention to Use Facebook

Authors: Bataineh Abdallah, Alabdallah Ghaith, Alkharabshe Abdalhameed

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Social media is an umbrella term for different types of online communication channels. The most prominent forms can be divided into four categories: Collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia, comparison-shopping sites), blogs (e.g. Twitter), content communities (e.g. Youtube), social networking sites (e.g. Facebook) social media allow consumers to share their opinions, criticisms and suggestions in public. Facebook launched in 2004, initially targeted college students and later started including everyone has become the most popular sites amongst the young generation for connecting with friends and relatives and for the communication of ideas. In 2013 Facebook penetration rate reached 41.4% of the population making it the most popular social networking site in Jordan. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to examine the impact of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, perceived enjoyment and subjective norms on users' satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook in Jordan. Using a structured questionnaire, the primary data was collected from 584 users who have an active Facebook accounts. Multiple regression analysis was employed to test the research model and hypotheses. The research findings indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, perceived enjoyment, and subjective norms have a positive and significant effect on users' satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook. The findings also indicated that the strongest predictors, based on beta values, on both users' satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook is subjective norms and respectively, perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of us, and perceived trust. Research results, recommendations, and future research opportunities are also discussed.

Keywords: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, perceived enjoyment, perceived subjective norms, users' satisfaction, continuance intention, Facebook

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4203 Did Nature of Job Matters - Impact of Perceived Job Autonomy on Turnover Intention in Sales and Marketing Managers: Moderating Effect of Procedural and Distributive Justice

Authors: Muhammad Babar Shahzad

Abstract:

The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention in sales & marketing staff. Perceived job autonomy is considered one of most studied dimension of Job Characteristic Model. But still there is a confusion in scholars about predictive role of perceived job autonomy in turnover intention. In line of more complex research on this relation, we investigated the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Did nature of job have any impact on this relationship. On the call of different authors we take interactive effect of perceived job autonomy and procedural justice on turnover intention. Predictive role of distributive justice to employee outcomes is not deniable. But predictive role of distributive justice will be prone in different contextual influences. Interactive role of distributive justice and perceived job autonomy is also not tested before. We collected date from 279 marketing and sales managers working in financial institution, FMCG industries, Pharamesutical Industry & Bank. Strong and direct negative relation was found in perceived job autonomy, distributive justice & procedural justice on turnover intention. Distributive and procedural justice is also amplifying the negative relationship of perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Limitation and future direction for research is also discussed.

Keywords: perceived job autonomy, turnover intention, procedural justice, distributive job

Procedia PDF Downloads 400