Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: overweight

207 Pilot Study of Overweight and Obesity among 8-9 Year Old Schoolchildren in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Z. E. Battakova , G. Z. Tokmurziyeva, S. Z. Abdrakhmanova, A. A. Akimbaeva, A. A. Adaeva

Abstract:

Introduction: In the Republic of Kazakhstan few studies have quantified overweight rates among children. Assessment of overweight and obesity in school children based on measured inter country comparable data has not been implemented. In this regard, in a pilot region, Aktobe oblast, prevalence of obesity among school children was studied based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Methods: The study was conducted on sample of 800 children of 2-3 grades in September 2014. The anthropometric variables were measured by standardized equipment to calculate body mass index. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined for 8 and 9 year old children by gender using WHO growth reference 2007. Results: 21,4% of children aged 8 years old were overweight, and 8,7% were obese. Among 8 year old boys the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23,7% and 10,6% respectively, among girls 18,9% and 6,7% respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 25,7% and obesity was 10,8% for 9 year old children. 29,6% boys of 9 years of age were overweight and 8,6% were obese respectively.20,9% of 9 year old girls were overweight and 13,4% were obese. Conclusion: Thus, 22,6% of children 8-9 years of age at the study population were overweight and 9,3% obese. The results of the survey demonstrate the need for further study of indicators at the national level for internationally comparable data and actions to tackle childhood obesity epidemic as well as the need for monitoring trends of overweight and obesity among children.

Keywords: 8-9 year old school children, obesity, overweight, body mass index

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
206 The Effect of Parents BMI on Overweight and Obesity Elementary School Students in Behbahan City

Authors: Hosseini Siahi Zohreh, Sana Mohammad Jafar

Abstract:

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased in recent decades in different countries. Childhood obesity, increases the risk of adult obesity and its related diseases. Determine the prevalence of the problem in different populations results to screening and adequate intervention and the effects of early and late complications. Various studies have shown Parents and family environment has a significant impact on the incidence of overweight and obesity in children. As parental obesity is directly related to child obesity. In this study were selected randomly 60 girl students with a BMI above the 95th percentile (as fat) and BMI greater than 85 and less than 95 (overweight). So 60 were selected randomly of girl students with a BMI of between 5 and 85 (normal). In the case of boys was done exactly the same. Case and control groups were matched according to age and grade for statistical analysis of SPPS software version 17. According to results the prevalence of overweight and obesity in girl students respectively is 8.7 percent and 13.76 percent and in boy students 9.9 percent and 10.42 percent. Also was not found in boys group the relationship significant between obesity and overweight with parents BMI. Whereas in girls group was found a significant relationship.

Keywords: parents BMI, overweight, obesity, primary school students

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
205 Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Recipients of Antiretroviral Therapy at HIV Clinics in Botswana

Authors: Jose G. Tshikuka, Goabaone Rankgoane-Pono, Mgaywa G. M. D. Magafu, Julius C. Mwita, Tiny Masupe, Fortunat M. Kandanda, Shimeles G. Hamda, Roy Tapera, Mooketsi Molefi, John T. Tlhakanelo

Abstract:

Background: Factors associated with overweight and obesity among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients have not been sufficiently studied in Botswana. We aimed to study (i) the prevalence and trends in overweight/obesity by duration of exposure to ART among recipients, (ii) changes in body mass index (BMI) categories among recipients before ART initiation (BMI-1) and after ART initiation (BMI-2), (iii) associations between ART and overweight/obesity and (iv) factors associated with BMI changes among ART recipients. Methods: A 12 years retrospective record-based review was conducted. Factors potentially associated with BMI change among patients after at least three years of ART exposure were examined using multiple regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. ART regimens, duration of exposure to ART, and recipients’ demographic and biomedical characteristics including the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus related comorbidities (DRC) were investigated as potential factors associated with overweight/obesity. Results: Twenty-nine percent of recipients were overweight, 16.6% had obesity of whom 2.4% were morbidly-obese at the last clinic visit. Overweight/obesity recipients were more likely to be female, to have DRC and less likely to have nadir CD4 count or CD4 count between 201 – 249 cells/mm³. Neither the first-line nor the second-, third-line ART regimens predicted overweight/obesity more than the other and neither did the duration of exposure to ART. No significant linear trends were observed in the prevalence of overweight/obesity by the duration of exposure to ART. Conclusions: These results indicate that overweight/obesity seen among ART recipients is not directly induced by ART. ART used CD4 and/or DRC pathway to induce overweight/obesity seen among recipients; suggesting that, weight gain documented herein is likely a reflection of improved health status that mirrors trends in the general population or a DRC related effect. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

Keywords: overweight/obesity, recipients of antiretroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS, Botswana

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
204 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac J. W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, smoking, parents, risk factors

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203 Family History of Obesity and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac J. W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of history of obesity for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, family history, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eleven studies of family history and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that family history of obesity is a significant risk factor of overweight and /or obesity in offspring; risk for offspring overweight and/or obesity associated with family history varies depending of the family members included in the analysis; and when family history of obesity is present, the offspring are at greater risk for developing obesity or overweight. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, family history, risk factors, meta-analysis

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202 The Effects of Eight Weeks of Interval Endurance Training on hs-CRP Levels and Anthropometric Parameters in Overweight Men

Authors: S. Khoshemehry, M. J. Pourvaghar

Abstract:

Inflammatory markers are known as the main predictors of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at determining the effect of 8 weeks of interval endurance training on hs-CRP level and some anthropometric parameters in overweight men. Following the call for participation in research project in Kashan, 73 volunteers participated in it and constituted the statistical population of the study. Then, 28 overweight young men from the age of 22 to 25 years old were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control group (n=14). Anthropometric and the blood sample was collected before and after the termination of the program for measuring hs-CRP. The interval endurance program was performed at 60 to 75% of maximum heart rate in 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test whether two samples come from the same distribution and T-test was used to assess the difference of two groups which were statistically significant at the level of 0.05. The result indicated that there was a significant difference between the hs-RP, weight, BMI and W/H ratio of overweight men in posttest in the exercise group (P≤0.05) but not in the control group. Interval endurance training program causes decrease in hs-CRP level and anthropometric parameters.

Keywords: interval endurance training program, HS-CRP, overweight, anthropometric

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
201 Dietary Modification and Its Effects in Overweight or Obese Saudi Women with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Dara A. Al-Disi, Asim Al-Fadda, Mohamed Al-Seif, Gyanendra Tripathi, A. L. Harte, Philip G. Mcternan

Abstract:

For the last few decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is increasing alarmingly high and is unprecedented at 31.6 %. Preventive measures should be taken to curb down the increasing incidence. In this prospective, 3-month study, we aimed to determine whether dietary modification program would confer favorable affects among overweight and obese adult Saudi women with or without T2DM. A total of 92 Saudi women [18 healthy controls, 24 overweight subjects and 50 overweight or obese patients with early onset T2DM were included in this prospective study. Baseline anthropometrics and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 3 months. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured routinely. A 500 Kcal deficit energy diet less than their daily recommended dietary allowances were prescribed to all participants. After 3 months of follow-up visit, significant improvements were observed in both the overweight and DMT2 group as compared to baseline with decreased mean BMI [Overweight Group 28.54±1.49 versus 27.95±2.25, p<0.05; DMT2 group 35.24±7.67 versus 35.04±8.07, p<0.05] and hip circumference [Overweight group 109.67±5.01 versus 108.07±4.07, p<0.05; DMT2 group 112.3±13.43 versus 109.21±12.71, p<0.01]. Moreover, in the overweight group, baseline HDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with protein intake and inversely associated with carbohydrate intake in controls. In the DMT2 group, carbohydrate intake at baseline was significantly associated with BMI. A 3-month 500kcal/day deficit dietary modification alone is probably effective among adult overweight or obese Saudi females without or with T2DM. Longer prospective studies are to determine whether the dietary intervention alone can reduce progression of T2DM among high-risk adult Arabs.

Keywords: diet, lipid, obesity, T2DM

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200 Obese and Overweight Women and Public Health Issues in Hillah City, Iraq

Authors: Amean A. Yasir, Zainab Kh. A. Al-Mahdi Al-Amean

Abstract:

In both developed and developing countries, obesity among women is increasing, but in different patterns and at very different speeds. It may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. This research studied the age distribution among obese women, the types of overweight and obesity, and the extent of the problem of overweight/obesity and the obesity etiological factors among women in Hillah city in central Iraq. A total of 322 overweight and obese women were included in the study, those women were randomly selected. The Body Mass Index was used as indicator for overweight/ obesity. The incidence of overweight/obesity among age groups were estimated, the etiology factors included genetic, environmental, genetic/environmental and endocrine disease. The overweight and obese women were screened for incidence of infection and/or diseases. The study found that the prevalence of 322 overweight and obese women in Hillah city in central Iraq was 19.25% and 80.78%, respectively. The obese women types were recorded based on BMI and WHO classification as class-1 obesity (29.81%), class-2 obesity (24.22%) and class-3 obesity (26.70%), the result was discrepancy non-significant, P value < 0.05. The incidence of overweight in women was high among those aged 20-29 years (90.32%), 6.45% aged 30-39 years old and 3.22% among ≥ 60 years old, while the incidence of obesity was 20.38% for those in the age group 20-29 years, 17.30% were 30-39 years, 23.84% were 40-49 years, 16.92% were 50-59 years group and 21.53% were ≥ 60 years age group. These results confirm that the age can be considered as a significant factor for obesity types (P value < 0.0001). The result also showed that the both genetic factors and environmental factors were responsible for incidents of overweight or obesity (84.78%) p value < 0.0001. The results also recorded cases of different repeated infections (skin infection, recurrent UTI and influenza), cancer, gallstones, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and infertility. Weight stigma and bias generally refers to negative attitudes; Obesity can affect quality of life, and the results of this study recorded depression among overweight or obese women. This can lead to sexual problems, shame and guilt, social isolation and reduced work performance. Overweight and Obesity are real problems among women of all age groups and is associated with the risk of diseases and infection and negatively affects quality of life. This result warrants further studies into the prevalence of obesity among women in Hillah City in central Iraq and the immune response of obese women.

Keywords: obesity, overweight, Iraq, body mass index

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199 Trend of Overweight and Obesity, Based on Population Study among School Children in North West of Iran: Implications for When to Intervene

Authors: Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Fatemeh Rezaiegoyjeloo, Parvin Ayremlou, Fariba Babaie

Abstract:

Introduction: Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. Overweight and obesity in children may have severe consequences later in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of current study was to determine the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in school-aged children from 2009 to 2011. Methods: The present study was a population-based study and conducted in three consecutive years, from 2009 to 2011. The study population included all of primary, secondary and high school children in rural and urban regions of West Azarbijan province in West-North of Iran. Body mass index (BMI), the ratio of weight to height squared [weight (kg)]/ [height (m)]2, was calculated to the nearest decimal place. Overweight and obesity were classified using CDC recommendations for age and sex: a BMI 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI>95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: Overall, 165740, 145146 and 146203 school children were assessed at 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Prevalence of overweight in primary school children among girls were 52.83, 86.93 and 116.36 and for boys were 57.07, 53.4 and 93.55 per 1000 person in 2009, 2010 and 2011 years ,respectively. The prevalence of obesity in secondary school children for girls were 22.26, 27.75 and 28.43 and 26.52, 25.72 and 35.85 for boys per 1000 person in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, The highest prevalence of overweight was 77.58, 142.4 and 126.46 per 1000 person among primary, secondary and high school children, respectively, in 2011. The lowest prevalence of obesity was 12.52, 24.1 and 21.61 per 1000 person among primary, secondary and high school children, respectively, in 2009. Conclusion: However, the rapid increase in both obesity and overweight should have a special attention. Research on prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in children is poorly reported in Iran. So that, future studies need to follow-up on the associations between overweight and obesity with health outcomes when children develop and reach adolescence and adulthood.

Keywords: overweight, obesity, school children, prevalence trend, Iran

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198 Relationship between Exercise Activity with Incidence of Overweight-Obesity in Medical Students

Authors: Randy M. Fitratullah, Afriwardi, Nurhayati

Abstract:

Overweight-obesity caused by exercise. The objective of this research is to analyze the relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of medical faculty of Andalas Univesity batch 2013. This is an analytical observational research with case-control method. This research conducted in FK Unand on September-October 2015. The population of this research is medical students batch 2013. 26 samples (13 samples were case, 13 samples were control) were taken by purposive sampling technique and analysed using statistical univariate and bivariate analysis. Exercise questionnaire was used as research instruments. Based on the interview with questionnaire, anaerobic exercise was majority in case group and aerobic exercise was majority in control group. The case and control group have a rare category in exercise. Less category was majority in exercise duration of case and enough category was majority in control group. Bivariate analysis is using chi-square test with cell combining to 2x2 table, obtained p-value=0.097 in sort of exercise, p-value=1,000 in the frequency of exercise, and p-value=0,112 in duration of exercise, which means statistically unsignificant. There is no relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of FK Unand batch 2013. For medical students suffers overweight-obesity is suggested for increase the frequency of exercise.

Keywords: overweight-obesity, exercise, aerobic, anaerobic, frequency, duration

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197 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Children

Authors: Jing-Jing Wang, Yang Gao, Heather H. M. Kwok, Wendy Y. J. Huang

Abstract:

Objectives: Intellectual disability (ID) ranks among the top 20 most costly disorders. A child with ID creates a wide set of challenges to the individual, family, and society, and overweight and obesity aggravate those challenges. People with ID have the right to attain optimal health like the rest of the population. They should be given priority to eliminate existing health inequities. Childhood obesity epidemic and associated factors among children, in general, has been well documented, while knowledge about overweight and obesity in children with ID is scarce. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 524 Chinese children with ID (males: 68.9%, mean age: 12.2 years) in Hong Kong in 2015. Children’s height and weight were measured at school. Parents, in the presence of their children, completed a self-administered questionnaire at home about the children’s physical activity (PA), eating habits, and sleep duration in a typical week as well as parenting practices regarding children’s eating and PA, and their socio-demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression estimated the potential risk factors for children being overweight. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with ID was 31.3%, which was higher than their general counterparts (18.7%-19.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the risk factors of overweight and obese in children with ID included: comorbidity with autism, the maternal side being overweight or obese, parenting practices with less pressure to eat more, children having shorter sleep duration, longer periods of sedentary behavior, and higher intake frequencies of sweetened food, fried food, and meats, fish, and eggs. Children born in other places, having snacks more frequently, and having irregular meals were also more likely to be overweight or obese, with marginal significance. Conclusions: Children with ID are more vulnerable to being overweight or obese than their typically developing counterparts. Identified risk factors in this study highlight a multifaceted approach to the involvement of parents as well as the modification of some children’s questionable behaviors to help them achieve a healthy weight.

Keywords: prevalence, risk factors, obesity, children with disability

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196 Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alemayehu A. Alemayehu, Shikur Mohammed, Zewdu Shewangezaw, Mukerem Abdo, Gebresilasea Gendisha

Abstract:

Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.

Keywords: adolescents, NCDs, overweight, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
195 The Effect of Endurance Training on Serum VCAM-1 in Overweight Women

Authors: Soheily Shahram, Banaeifar Abdolali, Yadegari Elham

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Vascular adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) is one of the factors associating obesity and inflammatory lesions like atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on serum concentration of VCAM-1 in overweight women. Thirty female overweight (BMI ≥ 25) voluntarily participated in our study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Endurance training or control group. Training group exercised for 12 weeks, three sessions a week with definite intensity and distance. Pre and post 12 weeks of endurance training blood samples were taken (5cc) in fasting state from all subjects. Data was analyzed via independent t test (p≤0.05). The results showed that endurance training had significant effect on VCAM, body weight, fat percentage, BMI and maximum oxygen consumption (p ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrates that endurance training caused a decrease in the adhesion molecules level and decreasing inflammation, endurance training may perhaps play an effective role in atherosclerosis.

Keywords: endurance training, vascular cell adhesion molecules, overweight women, serum concentration

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194 Prevalence of Obesity in Kuwait: A Case Study among Kuwait University Students

Authors: Mohammad Alnasrallah, Muhammad Almatar

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This study seeks to understand the relationship between the effect of geography and obesity prevalence among Kuwait University students. The sample involved 735 participants, 231 male, and 504 females, where there is a high percentage of them are overweight and obese. The percentage of overweight is 21% (BMI >25 - 30) while the percentage of obesity is 13.7% (BMI > 30). Both overweight and obese people account for 34.7%. In the study area, there are 327 fast food restaurants located in different places of in the urban area. This study uses the Geographic Information System to analyze the distribution of obesity and fast food restaurants. The study found that within half kilometers of fast food outlets, there are 33% of normal weight (BMI < 25), 30% of overweight while for the obese people there are 43 %, which shows that obesity is linked to the location of fast food restaurants. One of the significant tools that were used in this study hot and cold spots. The study found that areas of hot spots of fast food restaurants tend to be located in areas of hot spots of obese people. In conclusion, studying the prevalence of obesity from geographical perspective help to understand this public health issue and its relation to the effect of geography.

Keywords: obesity prevalence, GIS, fast food, Kuwait

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193 Nutritional Status and Body Image Perception among Thai Adolescents

Authors: Nareemarn Neelapaichit, Sookfong Wongsathapat, Noppawan Piaseu

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Body image plays an important role in adolescents. Thai adolescents put high concern on their body image result in unsatisfied their body shapes. Therefore, inappropriate weight management methods have been used. This study examined the body image perception and the nutritional status of Thai adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 181 nursing students of Ramathibodi School of Nursing to categorized obesity, overweight, normal weight and underweight respondents by using recommended body-mass index (BMI) cut-off points for Asian populations. Self report questionnaire on demographics and body image perception were completed. Results showed that the respondents were mainly female (93.4%) and their mean age were 19.2 years. The prevalence of obesity, overweight, normal weight and underweight of the nursing students were 5.5%, 7.2%, 55.2% and 32.0%, respectively. Of all the respondents, 57.5% correctly perceived themselves, with 37.0% overestimating and 5.5% underestimating their weight status. Of those in the obesity category, 20.0% correctly perceived themselves and 80.0% perceived themselves as overweight. For overweight category, total respondents correctly perceived themselves. Fifty two percent of the normal weight respondents perceived themselves as overweight and 2.0% perceived themselves as obesity. Of the underweight respondents, 77.6% correctly perceived themselves and 20.7% perceived themselves as normal weight. These findings show high occurrence of body image misperception among Thai adolescents. Being concerned with this situation can promote adolescents for healthy weight and practice appropriate weight management methods.

Keywords: nutritional status, body image perception, Thai adolescents, body-mass index (BMI)

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192 The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Public and Private Schools in Two Senatorial Districts of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. Akinola, R. Mustapha

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Obesity is the most serious long-term health problem currently facing adolescents and its prevalence increasing worldwide including developing countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out among age 11-19 years in both public and private school in the urban area of the state. The data was collected using pretest self-administered questionnaire; Anthropometric measurement was also used to examine their nutritional status. Obesity status were determined using BMI cut off point, the overweight was found to be 3.06% among female and 0.6% among male whereas the prevalence of obesity was 0.46% in female and non among male. 62.6% snack daily, fruit consumption pattern was low 0.6%, and 43.7% spend between 4-5 hours watching television daily after school. A positive association exists between the lifestyle and nutritional status of the respondents. Education effort to improve nutrition knowledge can be incorporated into course curriculum and focus on various components within the system when implementing preventive measure on obesity.

Keywords: adolescent, obesity, overweight, prevalence

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191 Efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the Reduction of HbA1c in Overweight Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rohit Sane, Pravin Ghadigaonkar, Purvi Ahuja, Suvarna Tirmare, Archana Kelhe, Kranti Shinde, Rahul Mandole

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To evaluate the efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the reduction of HbA1c in overweight Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients retrospectively. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out on 34 overweight type II diabetic patients (Mean Age = 54.58 ±11.38 yrs). A total of 34 patients were enrolled after screening of 68 patients (HbA1c 7-10%). The patients were on concomitant drugs namely insulin (11.76%), DPP-4 inhibitor (17.64%), Biguanide (55.88%), Sulfonylurea (52.94%), thiazolidinedione (11.76%), other medications (20.58%) and no allopathic medications (14.70%). The patients were given Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program consisting of panchkarma procedures namely snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy) and basti (enema), which was completed in 15 sittings. During the therapy and next 90 days, the patients followed low carbohydrate and moderate protein & fat diet. The primary endpoint of this study was the evaluation of reduction in HbA1c at the end of the follow-up after 90 days. Results: Thirty-four overweight type II diabetic patients (mean age: 54.58[±11.38], HbA1c[7-10%], 67.64% male and 32.35% female) were enrolled in the study. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels (14.30%, p<0.05) at the end of the 90 days follow-up as compared to baseline. Also, BMI was reduced by 5.87%. There was reduction in the usage of the concomitant drugs namely insulin (2.94%), DPP-4 inhibitor (2.94%), Biguanide (32.35%), Sulfonylurea (35.29%), thiazolidinedione (5.88%), other medications(17.64%) and no allopathic medications (32.35%). Conclusion: The results of the study highlight not only in the reduction of HbA1c, but also in BMI and drug tapering of the CDC program in the overweight type II diabetic patients with HbA1c (7-10%).

Keywords: HbA1c, low carb diet, Panchakarma therapy, Type II Diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
190 A Preliminary Outcome of the Effect of an Accumulating 10,000 Daily Steps on Blood Pressure and Diabetes in Overweight Thai Participants

Authors: Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat, Duangnate Pepatsitipong, Panthip Sangprasert

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High blood pressure and diabetes have been suggested as being non-communicable disease (NCDs), and there is one of the components of the definition of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week pedometer based community walking intervention on change in resting blood pressure and blood glucose in participants with overweight in the community setting. Method: Participants were recruited both males and females who had a sedentary lifestyle aged 35-59 years (mean aged 49.67 years). A longitudinal quasi-experimental study was designed with 35 overweight participants who had body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. These volunteers were assigned to the 12-week pedometer-based walking program (an accumulated at least 10,000 steps a day). Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured initially before and after 12-week intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in 30 individuals who had accumulated 10,000 steps d-1 in the intervention group at 12 week follow-up (-13.74 mmHg and 5.3 bpm, respectively). In addition, reduction in blood glucose (-14.89 mmol) in the intervention participants was statistically significant (p < .001). A regression analysis indicated that reductions in systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the increase in steps per day. Conclusion: The accumulation of least 10,000 steps d-1 resulted in decreased resting systolic blood pressure and blood glucose in overweight participants. This has also shown that an increase in physical activity in overweight participants with sedentary lifestyle by accumulating at least 10,000 steps a day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension and diabetes).

Keywords: blood glucose, blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, walking

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189 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women

Authors: Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Mohammad Sajadian, Shadi Alipour

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The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.

Keywords: heart diseases, aerobic exercise, inflammation, CRP, overweight

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
188 Resistance Training Contribution to the Aerobic Component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines in Adults

Authors: Neha Bharti, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

Abstract:

Mostly attributed to lack of time, only 15% of adults currently reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines, which state that every adult should achieve minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week at moderate to vigorous intensity in minimum bouts of 10 minutes each, in addition to two days of resistance training. Recent studies have suggested that any bout of aerobic exercise reaching moderate intensity has potential to improve health. If one could reach moderate intensity while doing resistance training, this could reduce the total weekly time involvement to reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Objectives: 1) To determine whether overweight and older adults can reach a minimum of moderate intensity while doing resistance training compared with young non-overweight adults, 2) To identify if the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity is different in overweight adults and older adults when compared with young non-overweight adults when lifting 70% or 80% of maximal load, 3) To determine variables associated with proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity while doing resistance training. Methods: Sixty participants already doing resistance training were recruited (20 young non-overweight adults, 20 overweight adults, and 20 older adults). Participants visited fitness facility three times, separated by at least 48 hours, and performed eight resistance exercises each time. First visit was to collect baseline measurements and to measure maximal load for each of the eight exercises. Second and third visits were performed wearing a heart rate monitor to record heart rate and to measure exercise intensity. The two exercise sessions were performed at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity. Moderate intensity was defined as 40% of heart rate reserve. Results: The proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity ranged from 51% to 93% among the three groups. No difference was observed between the young group and the overweight adults group in the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity, 82.6% (69.2-94.6) vs 92.5% (73.3-99.1). However, older adults spent lower proportion of time at moderate to vigorous intensity for both sessions 51.5% (22.0-86.6); P < .01. When doing resistance training at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity, the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was 82.3% (56.1-94.7) and 82.0% (59.2-98.0) with no significant difference (P=.83). Conclusion: This study suggests that overweight adults and older adults can reach moderate intensity for at least 51% of the time spent doing resistance training. However, time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was lower for older adults compared to young non-overweight adults. For adults aged 60 or less, three resistance training sessions of 60 minutes weekly could be enough to reach both aerobic and resistance training components of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Further research is needed to test if resistance training at moderate to vigorous intensity can have the same health benefits compared with adults completing the International Physical Activity Guidelines as currently suggested.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, international physical activity guidelines, moderate to vigorous intensity, resistance training

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187 Driving towards Better Health: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Obesity among Commercial Drivers in East London, South Africa

Authors: Daniel Ter Goon, Aanuoluwa O. Adedokun, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Anthony Idowu Ajayi

Abstract:

Background: The unhealthy food choices and sedentary lifestyle of commercial drivers predisposes them to obesity and obesity related diseases. Yet, no attention has been paid to obesity burden among this high risk group in South Africa. This study examines the prevalence of obesity and its risk factors among commercial drivers in East London, South Africa. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the WHO STEP wise approach to screen for obesity among 403 drivers in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa. Anthropometric, blood pressure and blood glucose measurements were taken following a standard procedure. Overweight and obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 kgm⁻²–29.9 kg/m² and≥ 30 kg/ m², respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the prevalence and determinants of obesity. Result: The mean age of the participants was 43.3 (SD12.5) years, mean height (cm) and weight (kg) were 170.1(6.2cm) and 83(SD18.7), respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 34.0% and 38.0%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, only age (OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.7), hypertension (OR 3.6, CI 2.3-5.7) and non-smoking (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1) were independent predictors of obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among commercial drivers. Age, hypertension, and non-smoking were independent predictors of obesity among the sample. Measures aimed at promoting health and reducing obesity should be prioritized among this group.

Keywords: obesity and overweight, commercial taxi drivers, risk factors, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
186 The Effect of Physical Activity and Responses of Leptin

Authors: Sh. Khoshemehry, M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram

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In modern life, daily physical activity is relatively reduced, which is why the incidence of some diseases associated with overweight and obesity, such as hypertension, diabetes and other chronic illnesses, even in young people are observed. Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the past, it was believed that adipose tissue was ineffective and served only for storing triglycerides. In this review article, it was tried to refer to the esteemed scientific sources about physical activity and responses of leptin.

Keywords: disease, leptin, obesity, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
185 The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise after Consumption of Four Different Diets on Serum Levels Irisin, Insulin and Glucose in Overweight Men

Authors: Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Abdolhamid Habibi, Majid Mohammad Shahi

Abstract:

The combination of exercise and diet as the most important strategy to reduce weight and control obesity-related factors, including Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose was raised. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise combined with four different diets on serum levels of Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose in overweight men. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 8 overweight men (BMI 29.23±0.47) with average age of (23±1.6) voluntarily participated in 4 sessions by one-week interval. The study was done in exercise physiology lab. In each session, subjects performed a 30 minutes treadmill test with 60-70% of maximum heart rate, after consuming a high carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein and normal diet. For biochemical measurement, three blood samples were taken in fasting state, two hours after meals and after exercise Results: Statistical analysis of data showed that the serum levels of Irisin after consumption all four diets had been reduced which this reduce as a result of high-fat diet that were significantly (p ≤ 0/038). Serum concentration of Insulin and Glucose increased after consuming four diets. However, increase in serum Insulin and Glucose was significant only after consuming high-carbohydrate diet (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/042). In addition, during exercise after consuming all four regular diet, high carbohydrate, high-protein and high-fat, Irisin significant increased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/021, p ≤ 0/049, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/003), Insulin decreased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/002, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002) and Glucose were significantly reduced (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002). After aerobic activity following the consumption of a high protein diet the highest increase in irisin levels, and after aerobic exercise following consumption of high carbohydrate diet the greatest decrease in insulin and glucose levels were observed. Conclusion: It seems that diet alone and exercises following different consumption diets can have a significant effect on Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose serum levels in overweight young men.

Keywords: acute aerobic exercise, diet, irisin, overweight

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
184 Markers for Predicting Overweight or Obesity of Riding Egyptian Broodmares Mares

Authors: Amal Abo El-Maaty, Amira Mohamed, Nashwa Abu-Aita, Hisham Morgan

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For estimating markers of overweight or obesity of brood mares used for riding and training, 17 mares of different body conditions were subjected to blood sampling and ultrasound examination to measure rump fat thickness and monitor ovulation for six consecutive weeks. Also length (L), heart girth (G) and withers height (H) were measured to estimate body weight (BW), body fat %, body fat mass (BFM) and body mass index (BMI). Mares were classified into three groups according to both body condition score (BCS) and rump back fat (BF). Overweight mares (O) were having BCS > 7 and BF thickness >7mm, moderate body condition (M) mares were having BCS >3and ≤7and BF <3and <7mm, and emaciated mares (E) were having BCS ≤3 and BF ≤3mm. glucose, triglycerides, nitric oxide, ovarian, thyroid, insulin, insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1), and leptin hormones were measured. Results revealed that BCS, G, L, L*G*H, BW, BF, fat %, BFM were significantly (P<0.0001) decreasing linearly from O to E. T4 concentrations of E were significantly high (P=0.04) compared to M and O but T3 concentrations tended to decrease in E (P>0.05). Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations tended to be high in O (P>0.05) and decrease with the decrease of body condition. M had (P=0.007) the highest leptin, but E mares had the lowest P4 concentrations (P=0.01). Concentrations of glucose and NO decreased with the decrease of BCS and BF but triglycerides of O were insignificantly high. In conclusion, exercise could prevent the development of metabolic syndrome in horses and back fat and morphometric measurements were the easiest and simple assessment of overweight and deviation to obesity.

Keywords: body condition score, insulin, leptin, mares, rump fat

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
183 The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women with Chronic Asthma

Authors: Somayeh Negahdari, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Masoud Nikbakht, Heshmatolah Tavakol

Abstract:

Asthma, obesity and overweight are the main factors causing change within the heart and respiratory airways. Asthma symptoms are normally observed during exercising. Epidemiological studies have indicated asthma symptoms occurring due to certain lifestyle habits; for example, a sedentary lifestyle. In this study, eight weeks of aerobic exercises resulted in a positive effect overall in overweight women experiencing mild chronic asthma. The quasi-experimental applied research has been done based on experimental and control groups. The experimental group (seven patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded before and after the test. According to the Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index, the training intensity has determined. Participants in the study performed a sub-maximal aerobic activity schedule (45% to 80% of maximum heart rate) for two months, while the control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance compared both the pre-test and post-test with paired t-test at significance level of P≤ 0.05. After eight weeks of exercise, the results of the experimental group show a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation, while a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance activity (P ≤ 0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters ((P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate the aerobic activity can strengthen the respiratory muscles, while other physiological factors could result in breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters, and exercise tolerance of overweight women with chronic asthma.

Keywords: asthma, respiratory cardiac index, exercise tolerance, aerobic, overweight

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
182 Food Consumption Pattern and Other Associated Factors of Overweight/Obesity and the Prevalence of Dysglyceamia/Diabetes among Employees Attached to the Ministry of Economic Development

Authors: G. S. Sumanasekara, A. Balasuriya

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Introduction: In Sri Lanka studies reveal higher trend in prevalence of diabetes. The office employees have sedentary life style and their eating patterns changed due to nutritional transition. Further overall, urban and rural pre diabetes is also increasing. Objectives - Study the general food pattern of office employees and its relation to overweight/obesity and prevalence of diabetes among them. Method: The data was collected from office employees between 30-60 years (n-400).Data analyzed using SPSS 16 version.The Study design was a descriptive cross sectional study. The study setting was Ministry of Economic Development. Anthropometric measurements and blood glucose assessed by trained nurses. Dietary pattern was studied through a food frequency questionairre thereby calculated daily nutrient intakes. Results: Mean age of office employees were 38.98 SD (7.033) CI=95%) and 245 females (61.2%) 155 males (38.8 %) ,Nationality includes Sinhala (67.5%), Tamil(20%), and Muslims (12.5%).Owerweight(7,1.8%), obese male(36,9%), obese female(66,16%)/ diabetes/obese(18,4.5%) out of 127(31.8%) who were above the normal BMI whereas 273(68.2) were within the normal. Mean BMI was 24.1593.Mean Blood sugar level was 104.646,SD(16.018).12% consume tobacco products,17.8 consumed alcohol.15.8% had nutrition training. Two main dietary patterns identified who were vegetarians and non vegetarians .Mean energy intake 1727.1, (SD 4.97), Mean protein consumption(11.33, SD 1.811), Mean fat consumption(24.07, SD 4.131),Mean CHO consumption (64.56, SD 4.54), Mean Fibre (30.05, SD 17.9), Mean cholesterol(16.85, SD 17.22), Energy intake was higher in non vegetarians and larger propotion of energy derived from proteins , and fat. Their carbohydrate and cholesterol intake was also higher. Tamils were mostly vegetarians. Mainly BMI were within normal range(18.5-23.5) whereas Muslims who had higher energy intakes showed BMI above the normal. Conclusion: Two distinct dietary patterns identified. Different ethnic groups consume different diets with different nutrient composition. Dietary pattern has a relation to overweight. Overweight related to high blood glucose levels but some overweight subjects do not show any relation.

Keywords: obesity, overweight, diabetes, dietary pattern, nutrition, BMI, non communicable disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
181 Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Nutrition Related Non-Communicable Diseases in a Cohort of Males in the Central Province of Sri Lanka

Authors: N. W. I. A. Jayawardana, W. A. T. A. Jayalath, W. M. T. Madhujith, U. Ralapanawa, R. S. Jayasekera, S. A. S. B. Alagiyawanna, A. M. K. R. Bandara, N. S. Kalupahana

Abstract:

There is mounting evidence to the effect that dietary and lifestyle changes affect the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study was conducted to investigate the association of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and duration of sleep with overweight, obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2694 individuals aged between 17 – 68 years (Mean = 31) were included in the study. Body Mass Index cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants as normal, overweight and obese. The dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] and data on the level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and sleeping hours were obtained using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, random blood glucose levels were measured to determine the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Among the individuals, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34% and 16.4% respectively. Approximately 37% of the participants suffered from hypertension. Overweight and obesity were associated with older age men (P<0.0001), frequency of smoking (P=0.0434), alcohol consumption level (P=0.0287) and the quantity of lipid intake (P=0.0081). Consumption of fish (P=0.6983) and salty snacks (P=0.8327), sleeping hours (P=0.6847) and the level of physical activity were not significantly (P=0.3301) associated with the incidence of overweight and obesity. Based on the fitted model, only age was significantly associated with hypertension (P < 0.001). Further, age (P < 0.0001), sleeping hours (P=0.0953) and consumption of fatty foods (P=0.0930) were significantly associated with diabetes. Age was associated with higher odds of pre diabetes (OR:1.089;95% CI:1.053,1.127) and diabetes (OR:1.077;95% CI:1.055,1.1) whereas 7-8 hrs. of sleep per day was associated with lesser odds of diabetes (OR:0.403;95% CI:0.184,0.884). High prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in working-age males is a threatening sign for this area. As this population ages in the future and urbanization continues, the prevalence of above risk factors will likely to escalate.

Keywords: age, males, non-communicable diseases, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
180 Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Lean Versus Overweight/Obese Peri-Urban Female Adolescent School Learners in Mthatha, South Africa: A Pilot Case Control Study

Authors: Benedicta N. Nkeh-Chungag, Constance R. Sewani-Rusike, Isaac M. Malema, Daniel T. Goon, Oladele V. Adeniyi, Idowu A. Ajayi

Abstract:

Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is an important predictor of adult cardiometabolic diseases. Current data on age- and gender-specific cardiometabolic risk factors are lacking in the peri-urban Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. However, such information is important in designing innovative strategies to promote healthy living among children and adolescents. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare and determine the extent of cardiometabolic risk factors between samples of lean and overweight/obese adolescent population in a peri-urban township of South Africa. Methods: In this case-control study, age-matched, non-pregnant and non-lactating female adolescents consisting of equal number of cases (50 overweight/obese) and control (50 lean) participated in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (Trig), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumferences. Body mass index was calculated. Blood pressure was measured; and metabolic syndrome was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results: Of the 76 participants with complete data, 12/38 of the overweight/obese and 1/38 of the lean group met the criteria for adolescent metabolic syndrome. All cardiometabolic risk factors were elevated in the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: low HDL-C (RR = 2.21), elevated TC (RR = 1.23), elevated LDL-C (RR = 1.42), elevated Trig (RR = 1.73), and elevated hsCRP (RR = 1.9). There were significant atherosclerotic indices among the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: TC/HDL and LDL/HDL (2.99±0.91 vs 2.63±0.48; p=0.016 and 1.73±0.61 vs 1.41±0.46; p= 0.014, respectively). Conclusion: There are multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among the overweight/obese female adolescent group compared with lean adolescent group in the study. Female adolescent who are overweight and obese have higher relative risks of developing cardiometabolic diseases compared with their lean counterparts in the peri-urban Mthatha, South Africa. School health programme focusing on promoting physical exercise, healthy eating and keeping appropriate weight are needed in the country.

Keywords: adolescents, cardiometabolic risk factors, obesity, peri-urban South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
179 The Effects of Three Months of HIIT on Plasma Adiponectin on Overweight College Men

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram, M. Sayyah, Sh. Khoshemehry

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Adiponectin is a cytokine secreted by the adipose tissue that functions as an anti-inflammatory, antiathrogenic and anti-diabetic substance. Its density is inversely correlated with body mass index. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) with the level of serum adiponectin and some selected adiposity markers in overweight and fat college students. This was a clinical research in which 24 students with BMI between 25 kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2. The sample was purposefully selected and then randomly assigned into two groups of experimental (age =22.7±1.5 yr.; weight = 85.8±3.18 kg and height =178.7±3.29 cm) and control (age =23.1±1.1 yr.; weight = 79.1±2.4 kg and height =181.3±4.6 cm), respectively. The experimental group participated in an aerobic exercise program for 12 weeks, three sessions per weeks at a high intensity between 85% to 95% of maximum heart rate (considering the over load principle). Prior and after the termination of exercise protocol, the level of serum adiponectin, BMI, waist to hip ratio, and body fat percentages were calculated. The data were analyzed by using SPSS: PC 16.0 and statistical procedure such as ANCOVA, was used. The results indicated that 12 weeks of intensive interval training led to the increase of serum adiponectin level and decrease of body weight, body fat percent, body mass index and waist to hip ratio (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this research, it may be concluded that participation in intensive interval training for 12 weeks is a non-invasive treatment to increase the adiponectin level while decreasing some of the anthropometric indices associated with obesity or being overweight.

Keywords: adiponectin, cardiovascular, interval, overweight, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
178 Diagnosis and Management of Obesity Among South Asians: A Paradigm

Authors: Deepa Vasudevan, Thomas Northrup, Angela Stotts, Michelle Klawans

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To date, we have conducted three studies on this subject. The research done to date is through three studies. The initial study was to document that modified criteria independently identified higher numbers of overweight/obese South Asian Indians. The second study was to document physician knowledge of appropriate diagnosis of obesity among South Asian Indians. The final study was an intervention to evaluate the efficacy of a training module on improving physician diagnosis and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients.

Keywords: South Asian Indians, obesity, physicians, BMI and waist circumference

Procedia PDF Downloads 271