Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: grandmothers

8 Infant and Young Child Dietary Diversification Using Locally Available Foods after Nutrition Education in Rural Malawi

Authors: G. C. Phiri, E. A. Heil, A. A. Kalimbira, E. Muehlhoff, C. Masangano, B. M. Mtimuni, J. Herrmann, M. B. Krawinkel, I. Jordan


Background and objectives: High prevalence of undernutrition in Malawi is caused by poor complementary foods. Lack of knowledge of age appropriate food within the household might affect utilization of available resources. FAO-Malawi implemented nutrition education (NE) sessions in 200 villages in Kasungu and Mzimba districts from December 2012 to April 2013 targeting 15 caregivers per village of children aged 6-18 months, grandmothers, spouses and community leaders. Two trained volunteers per village facilitated 10 NE sessions on breastfeeding, food safety and hygiene and complementary feeding using locally available resources. This study assessed the reported dietary diversification practices of infant and young child after nutrition education and the factors that influenced adoption of the practice. Methodology: Questionnaire-based interviews with caregivers were conducted in 16 randomly selected villages (n=108) before training-(t1) and seven months after training-(t2). Knowledge score (KS) was calculated on the indicators breastfeeding, hygiene and complementary feeding. Count regression was performed using SPSS 22. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were separately conducted among caregivers and grandmothers in 4 villages. Content analysis was used to analyze FGDs data. Results: Following NE, caregivers' KS significantly increased (p<0.001) between t1 and t2 for breastfeeding (7.7 vs. 9.8, max=18), hygiene (3.8 vs. 5.9, max=7) and complementary feeding (10.2 vs. 16.2, max=26). Caregivers indicated that they stopped preparation of plain-refined maize meal porridge after they gained knowledge on dietary diversification of complementary foods. They learnt mushing and pounding of ingredients for enriched porridge. Whole-maize meal or potatoes were often enriched with vegetables, legumes, small fish or eggs and cooking oil. Children liked the taste of enriched porridge. Amount of enriched porridge consumed at each sitting increase among previously fussy-eater children. Meal frequency increased by including fruits as snacks in child’s diet. Grandmothers observed preparation of enriched porridge among the mothers using locally available foods. Grandmothers liked the taste of enriched porridge and not the greenish color of the porridge. Both grandmothers and mothers reported that children were playing independently after consuming enriched porridge and were strong and healthy. These motivated adoption of the practice. Conclusion: Increased knowledge and skill of preparation and utilisation of locally available foods promoted children’s dietary diversification. Children liking the enriched porridge motivated adoption of dietary diversification.

Keywords: behaviour change, complementary feeding, dietary diversification, IYCN

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7 Of Love and Isolation: Narratives of Siblings of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi


Aim: Siblings of children with cerebral palsy are often in the periphery of discussions; their views not always taken into account. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young siblings of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and artwork were gathered from 10 children who have siblings diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The data was analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes within the narratives. Results: The key themes to emerge were complex and nuanced. These included themes of love and feeling of protectiveness; jealousy and uncertainly; guilt and hope. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to take document the views of siblings who are often on the margins of the family and of family decisions and discussions. It also supports the need to offer safe spaces and opportunities for siblings of children with disabilities to express their feelings and to receive support where required.

Keywords: disability, grandmothers, mothers, narratives, women

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6 A Study of Challenges Faced and Support Systems Available for Emirati Student Mothers Post-Childbirth

Authors: Martina Dickson, Lilly Tennant


The young Emirati female university students of today are the first generation of women in the UAE for whom higher education as become not only a possibility, but almost an expectation. Young women in the UAE today make up around 77% of students in higher education institutes in the country. However, the societal expectations placed upon these women in terms of early marriage, child-bearing and rearing are similar to those placed upon their mothers and grandmothers in a time where women were not expected to go to university. A large proportion of female university students in the UAE are mothers of young children, or become mothers whilst at the university. This creates a challenging situation for young student mothers, where two weeks’ maternity leave is typical across institutions. The context of this study is in one such institution in the UAE. We have employed a mixed method approach to gathering interview data from twenty mothers, and survey data from over one hundred mothers. The main findings indicate that mothers have strong desires for their institution to support them more, for example by the provision of nursery facilities and resting areas for new mothers, and giving them greater flexibility over course selections and schedules including the provision of online learning. However, the majority felt supported on a personal level by their tutors. The major challenges which they identified in returning to college after only two weeks’ leave included the inevitable health and lack of sleep issues when caring for a newborn, struggling to catch up with missed college work and handling their course load. We also explored the women's’ home support systems which were provided from a variety of extended family, spouses and paid domestic help.

Keywords: student mothers, challenges, supports, United Arab Emirates

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5 Adaptation of Research Methodology in a Culture: A Reflection from Bangladesh

Authors: Umme Habiba Jasmine, Mzikazi Nduna


Due to the dearth of exploratory research in Bangladesh on parenting practices and transmission thereof, there is a lack of information on culture-sensitive methodology in studying this topic. This paper aims to share some methodological reflections from the research field, which will address this knowledge gap. Eleven dyads of biological mothers and maternal grandmothers of school-going children constituted the sample, and a female fieldworker conducted one-to-one, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with them. The participants were recruited through purposive sampling through a representative of a cooperative society in Mirpur area in Bangladesh. Four dyads of the sample outside that eleven dyads were discarded because of the unavailability of the other participant of the dyads or unsuitability for an in-depth interview. The sample recruitment strategy of approaching mothers without their known reference body had to be discarded because of existing social insecurity in Dhaka city. To meet the cultural demand of the research field the researcher had to change in the research plan and comply with the cultural tradition of mutual entertainment with food while conducting interviews which helped in engaging in positive interaction. Also, the researcher had to compromise the strict confidentiality to a collectivistic sense of confidentiality of the in-depth interview sessions. This study suggests future researchers to investigate Bangladeshi traditional practices and accommodate the applicable ones in their research plan for qualitative studies, especially the Bengali tradition of hospitality and shared confidentiality for building rapport and for proper access to the targeted information and research participants. Sample recruitment should always accompany a well-accepted reference person in the targeted research field.

Keywords: confidentiality, culture-sensitive, ethics, parenting practices, sampling

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4 Great-Grandparents: Inter and Transgenerational Relationships Involved in the Family

Authors: Emily Schuler, Cristina M. S. B. Dias


The increase of human aging is a phenomenon observed in world scale and allows the experience of several roles within the family. Nowadays grandparents can see their grandchildren growing up and having children, becoming great-grandparents, and thus adding another generation in the network of relationships. Consequently, more and more multigenerational families are emerging, formed by four or even five generations, and therefore more vertically. Thus, the objective of this research was to understand the role of great-grandparents, as well as the intergenerational repercussions of this role in their lives and that of their relatives. More specifically it was intended: to analyze the meaning of being great-grandparents in the family, from the perspective of each generation; identify the activities performed by their great-grandparents; identify the legacy that the great-grandparents wish to convey; characterize the needs and feelings experienced by the great-grandparents and their families; understand intergenerational relations permeated by the presence of great-grandparents among family members. It is a multiple case study with four families consisting of four generations and a family with five generations, thus totaling twenty-two participants; three great-grandmothers, two great-grandfathers, and one great-great-grandmother. As for the other generations, five children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and a great-great-grandchild were interviewed. As a research instrument, a semi-directed interview was used, with a specific script for each generation, as well as a questionnaire with the sociodemographic data of the participants. The data were analyzed through thematic content analysis. The main results pointed out the following: 1) As for the feelings experienced when becoming great-grandparents, they reported joy, satisfaction, and gratitude; 2) The support provided by them, most of the time, is of the emotional type; 3) The family relationship appeared quite significant, being characterized especially in the form of visits; 4) Conflicts exist, but seem to be circumvented with wisdom and much respect; 5) The legacies transmitted by them are related to faith, solidarity, education, and order; 6) The meaning of being great-grandmother is intimately linked to the feeling of transcendence, the sense of having fulfilled the purpose of life and also its continuity in grandchildren and great-grandchildren. In other generations, the appreciation of the great-grandparents, perceived as wise people, has been observed and can contribute as teachers to the new generations. It is hoped to give visibility to this generation still little studied in our country.

Keywords: great-grandparents, intergenerational relation, multigenerational families, transgenerational legacies

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3 Representation of Emotions and Characters in Turkish and Indian Series

Authors: Lienjang Zeite


Over the past few years, Turkish and Indian series have been distributed worldwide to countless households and have found ardent followers across different age group. The series have captured numerous hearts. Turkish and Indian series have become not only one of the best means of entertainment and relaxation but also a platform to learn and appreciate shared emotions and social messages. The popularity of the series has created a kind of interest in representing human emotions and stories like never before. The demands for such series have totally shifted the entertainment industry at a new level. The interest and vibe created by the series have had impacts on various departments spanning from technology to the fashion industry and it has also become the bridge to connect viewers across the globe. The series have amassed avid admirers who find solace in the beautiful visual representations of human relationships whether it is of lovers, family or friendship. The influence of Turkish and Indian series in many parts of the world has created a cultural phenomenon that has taken viewers beyond cultural and language differences. From China to Latin America, Arab countries and the Caucasus region, the series have been accepted and loved by millions of viewers. It has captivated audiences ranging from grandmothers to teenagers. Issues like language barrier are easily solved by means of translation or dubbing making it easier to understand and enjoy the series. Turkey and India are two different countries with their own unique culture and traditions. Both the countries are exporters of series in large scale. The series function as a platform to reveal the plots and shed lights on characters of all kinds. Both the countries produce series that are more or less similar in nature. However, there are also certain issues that are shown in different ways and light. The paper will discuss how emotions are represented in Turkish and Indian series. It will also discuss the ways the series have impacted the art of representing emotions and characters in the digital era. The representation of culture through Turkish and Indian series will be explored as well. The paper will also locate the issue of gender roles and how relationships are forged or abandoned in the series. The issue of character formation and importance of moral factors will be discussed. It will also examine the formula and ingredients of turning human emotions and characters into a much loved series.

Keywords: characters, cultural phenomenon, emotions, Turkish and Indian series

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2 A Qualitative Study of Unmet Needs of Families of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Bangladesh

Authors: Reshma Parvin Nuri, Heather Michelle Aldersey, Setareh Ghahari


Objectives: Worldwide, it is well known that taking care of children with disabilities (CWD) can have a significant impact on the entire family unit. Over the last few decades, an increased number of studies have been conducted on families of CWD in higher income countries, and much of this research has identified family needs and strategies to meet those needs. However, family needs are incredibly under-studied in developing countries. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (a) explore the needs of families of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Bangladesh; (b) investigate how some of the family needs have been met and (c) identify the sources of supports that might help the families to meet their needs in the future. Methods: A face to face, semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted with 20 family members (12 mothers, 4 fathers, 1 sister, 2 grandmothers, and 1 aunt) who visited the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Bangladesh between June and August 2016. Constant comparison method of grounded theory approach within the broader spectrum of qualitative study was used to analyze the data. Results: Participants identified five categories of needs: (a) financial needs, (b) access to disability-related services, (c) family and community cohesion, (d) informational needs, and (e) emotional needs. Participants overwhelmingly reported that financial need is their greatest family need. Participants noted that families encountered additional financial expenses for a child with CP, beyond what they would typically pay for their other children. Participants were seeing education as their non-primary need as they had no hope that their children would be physically able to go to school. Some participants also shared their needs for social inclusion and participation and receiving emotional support. Participants further expressed needs to receive information related to the child’s health condition and availability/accessibility of governmental support programs. Besides unmet needs, participants also highlighted that some of their needs have been met through formal and informal support systems. Formal support systems were mainly institution-based and run by non-governmental organizations, whereas participants identified informal support coming from family, friends and community members. Participants overwhelmingly reported that they receive little to no support from the government. However, participants identified the government as the key stakeholder who can play vital role in meeting their unmet needs. Conclusions: In the next phase of this research, the plan is to understand how the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is working to meet the needs of families of CWD. There is also need for further study on needs of families of children with conditions other than CP and those who live in the community and do not have access to the CRP Services. There is clear need to investigate ways to enable children with CP have better access to education in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, children with cerebral palsy, family needs, support

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1 'Go Baby Go'; Community-Based Integrated Early Childhood and Maternal Child Health Model Improving Early Childhood Stimulation, Care Practices and Developmental Outcomes in Armenia: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Authors: Viktorya Sargsyan, Arax Hovhannesyan, Karine Abelyan


Introduction: During the last decade, scientific studies have proven the importance of Early Childhood Development (ECD) interventions. These interventions are shown to create strong foundations for children’s intellectual, emotional and physical well-being, as well as the impact they have on learning and economic outcomes for children as they mature into adulthood. Many children in rural Armenia fail to reach their full development potential due to lack of early brain stimulation (playing, singing, reading, etc.) from their parents, and lack of community tools and services to follow-up children’s neurocognitive development. This is exacerbated by high rates of stunting and anemia among children under 3(CU3). This research study tested the effectiveness of an integrated ECD and Maternal, Newborn and Childhood Health (MNCH) model, called “Go Baby, Go!” (GBG), against the traditional (MNCH) strategy which focuses solely on preventive health and nutrition interventions. The hypothesis of this quasi-experimental study was: Children exposed to GBG will have better neurocognitive and nutrition outcomes compared to those receiving only the MNCH intervention. The secondary objective was to assess the effect of GBG on parental child care and nutrition practices. Methodology: The 14 month long study, targeted all 1,300 children aged 0 to 23 months, living in 43 study communities the in Gavar and Vardenis regions (Gegharkunik province, Armenia). Twenty-three intervention communities, 680 children, received GBG, and 20 control communities, 630 children, received MCHN interventions only. Baseline and evaluation data on child development, nutrition status and parental child care and nutrition practices were collected (caregiver interview, direct child assessment). In the intervention sites, in addition to MNCH (maternity schools, supportive supervision for Health Care Providers (HCP), the trained GBG facilitators conducted six interactive group sessions for mothers (key messages, information, group discussions, role playing, video-watching, toys/books preparation, according to GBG curriculum), and two sessions (condensed GBG) for adult family members (husbands, grandmothers). The trained HCPs received quality supervision for ECD counseling and screening. Findings: The GBG model proved to be effective in improving ECD outcomes. Children in the intervention sites had 83% higher odd of total ECD composite score (cognitive, language, motor) compared to children in the control sites (aOR 1.83; 95 percent CI: 1.08-3.09; p=0.025). Caregivers also demonstrated better child care and nutrition practices (minimum dietary diversity in intervention site is 55 percent higher compared to control (aOR=1.55, 95 percent CI 1.10-2.19, p =0.013); support for learning and disciplining practices (aOR=2.22, 95 percent CI 1.19-4.16, p=0.012)). However, there was no evidence of stunting reduction in either study arm. he effect of the integrated model was more prominent in Vardenis, a community which is characterised by high food insecurity and limited knowledge of positive parenting skills. Conclusion: The GBG model is effective and could be applied in target areas with the greatest economic disadvantages and parenting challenges to improve ECD, care practices and developmental outcomes. Longitudinal studies are needed to view the long-term effects of GBG on learning and school readiness.

Keywords: early childhood development, integrated interventions, parental practices, quasi-experimental study

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