Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 421

Search results for: parenting styles

421 Perceived Parenting Styles and Body Dissatisfaction among Women

Authors: Tazvin Ijaz, Aisha Shahid Sheikh

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between body dissatisfaction and the perceived parenting styles of women. For the purpose of study a sample of adult women (N=308) was drawn through the process of stratified random sampling. The sample consisted of women belonging to different categories which were based on their occupation. Two instruments, the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDSS) and Perceived Parenting Styles (PPSS) were used in the study to find the relationship between the two variables. The results showed that the controlling parenting style in father led to higher body dissatisfaction while the nurturing parenting style lead to lesser symptoms of body dissatisfaction. The results also proved that the controlling parenting style in mother also lead to high symptoms of body dissatisfaction as well. It was revealed that the women with high education showed more body dissatisfaction than women with lower education. It was also seen that there was a significant difference in the body dissatisfaction of working and the non-working women.

Keywords: body dissatisfaction, perceived parenting styles, Pakistani women, gender

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420 An Exploratory Study of Effects of Parenting Styles on Maternal Expectation and Perception of Compliance among Adolescents

Authors: Anton James

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This study explored the contribution of parenting styles in the Maternal Perception of Compliance Model (MPCM). This model explores maternal expectations to illustrate the formation of maternal perception of severity of noncompliance in adolescent children. The methodology consisted of three stages: In the first stage, a focus group was held, and the data was analysed to fine-tune the interview schedule. In the second stage, a single interview was held, and the interview schedule was further modified. The third and the final stage consisted of interviewing six mothers who had adolescent children. They were chosen with ‘maximum variation’ approach to represent three tiered socioeconomic statuses, and Asian, white and black ethnicities. The data was thematically analysed in a hybrid fashion: inductive coding and deductive assignment of codes into discrete parenting styles. The study found: a) parenting styles are not always discrete and sometimes it can be mixed. b) The parenting styles are influenced by culture, socioeconomic status, transgenerational knowledge, academic knowledge, observational knowledge, self-reflective knowledge, and parental anxiety. c) The parenting style functioned a mediating mechanism where it attempted to converge discrepancies between parental expectations of compliance with maternal perception of severity of noncompliance. The findings of parenting styles were discussed in relation to MPCM.

Keywords: compliance, expectation, parenting styles, perception

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419 Parenting Styles and Their Relation to Videogame Addiction

Authors: Petr Květon, Martin Jelínek

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We try to identify the role of various aspects of parenting style in the phenomenon of videogame playing addiction. Relevant self-report questionnaires were part of a wider set of methods focused on the constructs related to videogame playing. The battery of methods was administered in school settings in paper and pencil form. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) elementary and high school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). Using stepwise regression analysis, we assessed the influence of demographic variables (gender and age) and parenting styles. Age and gender together explained 26.3% of game addiction variance (F(2,330)=58.81, p<.01). By adding four aspect of parenting styles (inconsistency, involvement, control, and warmth) another 10.2% of variance was explained (∆F(4,326)=13.09, p<.01). The significant predictor was gender of the respondent, where males scored higher on game addiction scale (B=0.70, p<.01), age (β=-0.18, p<.01), where younger children showed higher level of addiction, and parental inconsistency (β=0.30, p<.01), where the higher the inconsistency in upbringing, the more developed game playing addiction.

Keywords: gender, parenting styles, video games, addiction

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418 Effect of Culture and Parenting Styles on Ambivalent Sexism in Mexican Population

Authors: Ilse Gonzalez-Rivera, Rolando Diaz-Loving

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Family, and parents in particular, are the main agents of socialization of children since they transmit values, beliefs, and cultural norms based on their own guidelines, so that children acquire the knowledge on how to interact with others in terms of the interaction with their parents. One way to measure socialization parenting is through parenting styles. Parenting styles are the set of parental behaviors that have a direct effect on the development of specific behaviors of children. The ideal parenting style depends on the cultural characteristics where people develop. In Mexico, the hierarchical structure of the family is built on a model in which men are dominant over women and their power is legitimized. This research explores the effect of parenting styles and the culture of the ambivalent sexism in the Mexican population. 150 men and 150 women participated. The instrument of individualism-collectivism was used to measure culture; participants also answered the instrument of ambivalent sexism and the parenting styles questionnaire. Regression analyses were done using sexism as the dependent variable and individualism-collectivism and parenting styles as independent variables. In addition, an analysis of variance between parental styles and gender of the participants was performed. The results indicate that the permissive style and authoritarian style are predictors of ambivalent sexism and higher levels of collectivism predict higher levels of sexism in both men and women. It is also found that parents tend to use authoritarian parenting style with women and permissive style with males. These results confirm the findings of other studies that indicate that parenting is an important variable that influences the interaction of adults. On the other hand, the effect of collectivism on sexism may be related to the fact that gender Mexican rules are rigid and for people with higher levels of collectivism, the social rules are more important than individual interests. In conclusion, these results indicate that both culture and parenting styles contribute to the maintenance of the status quo and prejudice towards women. Therefore, it is necessary to create proposals that break with this cultural paradigm and to further develop democratic styles of parenting with the aim of reducing prejudice and the legitimization of gender roles.

Keywords: culture, gender, parenting style, sexism

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417 Comparison of Marital Conflict Resolution Procedures and Parenting Styles between Nurses with Fixed and Rotating Shifts in Public Hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran

Authors: S. Abdolvahab Samavi, Kobra Hajializadeh, S. Abdolhadi Samavi

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Nursing is a critical work that that can effect on the health of the society. A parenting style is a psychological construct demonstrating standard policies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting is more critical than the quantity spend with the child. Also, marital Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict between couples. Both of these variables were affected by job status in nurses. Aim of this study was to compare the Marital Conflict Resolution and Parenting Styles between Nurses with fixed and rotating shifts in public hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Statistical population includes all married Nurses in hospitals of Bandar Abbas (900 Persons). For sample size estimation, the Morgan table was used, 270 people were selected by random sampling method. Conflict solution styles and Baumrind parenting styles questionnaire were used for collecting data about study variables. For analysis of data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results showed there was significant difference between both groups in conflict solution styles. According to study results, nurses with fixed shifts had an effective conflict solution styles. Also, there was significant difference between both groups in Parenting Styles. According to study results, nurses with fixed shifts had an effective parenting style. Totally, results of this study showed that job status of nurses affected on Marital Conflict Resolution and Parenting Styles of nurses. Managers of health system should be consider these issues about work of nurses and if possible, married nurses employed at fixed day (vs. rotating) shift.

Keywords: marital conflict resolution procedures, parenting styles, nurses with fixed and rotating shifts, public hospitals

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416 Influence of Parenting Styles on Adolescents Self-Esteem

Authors: Olubukola Ajayi

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INFLUENCE OF PARANTING STYLES ON ADOLECENST’ SELF-ESTEEM BY AJAYI OLUBUKOLA (PhD) DEPARTMRNT OF PSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES FACULTY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY [email protected] , [email protected] ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the influence of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem. The study population comprised of adolescents selected from two secondary schools (Bishop Philip Academy and T.L. Oyeshina Model School) in Ibadan, Oyo State. A total number of 300 students whose ages range from 13-19 were used. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) developed by Rosenberg (1965) was used to measure Adolescents’ Self-Esteem. While Robinson (2001) Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire was used to measure how adolescents perceive their parents on four sub scales (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Uninvolved, Permissiveness).Three hypotheses were tested using Regression, One way ANOVA and Independent t-test. Result showed that parenting styles do not significantly influence Self-Esteem. Parents Work Status did not have a significant influence on Self-Esteem. The result also revealed no significant difference between Male and Female Self-Esteem. The findings were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusions and recommendations subsequently followed. Key Words: Parenting style, Adolescents, Self- esteem,

Keywords: AUTHORITATIVE, AUTHORITARIAN, UNINVOLVED, PERMISSIVENESS

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415 The Relationship between Mothers’ Attachment Style, Mindful Parenting and Perception of the Child

Authors: Brigitta Szabo, Miklosi Monika

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Background/Aims: In early childhood, the context of development is the caregiver-child relationship. Maternal attachment style plays a major role in the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the mothers’ attachment style, mindful parenting, and perception of the child. Method: Data was collected from 144 non-clinical mothers who have a child below the age of 3 years. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires, including the following scales: a demographic questionnaire, Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP), and the Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF). K-means cluster analysis was used to identify the mothers’ attachment styles. Mediation analyses with Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF) positive emotions and dominance subscales as dependent variables, mothers’ attachment style (ASQ) as an independent variable, and mindful parenting (IMP) as a mediator were conducted. Results: Four attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, dismissing) were identified. The relationship between mothers’ attachment style and mindful parenting was significant (R2 = .51; F(4,139) = 36.60; p < .001). Compared to the secure attachment style as a reference group, both preoccupied and dismissing styles were related to lower levels of mindful parenting; however, this relationship was the strongest in case of fearful style. In mediation analysis the direct effects of mothers’ attachment style on the perception of the child were not significant (MORS positive emotions: R2= .29; F(5,138) = 11.22; p < .001; MORS dominance: R2= .39 F(5,138) = 17.54, p < .001). However, indirect effects through mindful parenting were significant; higher levels of mindful parenting were associated with higher levels of MORS positive emotions and lower levels of MORS dominance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that attachment styles are related to the perception of the child through mindful parenting. Mindfulness-based parenting training might be useful in case of attachment-related problems to improve the parent-child relationship.

Keywords: mindfulness, mindful parenting, attachement, perception

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414 The Experience of Intercultural Parenting in Australia

Authors: Dharam Bhugun

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The growth of immigration and social diversity and advances in global technology, have contributed to an increase in intercultural marriages and relationships in Australia. Consequently, intercultural parenting experience is shaping as an important issue within society. Parenting experiences can be both challenging and rewarding for the intercultural couple and their children. Much of the Australian literature has focussed on parenting styles among different cultural groups and the experiences of children, with more research needed on the parenting experience of intercultural couples, with emphasis on those who have not sought professional help. This study employed a qualitative research design consistent with humanistic approaches in social sciences. A social constructionism theoretical framework was used to explore the experience of intercultural parents. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, and semi-structured interviews in English were employed to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to examine participant’s experiences. It is anticipated that the research will generate insights and findings that may assist current and future intercultural parents, add to the family systems theory to inform practice, and suggest possible professional strategies for clinicians and other government and community agencies.

Keywords: culture, intercultural couples, parenting styles and practices, conflicts resolution

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413 An Exploration of Parenting By Perpetrator Fathers and Victim Mothers in the Context of Domestic Violence

Authors: Gunendra Rathnawali Kumarihamy Dissanayake

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Research on parenting of both perpetrators and victims of domestic violence (DV) is growing but limited. Further, much of this research in the Asian context is limited to explorations of victim mothers' parenting capacities, not shedding much light on the parenting of the perpetrator fathers. The current qualitative study aimed to explore how both the perpetrators and victims of DV engaged in parenting in the Sri Lankan cultural context. Twenty case studies were conducted with a sample of help-seeking women aged 20 to 40 years representing working to upper-middle social class. Participants have interviewed about their own as well as their partners´ parenting behaviors. The majority of women reported that their partners were often aggressive, controlling and authoritarian, less consistent, and engaged in a variety of manipulative behaviors intending to harm the relationship between their child and them. Further, victim mothers' styles of parenting and authority as parents have been severely undermined by their partners through frequent criticism, ridicule, and insulting in front of the children. As a result, mothers experienced great difficulty specifically trying to discipline their adolescent children as the children have started to disregard the mothers' authority. Most of the children also have shown treatment similar to that of their fathers', treating the mother as a personal servant not worthy of being listened to, thereby increasing the mothers' parenting stress. The mothers were often blamed and held responsible for the problems of the children by their partners, encouraging the children to disrespect and blame the mother for their problems leading them to take the side of the father who had more power. Findings are similar to those of the western context. This study highlights the intersection between domestic violence and parenting, and specific implications and recommendations for DV service providers are offered.

Keywords: parenting, domestic violence, impact, children

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412 Efficacy of the Culturally Adapted Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program on Parents of Children with Autism and down Syndrome

Authors: Afsheen Masood, Sumaira Rashid, Shama Mazahir

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The main aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally adapted management program The Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program (Tripple P; SSTP) for caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome. Positive psychology has catered new dimensions to the traditional perspectives of parenting. The current study was designed to determine the adoptions of positive parenting elements such as parenting styles, parental satisfaction, parental competency, and management of parental stress in alignment with behavioral problems of children with special needs after their parents get trained on Positive Parenting Techniques. This research study was devised in liaison with rehabilitation institute that is extending services for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down syndrome. A Quasi experimental research design was employed with pre-test, post-test control group study in order to evaluate the changes in parenting patterns of parents with children (with Autism and Down syndrome). Caregivers of children diagnosed with Autism and Down syndrome between the age ranges of 25 to 45 years, n=20 from autism group and 20 from Down syndrome group (while their children with special needs in the age ranges of 8 to 14 years) participated in the current research. Parenting scale encompassing areas of parental efficacy, parental satisfaction was used in addition to Parenting Stress Index (SF), indigenously developed Child Behavior Problems Checklist and demographic sheet. Findings revealed statistically significant improvement for caregivers in intervention group from pretest to posttest situation. There was considerable decrease in reported mean behavioral issues of children with Down syndrome when parents in experimental group started practicing Positive Parenting Techniques with their special needs children. This change was somehow not recorded in parents of children with autism. Thus these findings establish the efficacy of culturally adapted parenting program that is evidence based and is established in western empirical research. This carries significant implication for practitioners in special needs domain and for school psychologists in Pakistan.

Keywords: Autism and Parenting, Downsyndrome and Parenting , Positive Parenting, Stepping Stone Positive Parenting Program, Mangement of Behavioral Problems with positive parenting

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411 The Relationship between Parenting Style, Nonattachment and Inferiority

Authors: Yu-Chien Huang, Shu-Chen Yang

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Introduction: Parenting style, non-attachment, and inferiority are important topics in psychology, but the related research on nonattachment is still lacking. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between parenting style, nonattachment, and inferiority. Methods: We conducted a correlational study, and three instruments were utilized to collect data: parenting style scale, nonattachment scale, and inferiority scale. The inter-reliability Cronbach's α used in this research indicated good inter item reliability and the test-retest reliability that showed a good consistency. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, one way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis. Results: A total of 200 participators were tested in this research. As a result of the study, inferiority had a positive correlation with authoritarian parenting style; nonattachment had a negative correlation with authoritarian parenting style; and with inferiority, the hypothesis was supported. In the linear mediation models, nonattachment was found to be partially mediated the relationship between authoritarian parenting style and inferiority. Conclusion: These findings imply that interventions aimed at enhancing nonattachment as a way to improve inferiority are a good strategy.

Keywords: inferiority, nonattachment, parenting style, psychology

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410 Parenting Stress and Maternal Psychological Statues in Mothers of Dual Diagnosis Children

Authors: Deena Moustafa

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the sources of parenting stress in mothers of Dual Diagnosis children (n =60) and examine the relationship between parenting stress and maternal psychological status (depression and well-being), also examine if there is any difference between the previous variables in different disabilities associated with Autism. A descriptive correlational design was used. Data were collected via online questionnaires. The study finds that there was no significant relationship between Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) scores and types of disability which associated with Autism, although Mothers with deaf autistic reported more parenting stress, Similar findings were found regarding Depressive Symptoms, as there was no significant relationship between (CESD-R) scores and types of disability which associated with Autism, also study finds that there was a significant correlation of the (APSI) with the (CESD-R) Mothers with higher overall parenting stress reported more depressive symptoms. Likewise, there was also a significant correlation between the (APSI) and the (RPWB) Mothers reporting more parenting stress also reported lower levels of well-being.

Keywords: parenting stress, maternal psychological statues, mothers of dual diagnosis, autism

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409 Relation Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting: The Moderating Effect of Children´s Temperament

Authors: Ester Ato, Maria Angeles Fernández-Vilar, Maria Dolores Galián

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The aim of this work was to analyze the relation between children´s effortful control, marital adjustment and parenting practices in a sample of 345 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. Traditionally, the literature confirms that a higher level of marital conflict has been associated with less effective and less positive parenting, but there are few studies that include the effect that children´s effortful control exert to this relation. To measure marital adjustment, parenting practices and children’s temperament, parents were given the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the TMCQ (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire). The results confirmed that higher marital satisfaction predicted more positive parenting practices, whereas lower marital adjustment scores predicted less parenting support and control. Using a statistical modeling approach, we tested a moderation model that revealed the moderating role of effortful control in the relation between marital adjustment and parenting. Concretely, higher marital satisfaction predicts higher parenting communication and involvement, but only in children with low levels of effortful control. Therefore, a difficult temperament interferes in a less negative way in the family system when parents are satisfied and united. And a better self-regulated child predicts more effective parenting practice regardless of the parents´ marital satisfaction. The clinical implications of the present findings should be considered. Specifically, difficult children must be detected and evaluated in community settings, such as school or community programs, in order to take into account the marital adjustment and parenting practices of their parents, and to be able to design adequate family interventions and prevent future pathologizing patterns.

Keywords: effortful control, marital adjustment, parenting, moderation

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408 Mediation Effect of Mindful Parenting on Parental Self Efficacy and Parent-Child Attachment in Hong Kong

Authors: Man Chung Chu

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In the dynamic family interaction, parental self-efficacy is connected with parent-child attachment. Parental self-efficacy and its corresponding behavior played an influential role in the lifespan development of the child. Recently, Mindful parenting is popularly addressed as it lightens parents’ awareness to their own thoughts feelings and behaviors by adapting a nonjudgmental attitude in the present moment being with the child. The effectiveness of mindful parent is considerably significant in enhancing parent-child relationship as well as family functioning. Parenting in early developmental stage is always challenging and essential for later growth, however, literature is rarely exploring the mediation of mindful parenting on the effect of parent self-efficacy on parent-child attachment in preschoolers’ families. The mediation effect of the research shed light on how mindful parenting should head, where parental self-efficacy training should be incorporated together with mindful family program in attempt to yield the best outcome in the family of young-aged children. Two hundred and eight (208) parents, of two to six years old children, were participated in the study and results supported the significance in the mediator effect of mindful parenting in both facets, i.e. Parent-focused - ‘Mindful Discipline’ and Child-focused – ‘Being in the moment with the child’ where parental self-efficacy is a significant predictor of mindful parenting. The implication of the result suggests that mindful parenting would be a therapeutic framework in promoting family functioning and child’s well-being, it would also be a ‘significant helping hand’ in maintaining continuous secure attachment relationship and growing their mindful children in a family.

Keywords: mediation effect, mindful parenting, parental self efficacy, parent-child attachment, preschoolers

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407 Understanding Parental Style and Its Effect on the Wellbeing of Adolescents with Epilepsy

Authors: Arthy Vinayakam, Emilda Judith Ezhil Rajan

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Adolescents with epilepsy living in developing country like India face many difficulties on stigma towards the disease. The psychological wellbeing of adolescents who are living with epilepsy has a varied influence on their daily activities and decision-making. Parental involvement with adolescents has always been a subject of caution. The dynamics in adolescents with epilepsy is much varied as their parental aspects has been known to have an impact on their education, socialization and wellbeing. The current study aims to identify the effect of parental styles, how they tend to effect the perception of self-concept that relate to the stigma in adolescents with epilepsy. A sample of 30 adolescents with epilepsy and their parents were taken; a control group of 30 adolescents and their parents were also taken. The General Health Questionnaire -12 was used as a screening for both groups to be included in the study. Parents were evaluated with Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ). Adolescents were administered the Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS) and Adolescent Wellbeing Scale (AWS). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study highlight the challenges of both parent and their influence on adolescent’s wellbeing. The findings also establish the impact of parenting style on the stigma in adolescents having epilepsy and how this influences their self-concept whereby their emotional strength.

Keywords: epilepsy, parenting style, stigma, wellbeing

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406 Positive Parenting and Subjective Well-Being: Proposed Program for Parents of Gifted Children

Authors: Suzy Pereira, Alberto Rocha, Ana Almeida, Catarina Figueiredo, Helena Fonseca, Leonor Moreira, Carla Blum Vestena, Cristina Costa-Lobo

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The socio-educational support to parents, through parental education intervention programs, is part of European social policies, aiming to respond to the needs of education, promotion of well-being and development of children and young people. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of the Positive Parenting Program on the subjective well-being of the parents of gifted children. The Positive Parenting Program is authored and is conducted by the National Association of Study and Intervention in Giftedness, Portuguese Association. The central question to be explored in this research is: Does the promotion of positive parenting in parents of gifted children have a positive impact on the subjective well-being? The sample consisted of 30 parents, non-probabilistic sampling of convenience, of which 15 parents belong to the intervention group and the rest to the control group. One dimension will be evaluated - subjective well-being, through the PANAS questionnaire - before and after the sessions of this program. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the process and results of the positive parenting program in parents of gifted children.

Keywords: positive parenting, subjective well-being, giftedness, parental education intervention programs

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405 Parental Negative Emotional States, Parenting Style and Child Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Australia-Indonesia Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Yulina E. Riany, Divna Haslam, Matthew Sanders

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This cross-cultural study aims to compare the level of parental depression and stress, parenting style use, and child emotional and behavioural problems between parents in Australia as an example of a Western country and parents in Indonesia as an example of Asian culture. A series of hierarchical regressions were undertaken to determine two models examining the factors that predict child problems residing in Australia (Model 1) and in Indonesia (Model 2). The online survey was completed by 179 parents in Australia and 448 parents in Indonesia. Results indicated that Australian parents reported higher levels of depression, authoritative parenting and higher levels of child misbehaviours compared to Indonesian parents. In comparison, Indonesian parents reported higher authoritarian parenting. Analyses performed to examine Model 1 and 2 revealed that parental negative emotional states and parenting style predicted child emotional and behavioural problems in both countries.

Keywords: cross-cutural study, parental stress, parenting, child misbehaviour

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404 Invisible and Visible Helpers in Negotiating Child Parenting by Single Mothers: A Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Germany

Authors: Maud Mthembu, Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker

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In South Africa and Germany, countless number of children are raised by single mothers with little or no support from the biological fathers. As evidenced in literature, having an involved father living at home can have a positive influence in the life of a child and the mother can be supported in her role. Often single parenting is seen as a causative factor in numerous psychological and social challenges which are faced by children from single-parent households, which is an indication of a pathological lens of viewing single parenting. The empirical data from our study reveals that single mothers in formal employment experience social, economic and emotional hardships of parenting. However, a sense of determination to raise healthy and well-balanced children using economic and social capital accessible to them was one of the key findings. The participants reported visible and invisible sources of support which creates an enabling environment for them to negotiate the challenges of parenting without support from non-residence fathers. Using a qualitative paradigm, a total of twenty professional single mothers were interviewed in Germany and South Africa. Four key themes emerged from the data analysis namely; internal locus of control, positive new experiences, access to economic capital and dependable social support. This study suggests that single mothers who are economically self-reliant and have access to bonding social capital are able to cope with the demands of single parenting. Understanding this multi-dimensional experience of parenting by single parents in formal employment is important to advocate for supportive working conditions for mothers.

Keywords: child parenting, child protection, single parenting, social capital

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403 Romanian Teachers' Perspectives of Different Leadership Styles

Authors: Ralpian Randolian

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Eighty-five Romanian teachers and principals participated on this study to examine their perspectives of different leadership styles. Demographic variables such as the source of degree (Romania, Europe institutes, USA institutes, etc.), gender, region, level taught, years of experience, and specialty were identified. The researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 4 leadership styles. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify which of the variables best predict the leadership styles. Results indicated that the democracy style was the most preferred leadership style by Jordanian parents, while the authoritarian styles ranked second. The results also found statistically significant differences were found related to the study variables. This study ends by putting forward a number of suggestions and recommendation.

Keywords: teachers’ perspectives, leadership styles, gender, structural equation modeling

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402 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

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The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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401 Strength of Gratitude Determining Subjective Well-Being: Evidence for Mediating Role of Problem-Solving Styles

Authors: Sarwat Sultan, Shahzad Gul

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This study was carried out to see the mediating role of problem solving styles (sensing, intuitive, feeling, and thinking) in the predictive relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. A sample of 454 college students aged 20-26 years old participated in this study and provided data on the measures of gratitude, problem solving styles, and subjective well-being. Results indicated the significant relationships of gratitude with subjective well-being and problem solving styles of intuitive and thinking. Results further indicated the positive link of intuitive and thinking styles with subjective well-being. Findings also provided the evidence for the significant mediating role of problem solving styles in the relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. The implication for this study is likely to enhance the medium to long term effects of gratitude on subjective well-being among students and as well as assessing its value in promoting psychological health and problem solving strategies among students.

Keywords: gratitude, subjective well-being, problem solving styles, college students

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400 Emotion Regulation in Young Adult Relationships in Relation to Parenting Styles

Authors: Taylor Brown

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The parent-child attachment bond begins early, often before the birth of the child. Both father and mother begin to form a bond with their child by selecting a name, preparing for the birth, etc. The biological mother carries the child and often breastfeeds the infant after birth. While fathers play an important role in caring for the child as well, the mother is traditionally seen as the caregiver with the primary role of caring for her baby. These core ideas could include how to form bonds, how to communicate emotions, and even how to create and maintain relationships. Mothers tend to shape their children’s minds based on their own. Studies have even shown that when mothers stroke their children’s bodies with their fingers, the child does calm down more than most other methods. The bond between mother and child is one that happens immediately and strengthens over time. This attachment affects the child’s overall development. The mother-child attachment style is directly linked to a multitude of patterns in adolescents, and later on, adults. The researcher believes that the subsequent patterns of communication in romantic relationships are included in the multitude. Awareness of these patterns and their effects could improve experiences in romantic relationships during young adulthood.

Keywords: emotion regulation, parenting, maternal, attachment, romantic

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399 Disparity of Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Vocational Education

Authors: Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad, Yee Mei Heong, Nurfirdawati Muhammad Hanafi, Tee Tze Kiong

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This study is conducted to investigate the disparity of between learning styles and cognitive abilities specifically in Vocational Education. Felder and Silverman Learning Styles Model (FSLSM) was applied to measure the students’ learning styles while the content in Building Construction Subject consists; knowledge, skills and problem solving were taken into account in constructing the elements of cognitive abilities. There are four dimension of learning styles proposed by Felder and Silverman intended to capture student learning preferences with regards to processing either active or reflective, perception based on sensing or intuitive, input of information used visual or verbal and understanding information represent with sequential or global learner. The study discovered that students are tending to be visual learners and each type of learner having significant difference whereas cognitive abilities. The finding may help teachers to facilitate students more effectively and to boost the student’s cognitive abilities.

Keywords: learning styles, cognitive abilities, dimension of learning styles, learning preferences

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398 Grandparent's Psychologically Control, Parent's Well-Being and the Coparenting Practice among Vietnamese Families

Authors: Nam-Phuong T. Hoang, Divna Haslam, Matthew Sanders

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Parenting psychological control (PPC) is a parenting manner of which intrusive tactics such as guilt induction, shaming or love withdrawal is adopted to manipulate the child's behavior, emotion and beliefs. PPC has been widely reported to be associated with both psychological dysfunction and low self-esteem in adolescents. Highly demanding and restrictive parenting was also found to related to high rate of risk behaviors, depression, anxiety and anti-social behaviors in adults who co-live with their parents. In many cultures like that of Asia, adults keep on co-live with their parents even after having their own families, and this is not an uncommon practice. Due to the culture obligation of family relationship and the filial piety, children are expected to stay with their parents to taking care of them when they get older, and the parents are also expected to co-live with their children in order to support them with grandchild care. As one become a grandparent, however, it does not means one stop being the parent to their own child. The effect of PPC if exist thus might continue to interfere one’s relationship with their adult children and also their adult child’s parenting. This study was designed to examine that effect of PPC on adults’ life as parents. Data was collected from 501 Vietnamese parents whose children between the age of 2 to 12 and having their parent living with them or taking care of the grandchild on daily basic. Findings show that grandparent psychological control (GPPC) is significantly associated with parent’s harsh parenting, parent’s well-being, and parent-grandparent coparenting relationship. Significantly, GPPC is the strongest predictor for the coparenting conflict between parent and grandparent.

Keywords: parenting psychological control, grandparent, coparenting, well-being

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397 Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices

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396 Differential Impact of Parenting on Mental Health Functioning of Pakistani Adolescents: A Cultural Perspective

Authors: Zahid Mahmood

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Mental health problems in adolescents are said to be increasing tremendously, and a large proportion of adolescents are suffering from serious mental health problems that result in short and long term socio-emotional negative consequences. Contemporary clinical and school psychology is now focused on prevention rather than intervene in the mental health concerns of adolescents. Therefore, a wealth of literature is devoted to identify the risk and protective factors so that adolescents may be prevented and identified earlier. This quest has led to identify many risk factors including the early parent-child relationship. Parenting has a long last impact on the growth and development of an individual. If the parent-child relationship is secure and warm, the child tends to have a positive psychological outcome. On the other hand, if parenting is rejecting and distant, it may lead to more mental health problems. Keeping in view the cross-cultural influence of parenting, the current study was aimed to explore the relationship between parental rearing practices and mental health problems on a group of Pakistani adolescents. A sample of 805 participants (49% boys and 51% girls) were selected through a stratified sample with the age range of 13-18 years. All the participants were given protocol of EMBU-C and School Children Problem Scale (SCPS). Results indicate that age, the gender of the participant and parental rejection were found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health problems in adolescents. It can be concluded that parenting may be a universal phenomenon comprising rejection and acceptance yet the differential impact on mental health varies from culture to culture.

Keywords: parenting, mental health, adolescents, cross cultural

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395 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

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This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: parenting stress, mental health, mentally disabled children, familial functioning, demographic variables

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394 The Relationship among Attachment Styles, Humor Styles and Communication Patterns in Female Married Students

Authors: Elham Fathi, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Abolfazl Hatami Varzane

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The present study aimed to determine predict capacity of the relationship among attachment styles, humor styles and communication patterns in female married students. Statistical population consisted of female married students from Allameh Tabataba’i University. The research sample consisted of 104 married students selected through convenience sampling. They responded to study instruments that consisted of attachment styles, humor styles and Communication patterns questionnaires. Data was analyzed by means of correlation method. The results indicated significant positive relationship between secure attachment styles with adaptive humor styles, and anxious attachment styles with maladaptive humor styles. Also a negative relationship between avoidant attachment with affiliative humor, and anxious attachment with self-enhancing humor was found. Furthermore, a negative relationship between self- enhancing humor styles with demand – withdraw communication pattern, and between affiliative humor with mutual avoidant communication pattern and a positive relationship between affiliative humor with mutual constructive communication pattern was observed. The relationship between secure attachment with mutual constructive communication pattern was positive, while relationship between avoidant attachment to mutual constructive communication pattern was negative and significant and its relation with mutual avoidant communication pattern was significantly positive. The result of regression analysis indicated that affliative humor style and secure attachment style, positively predicted mutual constructive communication pattern. Avoidant attachment style positively and affliative humor style negatively predicted the mutual avoidant communication pattern. And self-enhancing humor style negatively predicted the demand – withdraw communication pattern style.

Keywords: attachment styles, communication patterns, humor styles, female married students

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
393 Learning Styles Difference in Difficulties of Generating Idea

Authors: M. H. Yee, J. Md Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. K. Tee, M. M. Mohamad

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The generation of an idea that goes through several phases is affected by individual factors, interests, preferences and motivation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to individual learning styles. A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of developed questionnaires were used in this research. The results showed that the most dominant learning style is among technical students is Doer. A total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced difficulties in solving individual assignments. Most of the problem faced by technical students is the difficulty of generating ideas for solving individual assignments. There was no significant difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to students’ learning styles. Therefore, students need to learn higher order thinking skills enabling students to generate ideas and consequently complete assignments.

Keywords: difference, difficulties, generating idea, learning styles, Kolb Learning Styles Inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
392 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan

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Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

Procedia PDF Downloads 289