Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1052

Search results for: China

1052 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

Abstract:

China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: China, history, juvenile justice, legal traditions

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1051 Role of Renewable Energy in Foreign Policy of China

Authors: Alina Gilmanova

Abstract:

China’s dependency on coal for energy is causing pollution in China and abroad. To supply the increasing energy demand and being under the pressure from international society to reduce the emissions, China was pushed to develop renewable energy. The increasing subsidies in Renewable energy sources (RES) led not only to the price-cutting but also affecting the international trade in green technology sector. In order to evaluate the role of RES in foreign policy of China, I am going to give an (i) overview of RES development in China and examine the cooperation between China and (ii) developed, (ii) developing and emerging countries. The conclusive remarks are intended to address the question of how the present Chinese renewable energy development is impacting its foreign policy and international society.

Keywords: renewable energy, China, foreign affairs, brics, cooperation

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1050 An Analysis of Public Environmental Investment on the Sustainable Development in China

Authors: K. Y. Chen, Y. N. Jia, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

As the largest developing country in the world, China is now facing the problem arising from the environment. Thus, China government increases the environmental investment yearly. In this study, we will analyse the effect of the public environmental investment on the sustainable development in China. Firstly, we will review the current situation of China's environmental issue. Secondly, we will collect the yearly environmental data as well as the information of public environmental investment. Finally, we will use the collected data to analyse and project the SWOT of public environmental investment in China. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide the relationship between public environmental investment and sustainable development in China. Based on the data collected, it was revealed that the public environmental investment had a positive impact on the sustainable development in China as well as the GDP growth. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: China, public environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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1049 Journey to the East: The Story of Ghanaian Migrants in Guangzhou, China

Authors: Mark Kwaku Mensah Obeng

Abstract:

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of south east Asia moved to Guangzhou in response to the 1997/8 Asian financial crisis in numbers never witnessed. They were later joined by many more as the Chinese economy improved and as the economic relationship between China and Africa improved. This paper tells the story of identifiable sets of Ghanaians in Guangzhou, China in the 21st century. It details out their respective characteristics and their activities in China, their migratory trajectories and the motivations for travelling to China. Also analyzed is how they are coping with life in the unknown destination. It finally attempt predicting the future of the Ghanaian community in China in terms of their level of community participation and integration.

Keywords: Africa in China, Ghana, motivation, Guangzhou

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1048 Zhou Enlai’s Impact to the Foreign Folicy of China

Authors: Nazira B. Boldurukova

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to give the information about life and social and diplomatic work of Zhou Enlai, to prove his identity in his impact to the history of the world; to show his place in the organization of internal and foreign policy and in the peaceful international relationships of China with other countries.

Keywords: China, foreign policy of China, identity, politician, diplomacy, Zhou Enlai

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1047 Status Report of the Express Delivery Industry in China

Authors: Ying Bo Xie, Hisa Yuki Kurokawa

Abstract:

Due to the fast development, China's express delivery industry has involved in a dilemma that the service quality are keeping decreasing while the construction rate of delivery network cannot meet the customers’ demand. In order to get out of this dilemma and enjoy a succession development rate, it is necessary to understand the current situation of China's express delivery industry. Firstly, the evolution of China's express delivery industry was systematical presented. Secondly, according to the number of companies and the amount of parcels they has dealt each year, the merits and faults of tow kind of operating pattern was analyzed. Finally, based on the characteristics of these express companies, the problems of China's express delivery industry was divided into several types and the countermeasures were given out respectively.

Keywords: China, express delivery industry, status, problem

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1046 China's Middle East Policy and the Competition with the United States

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on China’s policy in the Middle East and the rivalry with the U.S. The question is that what are the main factors on China’s Middle East policy and its competition with the U.S? The hypothesis regards to three effective factors: 'China’s energy dependency' on the Middle East, 'economy' and support for 'stability' in the Middle East. What is important in China’s competition with the U.S regarding to its Middle East policy is the substantial difference in ways of treating the countries of the region; China is committed to Westphalia model based on non-interference in internal affairs of the countries and respect the sovereignty of the governments. However, after 9/11, the U.S is seeking a balance between stability and change through intervention in the international affairs and in some cases is looking for a regime change. From the other hand, China, due to its dependency on the region’s energy welcomes America’s military presence in the region for providing stability. The authors by using a descriptive analytical method try to explain the situation of rivalry between China and the United States in Middle East. China is an 'emerging power' with high economic growth and in demand of more energy supply. The problem is that a rising power in the region is often a source of concern for hegemony.

Keywords: China's foreign policy, energy, hegemony, the Middle East

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1045 China Health Diplomacy in Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health diplomacy in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and foreign relations and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, china’s health diplomacy, COVID-19, bilateral relations

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1044 Predicting Foreign Direct Investment of IC Design Firms from Taiwan to East and South China Using Lotka-Volterra Model

Authors: Bi-Huei Tsai

Abstract:

This work explores the inter-region investment behaviors of integrated circuit (IC) design industry from Taiwan to China using the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI). According to the mutual dependence among different IC design industrial locations, Lotka-Volterra model is utilized to explore the FDI interactions between South and East China. Effects of inter-regional collaborations on FDI flows into China are considered. Evolutions of FDIs into South China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDIs into East China, while FDIs into East China for Taiwan’s IC design industry significantly hinder the subsequent FDIs into South China. The supply chain along IC industry includes IC design, manufacturing, packing and testing enterprises. I C manufacturing, packaging and testing industries depend on IC design industry to gain advanced business benefits. The FDI amount from Taiwan’s IC design industry into East China is the greatest among the four regions: North, East, Mid-West and South China. The FDI amount from Taiwan’s IC design industry into South China is the second largest. If IC design houses buy more equipment and bring more capitals in South China, those in East China will have pressure to undertake more FDIs into East China to maintain the leading position advantages of the supply chain in East China. On the other hand, as the FDIs in East China rise, the FDIs in South China will successively decline since capitals have concentrated in East China. Prediction of Lotka-Volterra model in FDI trends is accurate because the industrial interactions between the two regions are included. Finally, this work confirms that the FDI flows cannot reach a stable equilibrium point, so the FDI inflows into East and South China will expand in the future.

Keywords: Lotka-Volterra model, foreign direct investment, competitive, Equilibrium analysis

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1043 Anti-China Online Advertising tn the 2020 Elections

Authors: Xiaodong Fang

Abstract:

With the growing online political advertising and the anti-China sentiment throughout the democracies, airing anti-China ads online became a popular strategy in U.S. Senate races. Are the low cost and the targeting ability of anti-China online advertising safe strategies to win elections? Drawing on data from the Facebook Ad Library, I find that Martha McSally (R-AZ)’s anti-China ads, particularly the contrast ads against her opponent Mark Kelly (D-AZ), have more efficient rates (impressions per dollar spent) than other ads. I then build a statistical model by aggregating the spending data from the Center for Responsive Politics and the average polling data from RealClearPolitics to examine the effect of McSally’s anti-China online advertising on her changing popularity in the Arizona Senate race. I find that in general, McSally’s popularity increased during the periods when anti-China ads were airing online. However, variation exists in terms of ad content. Spent on the Covid-19-related issues had a statistically positive effect on McSally’s popularity. The finding contributes to the study of the campaigns and elections and will provide insights for anti-China campaigns in other democracies.

Keywords: anti-China, elections, advertising, Facebook

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1042 Ecotype Hybrids and Ecotype Mixture of Spantina alterniflora Loisel. in Coastal China

Authors: Lu Xia, Nasreen Jeelani, Shuqing An

Abstract:

Spartina alterniflora, a species native to the east coast of North America, is currently the focus of increasing management concern due to its rapid expansion in coastal China. A total of 60 individuals and hundreds of seeds of S. alterniflora collected from three states in the United States representing three ecotypes (F-, G- and N-), i. e., Tampa Bay of Florida, Altamaha estuary of Georgia and Morehead City of North Carolina, were introduced into China in 1979 for ecological engineering purposes. To better understand the plant traits associated with the success of invasion, we examined distribution of ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures of the species in China. We collected and analyzed 144 samples from seven populations throughout coastal China (21.6º-38.6ºN; 109.7º-121.8ºE) using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers. Results of assignment show that both ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures exist in coastal China, especially in southern populations. Therefore, the species’ success in coastal China may be attributable largely to the coexistence of various ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures.

Keywords: ecotype hybrids, ecotype mixtures, Spartina alterniflora, coastal China

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1041 The Effect of Anti-China Rhetoric on the Japanese General Elections: Cases from 1996 to 2017

Authors: Xiaodong Fang

Abstract:

The notion that anti-China rhetoric increases a candidate’s voter support has a wide range of empirical implications in today's democratic world. To test whether and how anti-China rhetoric works in Japan's electoral system, the build a time series statistical model from 1996 to 2017 on all the anti-China rhetoric by Japan's House of Representatives candidates to examine why the rhetoric is more effective on certain issues during certain periods, and by using certain technologies. The results show that it is more effective to use anti-China rhetoric on the economic issue during the early campaign period and through online platforms to attract voter support. Future research could also apply similar models to the study of campaign rhetoric at different levels of elections in other democracies.

Keywords: anti-china, japan, general election, campaign

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1040 China’s Health Silk Road in the Middle East and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Middle East and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. And findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success, and Beijing has assumed a leadership role in the world’s health governance. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: china’s health silk road, COVID-19, europe, middle east

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1039 Comparison of Women’s Political Participation in Korea and China

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of women’s political participation in Korea and China. Korean women are participated more in higher education. As the economic development and the women's social participation can enhance the possibility of women's political participation in advanced democratic countries, in Asian countries such as Korea and China in which Confucianism prohibited women to participate in public life and the process of nation building is different from western countries, the political power takes an initiative to implement policies for women's participation in politics and for women's consciousness.

Keywords: korea, china, women, political participation

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1038 Time Series Analysis the Case of China and USA Trade Examining during Covid-19 Trade Enormity of Abnormal Pricing with the Exchange rate

Authors: Md. Mahadi Hasan Sany, Mumenunnessa Keya, Sharun Khushbu, Sheikh Abujar

Abstract:

Since the beginning of China's economic reform, trade between the U.S. and China has grown rapidly, and has increased since China's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001. The US imports more than it exports from China, reducing the trade war between China and the U.S. for the 2019 trade deficit, but in 2020, the opposite happens. In international and U.S. trade, Washington launched a full-scale trade war against China in March 2016, which occurred a catastrophic epidemic. The main goal of our study is to measure and predict trade relations between China and the U.S., before and after the arrival of the COVID epidemic. The ML model uses different data as input but has no time dimension that is present in the time series models and is only able to predict the future from previously observed data. The LSTM (a well-known Recurrent Neural Network) model is applied as the best time series model for trading forecasting. We have been able to create a sustainable forecasting system in trade between China and the US by closely monitoring a dataset published by the State Website NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2021. Throughout the survey, we provided a 180-day forecast that outlined what would happen to trade between China and the US during COVID-19. In addition, we have illustrated that the LSTM model provides outstanding outcome in time series data analysis rather than RFR and SVR (e.g., both ML models). The study looks at how the current Covid outbreak affects China-US trade. As a comparative study, RMSE transmission rate is calculated for LSTM, RFR and SVR. From our time series analysis, it can be said that the LSTM model has given very favorable thoughts in terms of China-US trade on the future export situation.

Keywords: RFR, China-U.S. trade war, SVR, LSTM, deep learning, Covid-19, export value, forecasting, time series analysis

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1037 Study on the Situation between France and the South China Sea from the Perspective of Balance of Power Theory

Authors: Zhenyi Chen

Abstract:

With the rise of China and the escalation of tension between China and the United States, European countries led by Great Britain, France, and Germany pay increasing attention to the regional situation in the Asia-Pacific (now known as "Indo-Pacific"). Among them, the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the main areas disputed by China, the United States, Southeast Asian countries and some European countries. Western countries are worried that the rise of China's military power will break the stability of the situation in SCS and alter the balance of power among major powers. Therefore, they tried to balance China's rise through alliance. In France's Indo-Pacific strategy, France aims to build a regional order with the alliance of France, India and Australia as the core, and regularly carry out military exercises targeting SCS with the United States, Japan and Southeast Asian countries. For China, the instability of the situation in SCS could also threaten the security of the southeast coastal areas and Taiwan, affect China's peaceful development process, and pose a threat to China's territorial sovereignty. This paper aims to study the activities and motivation of France in the South China Sea, and put the situation in SCS under the perspective of Balance of Power Theory, focusing on China, America and France. To be more specific, this paper will first briefly introduce Balance of Power Theory, then describe the new trends of France in recent years, followed with the analysis on the motivation of the increasing trend of France's involvement in SCS, and finally analyze the situation in SCS from the perspective of "balance of power" theory. It will be argued that great powers are carefully maintaining the balance of military power in SCS, and it is highly possible that this trend would still last in the middle and long term, particularly via military deployment and strategic alliances.

Keywords: South China Sea, France, China, balance of power theory, Indo-Pacific

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1036 A Theory and Empirical Analysis on the Efficency of Chinese Electricity Pricing

Authors: Jianlin Wang, Jiajia Zhao

Abstract:

This paper applies the theory and empirical method to examine the relationship between electricity price and coal price, as well as electricity and industry output, for China during Jan 1999-Dec 2012. Our results indicate that there is no any causality between coal price and electricity price under other factors are controlled. However, we found a bi-directional causality between electricity consumption and industry output. Overall, the electricity price set by China’s NDRC is inefficient, which lead to the electricity supply shortage after 2004. It is time to reform electricity price system for China’s reformers.

Keywords: electricity price, coal price, power supply, China

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1035 A Comparative Study of School Choice: China and the United States

Authors: Huizi Zeng

Abstract:

This paper delineates the historical retrospective and current status of school choice in China. Focusing on analyzing the similarities and differences in origin, evolution, public dispute, policy dynamics between China and the United States, the article depicts a panorama and explores possible causes. Both China and the United States continue to learn from historical legacy and invent new programs to perfect school choice policy but the outcomes are so different. On the one hand, the percentage of public schools in China remains high all along, while there is a considerably significant reduction in the United States. On the other hand, there is more governmental intervention in the United States with continuous and constant policy updates and adjustment. Finally, this article adopts public-private partnerships (PPP) to seek to provide insights into differences between the two countries and argue that school choice is not only the production of education marketization and corporation but also driven by political mechanism.

Keywords: China, United States, school choice, comparative analysis, policy, public private partnerships

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1034 Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass in the East China Sea Based on MODIS Data

Authors: Yumei Wu, Xiaoyan Dang, Shenglong Yang, Shengmao Zhang

Abstract:

The East China Sea is one of four main seas in China, where there are many fishery resources. Some important fishing grounds, such as Zhousan fishing ground important to society. But the eco-environment is destroyed seriously due to the rapid developing of industry and economy these years. In this paper, about twenty-year satellite data from MODIS and the statistical information of marine environment from the China marine environmental quality bulletin were applied to do the research. The chlorophyll-a concentration data from MODIS were dealt with in the East China Sea and then used to analyze the features and variations of plankton biomass in recent years. The statistics method was used to obtain their spatial and temporal features. The plankton biomass in the Yangtze River estuary and the Taizhou region were highest. The high phytoplankton biomass usually appeared between the 88th day to the 240th day (end-March - August). In the peak time of phytoplankton blooms, the Taizhou islands was the earliest, and the South China Sea was the latest. The intensity and period of phytoplankton blooms were connected with the global climate change. This work give us confidence to use satellite data to do more researches about the China Sea, and it also provides some help for us to know about the eco-environmental variation of the East China Sea and regional effect from global climate change.

Keywords: the East China Sea, phytoplankton biomass, temporal and spatial variation, phytoplankton bloom

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1033 On the Alternative Sanctions to Capital Punishment in China

Authors: Huang Gui

Abstract:

There can be little doubt that our world is inexorably moving towards being execution-free. However, China is still on the way until now, in other words, China is still a retentionist state in the term of capital punishment but it is developing domestic criminal law toward that goal (eventual abolition of the capital punishment). The alternative sanction to capital punishment, which would be imposed on a criminal who should have been sentenced to death by law, is a substitute for execution and it should be provided with the basis of the present criminal punishment structure and with the premise of abolishing capital punishment or limiting its use. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to explore a substitute for capital punishment in China. For the criminal sanction system in China, the death penalty with suspension, naturally, is an execution, so it wouldn’t be the substitute; life sentences without parole is out of the tune with punishment policy that promoting correction and rehabilitation; life-imprisonment, which is one of the most severe punishment measure in the sanction system, should be a suitable substitute for executing but it needs to be improved, including the term of imprisonment, the commutation and parole conditions.

Keywords: alternative sanctions, capital punishment, life imprisonment, life imprisonment without parole, China

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1032 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: education for sustainable development, China, primary education, case study

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1031 Discussion about Frequent Adjustment of Urban Master Planning in China: A Case Study of Changshou District, Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin

Abstract:

Since the reform and opening, the urbanization process of China has entered a rapid development period. In recent years, the authors participated in some projects of urban master planning in China and found a phenomenon that the rapid urbanization area of China is experiencing frequent adjustment process of urban master planning. This phenomenon is not the natural process of urbanization development. It may be caused by different government roles from different levels. Through the methods of investigation, data comparison and case study, this paper aims to explore the reason why the rapid urbanization area is experiencing frequent adjustment of master planning and give some solution strategies. Firstly, taking Changshou district of Chongqing city as an example, this paper wants to introduce the phenomenon about frequent adjustment process in China. And then, discuss distinct roles in the process between national government, provincial government and local government of China. At last, put forward preliminary solutions strategies for this area in China from the aspects of land use, intergovernmental cooperation and so on.

Keywords: urban master planning, frequent adjustment, urbanization development, problems and strategies, China

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1030 The Comparison of Community Home-Based Care for the Aged in Kishiwada, Japan and Hangzhou, China

Authors: Zijiao Chai, Wangming Li

Abstract:

Hangzhou is one of the cities with the most serious aging in China. Community home-based care for the aged is an important solution to old-age care in aging society. In this aspect, Europe, the United States and Japan are on the top in the world. As an East Asian country, Japan has similar cultural traditions in pension with China. So, there is much enlightenment China can get from Japan in the mode of community home-based care for the aged. This paper introduces the mode of community home-based care for the aged in Kishiwada, Japan and Hangzhou, China. Then compare the two modes in the aspects of insurance system for the aged, community service and facilities, support system and so on. Thereby the success experience of Kishiwada and weaknesses of Hangzhou are summarized. At last, the improvement strategy of facility plan and service mode of community home-based care for the aged in China are also proposed.

Keywords: community, comparison, elderly-oriented, home-based care for the aged, support system

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1029 Research on the Mode and Strategy of Urban Renewal in the Old Urban Area of China: A Case Study of Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, old urban renewal is an important task in China's urban construction. This study, using status survey and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, taking Chongqing of China as an example, puts forward the problems faced by the old urban area from the aspects of function, facilities and environment. Further, this study summarizes the types of the old urban area and proposes space renewal strategies for three typical old urban areas, such as old residential area, old factory and old market. These old urban areas are confronted with the problems of functional layout confounding, lack of infrastructure and poor living environment. At last, this paper proposes spatial strategies for urban renewal, which are hoped to be useful for urban renewal management in China.

Keywords: old urban renewal, renewal mode, renewal strategy, Chongqing, China

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1028 Indonesia’s Defense Diplomacy Strength Towards China’s Aggressive Maritime Policy

Authors: Pangihutan Panjaitan, Helda Risman, Devindra Oktaviano

Abstract:

This research is departed from the security issues generated from China’s unilateral claims in the South China Sea conflict. The diplomacy challenges come from Indonesia’s relations with China as well as with ASEAN-member countries involved in the conflict. It is estimated that the conflict in the South China Sea region will become an endless conflict. Comprehensively, Indonesia is implementing a gradual shift in diplomatic approach in creating positive and constructive ties among Indonesia, China, and ASEAN. In line with the rapid-changing world order, the conventional military approach becomes less significant in today’s modern inter-state interactions. This research is conducted in a qualitative literature review to explain how Indonesia’s recent soft diplomacy approach applied in the South China Sea conflict. This type of diplomacy theoretically assumed as one of the most preferred ways to establish mutual trust and confidence among conflicting parties. Maritime issues found its significance in contemporary foreign policy since the world’s most dynamic region has moved to the archipelagic Asia-Pacific. As mentioned by rationalists, every country, including Indonesia, has surely formulated its own prominent national interest, such as the defense aspect. Finally, this research will provide a deep analysis on Indonesia’s centrality in ASEAN as an effective way to ensure Indonesia’s strategic policy in the region well accommodated.

Keywords: soft diplomacy, south China sea, national defense, China

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1027 China and the Middle East in the 21st Century: From Political Mediation to Economic Expansionism

Authors: Ali Asghar Sotoudeh

Abstract:

Mediation Diplomacy has emerged as one of the main pillars of China's foreign policy goals and practices, and Beijing has established itself as a peacekeeping force in regional conflicts and crises such as Afghanistan, Syria, Sudan, Yemen, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. China is deepening and intensifying its diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and trying to shape the security and political developments in the Middle East. On the other hand, economically, China has become one of the most important trading partners with Middle Eastern governments. China is also seeking to expand its foreign policy and economic interests in the Middle East through the New Silk Road initiative and has signed cooperation agreements with 17 Arab countries. In this regard, due to the importance of the subject, this research focuses on answering this question; what is the basis of China's political mediation and economic expansionism in the Middle East? In parallel with this question, this study follows the hypothesis that the mediating role of peace is a legitimate way for China to intervene in Middle East political crises, Without causing China to deviate from its traditional guiding principles based on non-interference in the internal affairs of other actors in the international system. This policy also promotes the security of economic interests and increases the country's political influence in the Middle East. The research method is descriptive-analytical based on the qualitative method, and the data collection method is library and internet resources.

Keywords: China, middle east, political mediation, economic expansionism

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1026 China’s Grand Strategy and Greece

Authors: Alexandra Doga, Andreas Lioumpas, Sotiris Petropoulos

Abstract:

This paper assesses China-Greece relations since 2006, examining them as part of China’s Grand Strategy and Greece’s perception of them. Τhe first aim of the paper is to provide an overview of China-Greece relations in connection with its long- and short-term goals. In essence, it focuses on understanding whether a Chinese grand strategy towards Greece exists. Secondly, it aims to examine the perception of Greeks over China’s foreign policy towards Greece. The intended contribution of the paper is to illustrate the response of national discourses over China’s increased presence in both the global sphere and specific countries in particular. This paper is based on qualitative analysis of secondary data as well as a thorough primary research scheme based on semi-structured interviews. The study made use of official Chinese government documents as well as academic journal articles and books. Local news outlets like newspapers provide data, and news surrounding Greece’s perception of China-Greece relations were also included. Moreover, a number of interviews of Greek officials, academics, journalists, and businessmen were conducted. This paper concluded that the period that began with the 2006 Joint Communiqué between China and Greece on the Establishment of Comprehensive Strategic Partnership has been one of the rapid strengthening of bilateral economic and political relations and frequent high-level visits. There are diverging/opposing views on whether China’s strategic choices towards Greece form part of a broader strategic approach and on whether this strategy is closely connected to the BRI initiative and its priorities.

Keywords: China, Greece, Grand Strategy, BRI, COSCO, Piraeus Port, Mediterranean

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1025 E-Commercial Enterprises' Behavior on China's Local Government's Economic Policy: An Example from Zhejiang Province

Authors: Chia-Chi Cheng

Abstract:

After the implementation of “the internet plus,” several puzzles emerge as below: why does China impose more regulation and laws on economic development on the Internet? Why does China urge the importance of manufacturing industry? Why does China’s local government passively implement the policy imposed by the central government? What kind of factors can influence China’s local government’s economic preference? In the framework of neo-institutionalism, this research considers China’s local government as changing agents to analyze its preferences and behavior. In general, the interests urged by the local government will decide its preference and behaviors. They will change its counterpart to cooperate if the change will bring more benefits. Thus, they will change its preference and behavior while the external environment alters. While the local government has the same definition on political activity and economic interest, they will prefer to cooperate with the local enterprises in the way of laying symbiont, within the presumption that the institution remains. While the local government has the different positions on political activity and economic interest, they will re-define the existed regulation or create new regulation in the condition of institution vacuum. Sequentially, they will replace the targets, and the policy, which does not fit in the Central government’s policy, will emerge.

Keywords: China, institutional change, government enterprise relationship, e-commercial policy

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1024 Study on the Legend of Dayi in China

Authors: Zhiguo Ju

Abstract:

Both ancient written documents and archaeological studies showed that the ancient Chinese was people who worshiped the Sun God. There is a legend of Dayi in China, however, told a story of Dayi, an ancient hero who sacrificed his life to shoot nine suns out of the ten in the sky, restored the order of the universe, and saved the people’s life. By investigating its oral inheritance and folk customs, we found that the story was originated from Rizhao, the east coralline in east China. This could provide valuable cultural resources and could be used in local tourism. How the Sun-worshipping-people developed such a contradictory legend, how was it be carried by generations, and how to use it as a cultural source to promote the local tourism was discussed.

Keywords: Legend of Dayi, sun worship, ancient Chinese, China

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1023 Ties of China and the United States Regarding to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the Basis of Soft Power Theory

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

After a period of conflict between Russia and the West, new signs of confrontation between the United States and China are observed. China, as the most populous country in the world with a high rate of economic growth, neither stands the hegemonic power of the United States nor has the intention of direct confrontation with it. By raising the costs of the United States’ leadership at the international level, China seeks to find a better status without direct confrontation with the US. Meanwhile, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), as a soft balancing strategy against the hegemony of the United States is used as a tool to reach this goal. The authors by using a descriptive-analytical method try to explain the policies of China and the United States on Shanghai Cooperation Organization as well as confrontation between these two countries within the framework of 'balance of soft power theory'.

Keywords: balance of soft power, Central Asia, Shanghai cooperation organization, terrorism

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