Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 154

Search results for: empathy

154 The Problem of Relation between Concepts Empathy and Decentration in Psychology

Authors: Elina Asriyan, Lusine Stepanyan

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This article is devoted to the study of connection between empathy and decentration. We have discovered a positive connection between these two indicators. Empathy is a variety of emotional decentration, and due to the decentration development process. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The recorded results state that empathy and decentralization are interconnected with each other; empathy being a type of emotional decentralization is conditioned by the formation process of decentration.

Keywords: empathy, decentration, emotional decentration, egocentricity

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153 Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschoolers: Distinct Associations with Empathy Subcomponents

Authors: E. Stylianopoulou, A. K. Fanti

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Object: Children scoring high on Callous-Unemotional traits (CU traits) exhibit lack of empathy. More specifically, children scoring high on CU traits appear to exhibit deficits on affective empathy or deficits in other constructs. However, little is known about cognitive empathy, and it's relation with CU traits in preschoolers. Despite the fact that empathy is measurable at a very young age, relatively less study has focused on empathy in preschoolers than older children with CU traits. The present study examines the cognitive and affective empathy in preschoolers with CU traits. The aim was to examine the differences between cognitive and affective empathy in those individuals. Based on previous research in children with CU traits, it was hypothesized that preschoolers scoring high in CU traits will show deficits in both cognitive and affective empathy; however, more deficits will be detected in affective empathy rather than cognitive empathy. Method: The sample size was 209 children, of which 109 were male, and 100 were female between the ages of 3 and 7 (M=4.73, SD=0.71). From those participants, only 175 completed all the items. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits was used to measure CU traits. Moreover, the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Affective Scale and the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Cognitive Scale was used to measure Affective and Cognitive empathy, respectively. Results: Linear Regression was applied to examine the preceding hypotheses. The results showed that generally, there was a moderate negative association between CU traits and empathy, which was significant. More specifically, it has been found that there was a significant and negative moderate relation between CU traits and cognitive empathy. Surprisingly, results indicated that there was no significant relation between CU traits and affective empathy. Conclusion: The current findings support that preschoolers show deficits in understanding others emotions, indicating a significant association between CU traits and cognitive empathy. However, such a relation was not found between CU traits and affective empathy. The current results raised the importance that there is a need for focusing more on cognitive empathy in preschoolers with CU traits, a component that seems to be underestimated till now.

Keywords: affective empathy, callous-unemotional traits, cognitive empathy, preschoolers

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152 Correlation of Empathy with Job Satisfaction and Stress of Social Workers

Authors: Theodosios Paralikas, Evangelia Kotrotsiou, Mairy Gouva, Manolis Mentis, Stiliani Stavrotheodorou, Stiliani Kotrotsiou, Maria Malliarou

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There is a big discussion in the international literature on empathy, job satisfaction and job occupational among various of disciplines, including social workers. Νevertheless these parameters have not been specifically studied in the Greek territory. This paper aims to study empathy of social workers, to produce results related to whether empathy is influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, marital status, level of education and study their perceived stress levels and also the satisfaction they derive from their work. For the first time, an attempt is made to link the empathy of these professionals to their job satisfaction and their anxiety. The sample of this survey consists of 165 social workers working on providers of public and private social services. The results showed that social workers have high levels of empathy contrary to the perceived stress levels which were low to moderate. Regarding the field of the job satisfaction, the survey showed that social workers are very satisfied with their workpiece and workplace. The survey shows no significant relationship between empathy and demographic factors, but there is a significant relationship between empathy and the workpiece/job satisfaction and the feeling of success.

Keywords: empathy, stress, job satisfaction, social workers

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151 Translating Empathy in a Senior Community

Authors: Denver E. Severt, Cynthia Mejia

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With a grey wave sweeping across the world and people living longer than ever, more individuals will reside in retirement communities in unprecedented numbers. Enhancing the resident stay within these communities is imperative to reduce past stigmas associated with senior communities. This exploratory quantitative investigation examined interview contents of employees and residents to see if empathy was observed. The results showed the employees across all ranges had a much better grasp of affective empathy, yet with greater experience and age, it was clear that cognitive empathy had to be used with affective empathy in order to gain better trust across the community of residents. Outcomes from the study suggest that future training programs for employees are operationalized to include both affective and cognitive empathy practices. This study is unique in that two scales of empathy were transformed into qualitative questions, and in-depth employee and resident interviews were conducted. The study answers many calls of research to provide more specific studies in senior living communities.

Keywords: senior living community, transformational service research, qualitative research

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150 Actor Training in Social Work Education: A Pilot Study of Theatre Workshops to Enhance Clinical Empathy

Authors: Amanda Coleman, Estefanía Gonzalez

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Empathy is considered an essential skill for engaging with social work clients. Drawing from developments in medical education, researchers will conduct and evaluate a three-part pilot theatre workshop with master level social work students (n ≈ 30) to evaluate the workshop's ability to enhance empathy among participants. Outcomes will be measured using semi-structured post-intervention interviews with a subset of participants (n ≈ 10) as well post-intervention written reflections and pre-and-post intervention quantitative evaluation of empathy using King and Holosko’s 2011 Empathy Scale for Social Workers. The content of the workshop will differ from traditional role plays, which are common in social work education, in that it will draw from role theory and research on creative empathy to emphasize role reversal with clients. Workshops will be held February and March of 2017 with preliminary findings available by April.

Keywords: education, empathy, social work, theatre

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149 The Virtues and Vices of Leader Empathy: A Review of a Misunderstood Construct

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj

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In recent years, there has been a surge in research on empathy across disciplines ranging from management and psychology to philosophy and neuroscience. In organizational behavior, in particular, scholars have become interested in leader empathy given the rise of workplace diversity and the growing perception of leaders as managers of group emotions. It would appear that the current zeitgeist in behavioral and philosophical science is that empathy is a cornerstone of morality and that our world would be better off if only more people – and by extension, more leaders – were empathic. In spite of these claims, however, researchers have used different terminologies to explore empathy, confusing it at times with other related constructs such as emotional intelligence and compassion. Second, extant research that specifies what empathic leaders do and how their behavior affects organizational stakeholders, including themselves, does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems plague knowledge development in this important research domain. Therefore, to the authors' best knowledge, this paper provides the first comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on leader empathy by drawing on disparate yet complementary fields of inquiry. It clarifies empathy from other constructs and presents a theoretical model that elucidates the mechanisms by which a leader’s empathy translates into behaviors that could be either beneficial or harmful to the leaders themselves, as well as to their followers and groups. And third, it specifies the boundary conditions under which a leader’s empathy will become manifest. Finally, it suggests ways in which training could be implemented to improve empathy in practice while also remaining skeptical of its conceptualization as a moral or even effective guide in human affairs.

Keywords: compassion, empathy, leadership, group outcomes

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148 Impacts of Online Behaviors on Empathy in Medical Students

Authors: Ling-Lang Huang, Yih-Jer Wu

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Empathy is crucial for a patient-physician relationship and medical professionalism. Internet activity, gaming, or even addiction, have been more and more common among medical students. However, there’s been no report showing whether internet behavior has a substantial impact on empathy in medical students to our best knowledge. All year-2 medical students taking the optional course 'Narrative, Comprehension, and Communication' were enrolled. Internet behaviors are divided into two groups, 'internet users without online gaming (IU)' and 'internet users with online gaming (IG)', each group was further divided into 3 groups according to their average online retention time each day (< 2, 2 - 6, > 6 hours). Empathy was evaluated by the scores of the reports and humanities reflection after watching indicated movies, and by self-measured empathy questionnaire. All students taking the year-2 optional course 'Narrative, Comprehension, and Communication' were enrolled. As compared with students in the IU group, those in the IG group had significantly lower scores for the reports (81.3 ± 3.7 vs. 86.4 ± 5.1, P = 0.014). If further dividing the students into 5 groups (IU < 2, IU 2-6, IG < 2, IG 2 - 6, and IG > 6 hours), the scores were significantly and negatively correlated to online gaming with longer hours (r = -0.556, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant difference between IU and IG groups (33.0 ± 5.4 vs. 34.8 ± 3.2, P = n.s.), in terms of scores in the self-measured empathy questionnaire, neither was there any significant trend of scores along with longer online hours across the 5 groups (r = -0.164, P = n.s.). To date, there has been no evidence showing whether different internet behaviors (with or without online gaming) have distinct impacts on empathy. Although all of the medical students had a similarly good self-perception for empathy, our data suggested that online gaming did have a negative impact on their actual expression of empathy. Our observation has brought up an important issue for pondering: May IT- or gaming-assisted medical learning actually harm students’ empathy? In conclusion, this data suggests that long hours of online gaming harms expression of empathy, though all medics think themselves a person of high empathy.

Keywords: empathy. Internet, medical students, online gaming

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147 Reciprocity and Empathy in Motivating Altruism among Sixth Grade Students

Authors: Rylle Evan Gabriel Zamora, Micah Dennise Malia, Abygail Deniese Villabona

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The primary motivators of altruism are usually viewed as mutually exclusive. In this study, we wanted to know if the two primary motivators, reciprocity and empathy, can work together in motivating altruism. Therefore, we wanted to find out if there is a significant interaction of effects between reciprocity and empathy. To show how this may occur, we devised the combined altruism model, which is based on Batson’s empathy altruism hypothesis. A sample of 120, 6th-grade students were randomly selected and then randomly assigned to four treatment groups. A 2x2 between subjects’ design was used, which had empathy and reciprocity as independent variables, and altruism as the dependent variable. The study made use of materials that were effort based, where subjects were required to complete a task or a puzzle to help a person in a given scenario, two videos, one to prime empathy were also used. This along with Witt & Boleman’s adapted Self-Reported Altruism Scale was used to determine an individual’s altruism. It was found that both variables were significant in motivating altruism, with empathy being the greater of the two. However, there was no significant interaction of effects between the two variables. To explain why this occurred, we turned to the combined altruism model, where it was found that when empathically primed, we tend to not think of ourselves when helping others. Future studies could focus on other variables, especially age which is said to be one of the greatest factors that influenced the results of the experiment.

Keywords: reciprocity, empathy, altruism, experimental psychology, social psychology

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146 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede

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Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy, psychological well-being, job performance

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145 Living with a Partner with Depression: The Role of Dispositional Empathy in Psychological Resilience

Authors: Elizabeth O'Brien, Raegan Murphy

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Research suggests that high levels of empathy in individuals with partners with mental health difficulties can lead to improved outcomes for their partner while compromising their own mental health. Specifically, it is proposed that the affective dimension of empathy diminishes resilience to the distress of a partner, whereas cognitive empathy (CE) enhances it. The relationship between different empathy dimensions and psychological resilience measures has not been investigated in partners of people with depression. Psychological inflexibility (PI) is a construct that can be understood as distress intolerance and is suggested to be an important feature of psychological resilience. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate the differential role of dispositional empathy dimensions in PI for people living with a partner with depression. A cross-sectional design was employed in which 148 participants living with a partner with depression and 45 participants for a comparison sample were recruited using online platforms. Participants completed online surveys with measures relating to demographics, empathy, and PI. Scores were compared between the study and comparison samples. The study sample scored significantly lower for CE and affective empathy (AE) and significantly higher for PI than the comparison sample. Exploratory and regression analyses were run to examine associations between variables within the study sample. Analyses revealed that CE predicted the resilience outcome whilst AE did not. These results suggest that interventions for partners of people with depression that bolster the CE dimension alone may improve mental health outcomes for both members of the couple relationship.

Keywords: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, depression, partners, psychological inflexibility

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144 Assessing Empathy of Deliquent Adolescents

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Naidu Narainsamy

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Empathy has been identified by researchers to be a crucial factor in helping adolescents to refrain from delinquent behavior. Adolescent delinquent behavior is a social problem that has become a source of concern to parents, psychologists, educators, correctional services, researchers as well as governments of nations. Empathy is a social skill that enables an individual to understand and to share another’s emotional state. An individual with a high level of empathy will avoid any act or behavior that will affect another person negatively. The need for this study is predicated on the fact that delinquent adolescent behavior could lead to adult criminality. This, in the long run, has the potential of resulting in an increase in crime rate thereby threatening public safety. It has therefore become imperative to explore the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents who have committed crime and are awaiting trial. It is the conjecture of this study that knowledge of the empathy level of delinquent adolescents will provide an opportunity to design an intervention strategy to remediate the deficit. This study was therefore designed to determine the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents. In addition, this study provides a better understanding of factors that may prevent adolescents from developing delinquent behavior, in this case, delinquents’ empathy levels. In the case of participants who have a low level of empathy, remediation strategies to improve their empathy level would be designed. Two research questions were raised to guide this study. A mixed methods research design was employed for the study. The sample consists of fifteen male adolescents who are between 13-18 years old with a mean age of 16.5 years old. The participants are adolescents who are awaiting trial. The non-probability sampling technique was used to obtain the sample for the quantitative study while purposive sampling was used in the case of the qualitative study. A self–report questionnaire and structured interview were used to assess the level of empathy of participants. The data obtained was analysed using the simple percentages for the quantitative data and transcribing the qualitative data. The result indicates that most of the participants have low level of empathy. It is also revealed that there is a difference in the empathy level on the basis of whether they are from parents living together and those whose parents are separated. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the level of empathy of participants be improved through training and emphasizing the importance of stimulating family environment for children. It is also recommended that programs such as youth mentoring and youth sheltering be established by the government of South Africa to address the menace of delinquent adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, behavior, delinquents, empathy

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143 A Validation of the German Version of the Basic Empathy Scale in a Community Sample

Authors: Andra Biesok, Katja Witte

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Empathy is the capacity to understand and share another's emotional state and context and is the evolutionary mechanism behind altruism, prosocial behavior, human civilization, and subsequently, resistance to violence. High levels of empathy are associated with prosocial behavior, lack of empathy is associated with antisocial behavior, including aggression, delinquency, and criminal offense recidivism. The present study aims to validate the German version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), which measures both cognitive and affective empathy and has been validated in multiple languages but not in a German community sample. The study sample contains N = 321 healthy individuals (Mage = 18.93, SDage = 4.23) who completed the German version of the BES, consisting of 20 items. The German version of the BES consists of 20 items. Responses are given on a 5-point rating scale. Psychometric validation consisted of several steps. First, factorial validity was examined. Therefore, separate models for both factors (affective & cognitive) were computed. Then the models were fitted, based on the modification indices. In a last step, the separate models were integrated into an overall model. The two-factorial structure was confirmed with necessary adjustments. The final model showed a good fit to the data: RMSEA = .063; SRMR = .070; CFI = .902. The two subscales correlated significantly (r = .45, p < .01). Second, construct validity was examined. In terms of convergent validity, we found significant correlations between the two subscales of the BES and another empathy measure, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRIS). Regarding discriminant validity, correlations between the BES subscales and the Big Five dimensions could be revealed. In a final step, we examined concurrent validity and investigated whether sex differences (on average higher mean values of empathy for women) could be replicated for our sample. We found higher mean values for women on both, cognitive (Mwomen = 4.48, SDwomen = 0.64 vs. Mmen = 3.90, SDmen = 0.54) and affective (Mwomen = 5.02, SDwomen = 0.71 vs. Mmen = 4.64, SDmen = 0.69) empathy. We estimated internal consistency with McDonald’s omega. Omega ranged from ω = .72 (affective) to ω = .87 (cognitive).

Keywords: basic empathy scale, empathy, Germany, validation study

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142 A Mixed Methods Study: Evaluation of Experiential Learning Techniques throughout a Nursing Curriculum to Promote Empathy

Authors: Joan Esper Kuhnly, Jess Holden, Lynn Shelley, Nicole Kuhnly

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Empathy serves as a foundational nursing principle inherent in the nurse’s ability to form those relationships from which to care for patients. Evidence supports, including empathy in nursing and healthcare education, but there is limited data on what methods are effective to do so. Building evidence supports experiential and interactive learning methods to be effective for students to gain insight and perspective from a personalized experience. The purpose of this project is to evaluate learning activities designed to promote the attainment of empathic behaviors across 5 levels of the nursing curriculum. Quantitative analysis will be conducted on data from pre and post-learning activities using the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. The main hypothesis, that simulation learning activities will increase empathy, will be examined using a repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Pre and Post Toronto Empathy Questionnaire scores for three simulation activities (Stroke, Poverty, Dementia). Pearson product-moment correlations will be conducted to examine the relationships between continuous demographic variables, such as age, credits earned, and years practicing, with the dependent variable of interest, Post Test Toronto Empathy Scores. Krippendorff’s method of content analysis will be conducted to identify the quantitative incidence of empathic responses. The researchers will use Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method to describe the students’ simulation experience and understand its impact on caring and empathy behaviors employing bracketing to maintain objectivity. The results will be presented, answering multiple research questions. The discussion will be relevant to results and educational pedagogy in the nursing curriculum as they relate to the attainment of empathic behaviors.

Keywords: curriculum, empathy, nursing, simulation

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141 The Mechanism Underlying Empathy-Related Helping Behavior: An Investigation of Empathy-Attitude- Action Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Liao, Angela K. Tzeng

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Empathy has been an important issue in psychology, education, as well as cognitive neuroscience. Empathy has two major components: cognitive and emotional. Cognitive component refers to the ability to understand others’ perspectives, thoughts, and actions, whereas emotional component refers to understand how others feel. Empathy can be induced, attitude can then be changed, and with enough attitude change, helping behavior can occur. This finding leads us to two questions: is attitude change really necessary for prosocial behavior? And, what roles cognitive and affective empathy play? For the second question, participants with different psychopathic personality (PP) traits are critical because high PP people were found to suffer only affective empathy deficit. Their cognitive empathy shows no significant difference from the control group. 132 college students voluntarily participated in the current three-stage study. Stage 1 was to collect basic information including Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), Attitude Scale, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and demographic data. Stage two was for empathy induction with three controversial scenarios, namely domestic violence, depression with a suicide attempt, and an ex-offender. Participants read all three stories and then rewrite the stories by one of two perspectives (empathetic vs. objective). They would then complete the VAS and Attitude Scale one more time for their post-attitude and emotional status. Three IVs were introduced for data analysis: PP (High vs. Low), Responsibility (whether or not the character is responsible for what happened), and Perspective-taking (Empathic vs. Objective). Stage 3 was for the action. Participants were instructed to freely use the 17 tokens they received as donations. They were debriefed and interviewed at the end of the experiment. The major findings were people with higher empathy tend to take more action in helping. Attitude change is not necessary for prosocial behavior. The controversy of the scenarios and how familiar participants are towards target groups play very important roles. Finally, people with high PP tend to show more public prosocial behavior due to their affective empathy deficit. Pre-existing value and belief as well as recent dramatic social events seem to have a big impact and possibly reduce the effect of the independent variables (IV) in our paradigm.

Keywords: empathy, cognitive, emotional, psychopathy

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140 Improving Customer Service through Empathy

Authors: Abiola Olukemi Ogunyemi

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Many organizations would like to gain customer loyalty, and to achieve this they invest in customer management systems which help them to learn and anticipate the customers’ needs, get feedback from them and serve them. One of the most elementary ways to achieve customer loyalty is for employees to be able to empathize with their customers, and to be able to feel what they feel when the company betrays their trust, which usually otherwise shown in patronage and loyalty. Unfortunately, the staff and management of organizations do not always realize the negative impact of treating customers badly, because they do not stop to think how these customers feel. If they did, they would be more careful and more respectful of these people who are human beings just like they are. They would be wiser, since this would ultimately make them more profitable businesses. This paper looks at thirteen descriptions of situations in which customers felt treated badly by organizations they trusted, and focuses on the feelings of these customers. If the organization (made of people) could empathize with the customer, then customer service would be surely enhanced. It is expected that these stories, real experiences narrated by young professionals working in Nigeria, can awaken greater empathy for consumers within organizations. Thus, they may help the organization to learn empathy and to incorporate it into their foundational principles for ethical behavior. The paper’s contents contribute to a heightened appreciation of empathy as an organizing mechanism by showing how putting one in the consumer’s shoes can help managers to understand how he or she feels. This will lead organizations to be even more innovative in finding ways to meet their customers’ needs and to deserve and win their loyalty. It addresses an issue that cuts across cultures, and therefore can be quite thought-provoking for every business owner or for team leads within organizations. By trying to stimulate empathy across the seller-buyer divide, it necessarily contributes to a deeper understanding of empathy as a building block for a sustainable society.

Keywords: customer service, empathy, ethical behavior, respectfulness

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139 Empathy in the Work of Physiotherapists in Slovakia

Authors: Vladimir Littva, Peter Kutis

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Based on common practice, we know that an empathic approach to a patient is one of the characteristics of a physiotherapist. Although empathy is regarded as an essential condition of the psychotherapeutic relationship, it has taken quite a while for attention to be paid to it in clinical practice. Patients who are experiencing a sense of understanding from health care providers are more willing to cooperate, and treatment within the optimistic attunes a more comfortable framework of care. Age, experience, family, education and the working environment may have an impact on the degree of empathy for paramedics. Within the KEGA project no. 003KU-4-2021, we decided to investigate the level of empathy in the work of physiotherapists in Slovakia. Research sample and Methods: The sample comprised 194 respondents – physiotherapists working on the territory of Slovakia. 112 were men and 82 women. The age of respondents was between 21 and 64 years of age. 133 were married, 51 were single and ten were divorced. 98 were living in the countryside and 96 in towns. Twenty-two grew up without siblings, 95 with one sibling and 77 with two and more siblings. In the survey, we used the Empathy Assessment Questionnaire (EAQ) with 18 questions with four possible answers: strongly disagree, disagree, agree; and strongly agree, which we validated linguistically and psychometrically. All data were statistically processed by SPSS 25. Results: We evaluated the intrinsic reliability of the questionnaire EAQ using Cronbach's Alpha and the coefficient is 0.756 in the whole set. This means that the questionnaire is a quite strong and reliable measurement tool. The mean for individual questions ranged from 2.39 to 3.74 (maximum was 4). In Pearson's correlations, we confirmed the significant differences between the groups regarding sex in 8 questions out of 18, regarding age in 5 questions, regarding family status in 4 questions and regarding siblings in 4 questions out of 18 at the level 5% (p <0.05). Conclusion: The results obtained during the research show the importance of adequate communication with the patient due to his health and well-being. Empathy in the physiotherapists’ profession is very important. It would be worthwhile if the students of physiotherapy would receive a course during their study that would deal exclusively with empathy, empathic approach, burnout, or psycho-emotional hygiene.

Keywords: empathy, approach, clinical practice, physiotherapists

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138 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere

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Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: institutional level, entrepreneurial orientation, empathy, social entrepreneurial intentions

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137 Beyond Empathy: From Justice to Reconciliation

Authors: Nissim Avissar

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This paper aims to question the practice of bringing together people belonging to groups in conflict with the aim of bridging differences through universal empathy and interpersonal connections. It is argued that in cases where one group has the power, and the other is in a struggle to change the balance assuming universal equality between the groups and encouraging emphatic understanding is a non-emphatic practice. Accordingly, a new concept is posited–justice-sensitive empathy, conditioning empathy in such situations on the acknowledgement of an imbalance of power/injustice. With this reframing in mind, educational practices promoting social justice are discussed. In order to create conditions for justice-seeking or politically sensitive empathy, we need to go beyond the conventional definitions of empathy and offer other means and possibilities. Three possibilities are discussed. The first focuses on intra-group (as opposed to inter-group) processes within each group. It means temporary and tactical separation that may allow each group to focus on its own needs and values and perhaps to return to the dialogue more confidently. The second option emphasizes the notion of "constructive conflict," which means that each side still aspires to promote his own interests but without demolishing the other side (which is a rival but also an unwanted and forced partner). Here, alongside the "obligation to resist" and to act to promote justice as we view and understand it, we have to take into account the other side. The third and last option relates to the practice of Restorative Justice. This practice originated in the Truth and Reconciliation committees in South Africa, but it is now widely used in other contexts. Those committees had the authority to punish (or pardon) people; however, their main purpose was to seek truth and, from there, nourish reconciliation. This is the main idea of restorative justice; it seeks justice for the sake of restoring relationships. All the above options involve action and are aware of power relations (i.e., politics). They all seek justice. They may create conditions for the more conventional empathic practice to evolve, but no less than that, they are examples of justice-seeking and politically sensitive empathetic practice.

Keywords: education, empathy, justice, reconciliation

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136 Interoception and Its Role in Connecting Empathy, Bodily Perception and Conceptual Representations: A Cross-Cultural Online Study

Authors: Fabio Marson, Revital Naor-Ziv, Patrizio Paoletti, Joseph Glicksohn, Filippo Carducci, Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan

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According to embodied cognition theories, higher-order cognitive functions and complex behaviors seems to be affected by bodily states. For example, the polyvagal theory suggests that the human autonomic nervous system evolved to support social interactions. Accordingly, integration and perception of information related to the physiological state arising from the peripherical nervous system (i.e., interoception) play a role in the regulation of social interaction by modulating emotional responses and prosocial behaviors. Moreover, recent studies showed that interoception is involved in the representations of conceptual knowledge, suggesting that the bodily information carried by the interoceptive system provides a perceptual basis for the embodiment of abstract concepts, especially those related to social and emotional domains. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies explored the relationship between interoception, prosocial behaviors, and conceptual representations. Considering the privileged position of interoception in mediating higher-order cognition and social interaction, we designed a cross-cultural study to explore the relationship between interoception, the sensitivity of bodily functions, and empathy. We recruited Italian, English, and Hebrew participants, and we asked them to fill in a questionnaire about empathy (Empathy Quotient), a questionnaire about bodily perception (Body Perception Questionnaire), and to rate different concrete and abstract concepts for the extent such concepts can be experienced through vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and interoception. We observed that in all languages, interoception ratings for abstract concepts were greater than for concrete concepts. Importantly, interoception ratings for abstract concepts were positively correlated with empathy and sensitivity of bodily functions. Our results suggest that participants with higher empathy and sensitivity of bodily functions show also a greater embodiment of abstract concepts in interoception, providing further evidence for the importance of the interoceptive system in regulating prosocial behaviors and integrating conceptual representations.

Keywords: conceptual representations, embodiment, empathy, empathy quotient, interoception, prosocial behaviors

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135 Induced Emotional Empathy and Contextual Factors like Presence of Others Reduce the Negative Stereotypes Towards Persons with Disabilities through Stronger Prosociality

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Mishra

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In this paper, we focus on how contextual factors like the physical presence of other perceivers and then developed induced emotional empathy towards a person with disabilities may reduce the automatic negative stereotypes and then response towards that person. We demonstrated in study 1 that negative attitude based on negative stereotypes assessed on ATDP-test questionnaires on five points Linkert-scale are significantly less negative when participants were tested with a group of perceivers and then tested alone separately by applying 3 (positive, indifferent, and negative attitude levels) X 2 (physical presence condition and alone) factorial design of ANOVA test. In the second study, we demonstrate, by applying regression analysis, in the presence of other perceivers, whether in a small group, participants showed more induced emotional empathy through stronger prosociality towards a high distress target like a person with disabilities in comparison of that of other stigmatized persons such as racial biased or gender-biased people. Thus results show that automatic affective response in the form of induced emotional empathy in perceiver and contextual factors like the presence of other perceivers automatically activate stronger prosocial norms and egalitarian goals towards physically challenged persons in comparison to other stigmatized persons like racial or gender-biased people. This leads to less negative attitudes and behaviour towards a person with disabilities.

Keywords: contextual factors, high distress target, induced emotional empathy, stronger prosociality

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134 The Effect of Empathy Training Given to Midwives on Mothers’ Satisfaction with Midwives and Their Birth Perception

Authors: Songul Aktas, Turkan Pasinlioglu, Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik

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Introduction: Emphatic approach during labor increases both quality of care and birth satisfaction of mothers. Besides; maternal satisfaction statements and expressions about midwives who assist labor contribute to a positive birth perception and wish to give vaginal delivery again. Aim: The study aimed at investigating the effect of empathy training given to midwives on mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception. Material/Method: This experimental study was undertaken between February 2013 and January 2014 at a public hospital in Trabzon Province. The population of the study was composed of mothers who gave vaginal delivery and the sample was composed of 222 mothers determined with power analyzes. Ethical approval and written informed consents were obtained. Mothers who were assisted by midwives during 1st, 2nd and 3rd phases of delivery and first two postpartum hours were included. Empathy training given to midwives included didactic narration, creative drama, psychodrama techniques and lasted 32 hours. The data were collected before the empathy training (BET), right after empathy training (RAET) and 8 weeks later after birth (8WLAB). Mothers were homogenous in terms of socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics. Data were collected with a questionnaire and were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Findings: Rate of mother’s satisfaction with midwives was 36.5% in BET, 81.1% in RAET and 75.7% in 8WLAB. Key mother’s satisfaction with midwives were as follows: 27.6% of mothers told that midwives were “smiling-kind” in BET, 39.6% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 31% of mothers told that midwives were “understanding” in BET, 38.2% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 15.7% of mothers told that midwives were “reassuring” in BET, 44.9% of them in RAET and 39.3% of them in 8WLAB;19.5% of mothers told that midwives were “encouraging and motivating” in BET, 39.8% of them in RAET and 19.8% of mothers told that midwives were “informative” in BET, 45.6% of them in RAET and 35.1% of them in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Key mother’s dissatisfaction with midwives were as follows: 55.3% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-informed” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 27.7% of them in 8WLAB; 56.9% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-listening” in BET, 17.6% of them in RAET and 25.5% of them in 8WLAB; 53.2% of mothers told that midwives were “judgmental-embarrassing” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 29.8% of them in 8WLAB; 56.2% of mothers told that midwives had “fierce facial expressions” in BET, 15.6% of them in RAET and 28.1% of them in 8WLAB. Rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “easy” were 8.1% in BET, 21.6% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB and rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “very difficult and tiring” were 41.9% in BET, 5.4% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of empathy training given to midwives upon statements that described mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception was positive. Note: This study was financially funded by TUBİTAK project with number 113S672.

Keywords: empathy training, labor perception, mother’s satisfaction with midwife, vaginal delivery

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133 Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners

Authors: Prakash Singh

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The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, empathy, learners’ emotional needs, teachers’ empathic skills

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132 Secondary Traumatic Stress and Related Factors in Australian Social Workers and Psychologists

Authors: Cindy Davis, Samantha Rayner

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Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an indirect form of trauma affecting the psychological well-being of mental health workers; STS is found to be a prevalent risk in mental health occupations. Various factors impact the development of STS within the literature; including the level of trauma individuals are exposed to and their level of empathy. Research is limited on STS in mental health workers in Australia; therefore, this study examined STS and related factors of empathetic behavior and trauma caseload among mental health workers. The research utilized an online survey quantitative research design with a purposive sample of 190 mental health workers (176 females) recruited via professional websites and unofficial social media groups. Participants completed an online questionnaire comprising of demographics, the secondary traumatic stress scale and the empathy scale for social workers. A standard hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the significance of covariates, traumatized clients, traumatic stress within workload and empathy in predicting STS. The current research found 29.5% of participants to meet the criteria for a diagnosis of STS. Age and past trauma within the covariates were significantly associated with STS. Amount of traumatized clients significantly predicted 4.7% of the variance in STS, traumatic stress within workload significantly predicted 4.8% of the variance in STS and empathy significantly predicted 4.9% of the variance in STS. These three independent variables and the covariates accounted for 18.5% of the variance in STS. Practical implications include a focus on developing risk strategies and treatment methods that can diminish the impact of STS.

Keywords: mental health, PTSD, social work, trauma

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131 Empirical Analysis of the Love Languages in the Context of Relationship Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction and Empathy in Romantic Heterosexual Couples

Authors: Olha Mostova, Maciej Stolarski, Gerald Matthews

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The present paper explores and tests Gary Chapman’s claims that (1) people vary in the ways they prefer to receive and express affection and (2) romantic partners, who communicate their feelings correspondingly to their partner’s preferences, experience greater relationship quality. The author proposes five distinct preferences for and tendencies to express love, including acts of service, physical touch, words of affirmation, quality time, and gifts. In the present study, partners (N = 100 romantic, heterosexual couples) completed measures assessing their preferences and behavioral tendencies reflecting 1) how they a) tend to express and b) prefer to receive signs of affection in correspondence to the five proposed categories; 2) relationship satisfaction; 3) sexual satisfaction and 4) empathy, which was expected to be the factor that leads to a better understanding of and responding to the partner’s needs. The degree of the within-couple match was calculated separately for each individual based on the discrepancies between one’s felt (preferred) and their partner’s expressed love language. The joint discrepancy indicator was a sum of such discrepancies across the five love languages. Conducted analyses provided evidence for significant associations between matching on love languages and both relationship and sexual satisfaction. In particular, people who expressed their affection in the way their partners preferred to receive it experienced greater satisfaction with their relationships and were more sexually satisfied compared to those who met their partner’s needs to a lesser extent. Other results provide some support for mediating effects of certain domains of empathy in the said associations among male but not female participants.

Keywords: affection, empathy, love languages, relationship satisfaction, romantic couples, sexual satisfaction

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130 Clinical Empathy: The Opportunity to Offer Optimal Treatment to People with Serious Illness

Authors: Leonore Robieux, Franck Zenasni, Marc Pocard, Clarisse Eveno

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Empirical data in health psychology studies show the necessity to consider the doctor-patient communication and its positive impact on outcomes such as patients’ satisfaction, treatment adherence, physical and psychological wellbeing. In this line, the present research aims to define the role and determinants of an effective doctor–patient communication during the treatment of patients with serious illness (peritoneal carcinomatosis). We carried out a prospective longitudinal study including patients treated for peritoneal carcinomatosis of various origins. From November 2016, to date, data were collected using validated questionnaires at two times of evaluation: one month before the surgery (T0) and one month after (T1). Thus, patients reported their (a) anxiety and depression levels, (b) standardized and individualized quality of life and (c) how they perceived communication, attitude and empathy of the surgeon. 105 volunteer patients (Mean age = 58.18 years, SD = 10.24, 62.2% female) participated to the study. PC arose from rare diseases (14%), colorectal (38%), eso-gastric (24%) and ovarian (8%) cancer. Three groups are defined according to the severity of their pathology and the treatment offered to them: (1) important surgical treatment with the goal of healing (53%), (2) repeated palliative surgical treatment (17%), and (3) the patients recused for surgical treatment, only palliative approach (30%). Results are presented according to Baron and Kenny recommendations. The regressions analyses show that only depression and anxiety are sensitive to the communication and empathy of surgeon. The main results show that a good communication and high level of empathy at T0 and T1 limit depression and anxiety of the patients in T1. Results also indicate that the severity of the disease modulates this positive impact of communication: better is the communication the less are the level of depression and anxiety of the patients. This effect is higher for patients treated for the more severe disease. These results confirm that, even in the case severe disease a good communication between patient and physician remains a significant factor in promoting the well-being of patients. More specific training need to be developed to promote empathic care.

Keywords: clinical empathy, determinants, healthcare, psychological wellbeing

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129 Communication Skills for Physicians: Adaptation to the Third Gender and Language Cross Cultural Influences

Authors: Virginia Guillén Cañas, Miren Agurtzane Ortiz-Jauregi, Sonia Ruiz De Azua, Naiara Ozamiz

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We want to focus on relationship of the communicational skills in several key aspects of medicine. The most relevant competencies of a health professional are an adequate communication capacity, which will influence the satisfaction of professionals and patients, therapeutic compliance, conflict prevention, clinical outcomes’ improvement and efficiency of health services. We define empathy as it as Sympathy and connection to others and capability to communicate this understanding. Some outcomes favoring empathy are female gender, younger age, and specialty choice. Third gender or third sex is a concept in which allows a person not to be categorized in a dual way but as a continuous variable, giving the choice of moving along it. This point of view recognizes three or more genders. The subject of Ethics and Clinical Communication is dedicated to sensitizing students about the importance and effectiveness of a good therapeutic relationship. We are also interested in other communicational aspects related to empathy as active listening, assertivity and basic and advanced Social Skills. Objectives: 1. To facilitate the approach of the student in the Medicine Degree to the reality of the medical profession 2. Analyze interesting outcome variables in communication 3. Interactive process to detect the areas of improvement in the learning process of the Physician throughout his professional career needs. Design: A comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted in successive academic year cohorts of health professional students at a public Basque university. Four communicational aspects were evaluated through these questionnaires in Basque, Spanish and English: The active listening questionnaire, the TECA empathy questionnaire, the ACDA questionnaire and the EHS questionnaire Social Skills Scale. Types of interventions for improving skills: Interpersonal skills training intervention, Empathy intervention, Writing about experiential learning, Drama through role plays, Communicational skills training, Problem-based learning, Patient interviews ´videos, Empathy-focused training, Discussion. Results: It identified the need for a cross cultural adaptation and no gender distinction. The students enjoyed all the techniques in comparison to the usual master class. There was medium participation but these participative methodologies are not so usual in the university. According to empathy, men have a greater empathic capacity to fully understand women (p < 0.05) With regard to assertiveness there have been no differences between men and women in self-assertiveness but nevertheless women are more heteroassertive than men. Conclusions: These findings suggest that educational interventions with adequate feedback can be effective in maintaining and enhancing empathy in undergraduate medical students.

Keywords: physician's communicational skills, patient satisfaction, third gender, cross cultural adaptation

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128 A Deluge of Disaster, Destruction, Death and Deception: Negative News and Empathy Fatigue in the Digital Age

Authors: Bernard Nnamdi Emenyeonu

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Initially identified as sensationalism in the eras of yellow journalism and tabloidization, the inclusion of news which shock or provoke strong emotional responses among readers and viewers has not only remained a persistent feature of journalism but has also seemingly escalated in the current climate of digital media. Whether in relentless revelation of scandals in high places, or profiles on people displaced by sporadic wars or natural disasters; or gruesome accounts of trucks plowing into pedestrians in a city centre; or the coverage of mourners paying tributes to victims of a mass shooting, mainstream and digital media are often awash with tragedy, tears and trauma. While it may aim at inspiring sympathy, outrage or even remedial reactions, it would appear that the deluge of grief and misery in the news merely generates in the audience a feeling that borders on hearing or seeing too much to care or act. This feeling also appears to be accentuated by the dizzying diffusion of social media news and views, most of whose authenticity is not easily verifiable. Through a survey of regular consumers of news and an in-depth interview of news managers in Oman, this study, therefore, investigates public attitude to the profusion of bad news in mainstream and digital media. Among other targets, it examines whether the profusion of bad news generates empathy fatigue among the audience, and if so, whether there is any association between biographic variables (profession, age, and gender) and an inclination to empathy fatigue. It also seeks to identify which categories of bad news and media are most likely to drag the audience into indifference. In conclusion, the study discusses the implications of the findings for mass mediated advocacies such as campaigns against corruption, nuclear threats, terrorism, gun violence, sexual crimes and human trafficking among other threats to humanity.

Keywords: digital media, empathy fatigue, media campaigns, news selection

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127 Navigating the VUCA World with a Strong Heart and Mind: How to Build Passion and Character

Authors: Shynn Lim, Ching Tan

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The paper presents the PASSION Programme designed by a government school in Singapore, guided by national goals as well as research-based pedagogies that aims to nurture students to become lifelong learners with the strength of character. The design and enactment of the integrated approach to develop in students good character, resilience and social-emotional well-being, future readiness, and active citizenship is guided by a set of principles that amalgamates Biesta’s domains of purposes of education and authentic learning. Data in terms of evidence of students’ learning and students’ feedback were collected, analysed, and suggests that the learning experience benefitted students by boosting their self-confidence, self-directed and collaborative learning skills, as well as empathy.

Keywords: lifelong learning, character and citizenship education, education and career guidance, 21CC, teaching and learning empathy

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126 Posttraumatic Distress, Hope and Growth in Survivors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking in Nepal

Authors: Rebekah Volgin, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Ian Shochet

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Commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) and sex trafficking affect between 5000-7000 girls and women in Nepal each year and can have devastating physical and psychological consequences. Much research has documented these effects, however, there is no published longitudinal research that focuses on whether healing and growth outcomes are possible for survivors of CSE and sex trafficking. The narratives of 27 girls and women (13-22 years) were taken at two-time points during participation in a six-week group psychoeducation and art therapy program which was delivered across three NGO’s in Kathmandu, Nepal. These narratives form part of a larger ethnographic project. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Themes emerging from time point 1 were: psychological distress in the form of anxiety and grief over loss of family, psychosomatic symptoms, empathy and compassion, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the form of new possibilities, relating to others and personal strength. Posttraumatic growth refers to positive changes in the aftermath of trauma. The themes emerging from time point 2, were: empathy and compassion and PTG (cognitive restructuring, new possibilities, relating to others and personal strength). Alongside the distress that these participants experienced, they also experienced positive outcomes such as empathy and compassion and psychological growth. Future research would advance knowledge by further examining the process of PTG in this population, if the changes observed were lasting, and if so, ways in which PTG can be facilitated or promoted.

Keywords: commercial sexual exploitation, human trafficking, posttraumatic growth, sexual trauma

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125 Change in Self-Reported Personality in Students of Acting

Authors: Nemanja Kidzin, Danka Puric

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Recently, the field of personality change has received an increasing amount of attention. Previously under-researched variables, such as the intention to change or taking on new social roles (in a working environment, education, family, etc.), have been shown to be relevant for personality change. Following this line of research, our study aimed to determine whether the process of acting can bring about personality changes in students of acting and, if yes, in which way. We hypothesized that there will be a significant difference between self-reported personality traits of students acting at the beginning and the end of preparing for a role. Additionally, as potential moderator variables, we measured the reported personality traits of the roles the students were acting, as well as empathy, disintegration, and years of formal education. The sample (N = 47) was composed of students of acting from the Faculty of Dramatic Arts (first- to fourth-year) and the Faculty of Modern Arts (first-year students only). Participants' mean age was 20.2 (SD = 1.47), and there were 64% of females. The procedure included two waves of testing (T1 at the beginning and T2 at the end of the semester), and students’ acting exercises and character immersion comprised the pseudo-experimental procedure. Students’ personality traits (HEXACO-60, self-report version), empathy (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy, QCAE), and disintegration (DELTA9, 10-item version) were measured at both T1 and T2, while the personality of the role (HEXACO-60 observer version) was measured at T2. Responses to all instruments were given on a 5-point Likert scale. A series of repeated-measures T-tests showed significant differences in emotionality (t(46) = 2.56, p = 0.014) and conscientiousness (t(46) = -2.39, p = 0.021) between T1 and T2. Moreover, an index of absolute personality change was significantly different from 0 for all traits (range .53 to .34, t(46) = 4.20, p < .001 for the lowest index. The average test-retest correlation for HEXACO traits was 0.57, which is lower than proposed by other similar researches. As for moderator variables, neither the personality of the role nor empathy or disintegration explained the change in students’ personality traits. The magnitude of personality change was the highest in fourth-year students, with no significant differences between the remaining three years of studying. Overall, our results seem to indicate some personality changes in students of acting. However, these changes cannot be unequivocally related to the process of preparing for a role. Further and methodologically stricter research is needed to unravel the role of acting in personality change.

Keywords: theater, personality change, acting, HEXACO

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