Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: reintegration

38 Reintegrating Forensic Mental Health Service Users into Communities in the Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Zolani Metu


The death of more than 140 psychiatric patients who were unethically deinstitutionalized from the Life Esidimeni hospital Johannesburg, in 2016, shined a light on South Africa’s failing public mental healthcare system. Compounded by insufficient research evidence on African deinstitutionalization, this necessitates inquiries into deinstitutionalized mental healthcare, reintegration and community-based mental healthcare within the South African context. This study employed a quantitative research approach which utilized a cross-sectional research design, to investigate experiences with the reintegration of institutionalized forensic mental health service users into communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. A convenience sample of 100 mental health care workers from different occupational and organizational backgrounds in the Western Cape was purposively selected using the Western Cape Health Directorate as a sampling frame. A self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) was used as the data collection instrument. The results of the study indicate that criminogenic factors such as substance use, history of violent behaviour, criminal history and disruptive social behaviour complicate the reintegration of forensic mental health service users into communities. The current extent of reintegration of forensic mental health service users was found to be 'poor' (46%; n= 46); and financial difficulties, criminogenic factors and limited Community-Based Care (CBC) facilities were identified as key barriers to the reintegration process. 56% of all job applications for forensic mental health service users were unsuccessful, and 53% of all applications for their admission into CBC facilities were declined. Although social support (informal) was found to be essential for successful reintegration, institutional support (formal) through assertive community treatment (35%; n= 35) and CBC facilities (21%) and the disability grant (DG=50%) was found to be more important for family coping and reintegration. Moreover, 72% of respondents had positive perceptions about the process of reintegration; no statistically significant relationship was found between years of experience and perceptions about reintegration (P-value = 0.062); and perceptions were not found to be a barrier to reintegration. No statistically significant relationship was found between years of working experience and understanding the legislative framework of deinstitutionalization (P-Value =.0.061). However, using a Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P-value = 0.021) was found between sex and understanding the legal framework involved in the process of reintegration. The study recommends a post-2020 deinstitutionalization agenda that factors-in criminogenic realities associated with forensic mental health service users, and affirms the strengthening of PHC and community based care systems as precedents of successful deinstitutionalization and reintegration of mental health service users.

Keywords: forensic mental health, deinstitutionalization, reintegration, mental health service users

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37 Government Responses to the Survivors of Trafficking in Human Beings: A Study of Albania

Authors: Irida Agolli Nasufi, Anxhela Bruci


This paper presents Albanian government policies regarding the reintegration process for returning Albanian survivors of trafficking in human beings. Focusing on an in-depth analysis of governmental, non-governmental documents and semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with service providers and trafficking survivors. Furthermore, this paper will especially focus on the governmental efforts to provide support to the survivors, focusing on their needs and challenges. This study explores the conditions and actual services provided to the survivors of trafficking in human beings that are in the reintegration process in Albania. Moreover, it examines the responsible mechanisms accountable for the reintegration process, by analysing synergies between governmental and non-governmental organisations. Also, this paper explores the governmental approach towards trafficking survivors and apprises policymakers to undertake changes and reforms in their future actions.

Keywords: policies, social services, service user, trafficking in human beings, government

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36 The Effects of Vocational Training on Offender Rehabilitation in Nigerian Correctional Institutions

Authors: Hadi Mohammed


The introduction of vocational education and training (VET) in correctional institutions as part of prisoner rehabilitation program is to help offenders develop marketable job skills and reduce re-offending thereby increasing the likely hood of successful reintegration back to their community. Offenders who participate in vocational education and training are significantly less likely to return to prison after released and are more likely to find employment after released than offenders who do not received such training. Those who participated in vocational training were 28% more likely to be employed after released from prison than those who did not received such training. This paper examined the effects of vocational training on offender rehabilitation as well as the effects of vocational training on the relationship between reformation and reintegration in Nigerian correctional institution. To address this two research question were formulated to guide the research. A survey research was employed. The participants were 200 offenders in Nigerian correctional institutions. Questionnaire items were administered. Mean, standard deviation and Partial Correlation were used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that vocational training has helped in offender rehabilitation in Nigerian correctional institutions. Similarly there was a moderate significant positive partial correlation between reformation and reintegration, controlling for vocational training, r=0.461, n=221, p<0.005 with moderate level of reformation and being associated with moderate level of reintegration. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Nigerian Correctional Institutions should strengthen their vocational training program for offenders to be properly rehabilitated.

Keywords: correctional institutions, vocational education and training, offender rehabilitation

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35 The Reintegration of the Past as Self-Realisation

Authors: Haotian Wu


This article examines the figure Zhao Tao in Jia Zhangke’s films in light of Carl Jung’s psychoanalytical theory. Zhao is a recurring aesthetic trope in Jia’s films, and the characters she plays often have an intimate relationship with the past. Nevertheless, this relationship has not been systematically investigated, especially its symbolism of the typical relationship between the past and the self in post-social China. To fill this research gap, the article will explore how Zhao’s characters discover, preserve, and adapt the past in I Wish I knew (2010), Mountains May Depart (2015), and Ash Is Purest White (2018). Through a Jungian lens, these three levels of engagement with the past will be demonstrated as corresponding with Jung’s psychoanalytical theory of self-realisation, which entails the confrontation with the shadow, the embodiment of the archetype, and individuation. Thus, by articulating a film-philosophy dialogue between Jia and Jung, this article will develop a new philosophy of self-realisation based on the symbolism of Zhao. Through the reintegration of the past, the individuals can overcome the fragmentation of temporality and selfhood in the postmodern world and achieve self-realisation.

Keywords: Jia Zhangke, Jung, psychoanalysis, self-realisation

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34 Prisoners for Sexual Offences: Custodial Regime, Prison Experience and Reintegration Interventions

Authors: Nikolaos Koulouris, Anna Kasapoglou, Dimitris Koros


The paper aims to present the course of ongoing research concerning the treatment of pretrial detainees, convicted or released prisoners for sexual offenses, an area that has not received much attention in Greece in terms of the prison experience and the reintegration potentials regarding this specific category of prisoners. The study plan provides for the use of a combination of research methods (focus groups with prisoners, structured individual interviews with prisoners and prison staff). Also, interviews with ex-prisoners detained regarding sexual offenses will take place. In Greece, there are no special provisions for the treatment of sexual offenders in prison, nor are there any special programs in place for their rehabilitation. Sexual offenders are usually separated from other prisoners, as the informal code of the social organization of the prison community dictates, despite no relevant legal framework. The study aims to explore the reasons for the separate detention of sexual offenders and discuss their special (non) treatment from different points of view, namely the legality and legitimacy of this discriminatory practice in terms of prisoners’ protection, safety, stigmatization, and possible social exclusion, as well as their post-release expectations and social reintegration potentials. The purpose of the research is the exploration of the prison experience of sexual offenders, the exercise of their legal rights, their adjustment to the demands of social life in prison, as well as the role of prison officers and various interventions aiming to their preparation for reentry to society. The study will take into consideration the European and international prison/penitentiary standards and best practices in order to examine the issue comparatively, while the contribution of the United Nations and the Council of Europe and its standards will be used to assess the treatment of sexual offenders in terms of its compatibility to international and European model-rules and trends. The outcome will be utilized to form main directions and propositions for a coherent and consistent human rights-based and social integration-oriented penal policy regarding the treatment of persons accused or convicted of sexual offenses in Greece.

Keywords: prisoners’ treatment, sex offenders, social exclusion, social reintegration

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33 Nigeria’s Terrorists RehabIlitation And Reintegration Policy: A Victimological Perspective

Authors: Ujene Ikem Godspower


Acts of terror perpetrated either by state or non-state actors are considered a social ill and impugn on the collective well-being of the society. As such, there is the need for social reparations, which is meant to ensure the healing of the social wounds resulting from the atrocities committed by errant individuals under different guises. In order to ensure social closure and effectively repair the damages done by anomic behaviors, society must ensure that justice is served and those whose rights and privileges have been denied and battered are given the necessary succour they deserve. With regards to the ongoing terrorism in the Northeast, the moves to rehabilitate and reintegrate Boko Haram members have commenced with the establishment of Operation Safe Corridor,1 and a proposed bill for the establishment of “National Agency for the Education, Rehabilitation, De-radicalisation and Integration of Repentant Insurgents in Nigeria”2. All of which Nigerians have expressed mixed feelings about. Some argue that the endeavor is lacking in ethical decency and justice and totally insults human reasoning. Terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria have been enmeshed in gross human rights violations both by the military and the terrorists, and this raises the concern of Nigeria’s ability to fairly and justiciably implement the deradicalization and reintegration efforts. On the other hand, there is the challenge of the community dwellers that are victims of terrorism and counterterrorism and their ability to forgive and welcome back their immediate-past tormentors even with the slightest sense of injustice in the process of terrorists reintegration and rehabilitation. With such efforts implemented in other climes, the Nigeria’s case poses a unique challenge and commands keen interests by stakeholders and the international community due to the aforementioned reasons. It is therefore pertinent to assess the communities’ level of involvement in the cycle of reintegration- hence, the objective of this paper. Methodologically as a part of my larger PhD thesis, this study intends to explore the three different local governments (Michika in Adamawa, Chibok in Borno, and Yunusari in Yobe), all based on the intensity of terrorists attacks. Twenty five in-depth interview will be conducted in the study locations above featuring religious leaders, Community (traditional) leaders, Internally displaced persons, CSOs management officials, and ex-Boko Haram insurgents who have been reintegrated. The data that will be generated from field work will be analyzed using the Nvivo-12 software package, which will help to code and create themes based on the study objectives. Furthermore, the data will be content-analyzed, employing verbatim quotations where necessary. Ethically, the study will take into consideration the basic ethical principles for research of this nature. It will strictly adhere to the principle of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality.

Keywords: boko haram, reintegration, rehabilitation, terrorism, victimology

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32 The Role of International Organizations in the Implementation of Return Migration Policy in Cameroon

Authors: Charles Simplice Mbatsogo Mebo


With growth picking up again, Africa seems increasingly attractive for its own nationals who return home through new opportunities available for them. The purpose of our research paper is to understand the role of the international partners in Cameroon, with regards to their support for the return and reintegration of migrants. We, therefore, questioned the relevance and effectiveness and efficacy of international instruments in reintegrating returnees to Cameroon. After our analysis that was conducted on the basis of a documentary exploration, interviews, and field surveys, it appears that the contribution of the international partners in Cameroon is proven in relation to their participation in the financing and placement of returned experts. However, their contribution remains insufficient due to their low level of deployment and the insignificant impact of their investments on the reintegration of Cameroonian Diasporas. The research also reveals some exogenous and endogenous constraints that hinder international institutions' actions in terms of accompanying migrants returning to Cameroon. Finally, for a better management of the returnees' issue, it is necessary to set up a mechanism to raise awareness and a coordination system of all international actors involved. It is also relevant to reform the migration policy, build institutional capacities, and improve the juridical-administrative and economic environment so as to favor co-development in Cameroon.

Keywords: international partners, returnees, diaspora, migration policy, co-development

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31 Deconstructing Reintegration Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Feminist Analysis of Australian and Thai Government and Non-Government Responses

Authors: Jessica J. Gillies


Awareness of the tragedy that is human trafficking has increased exponentially over the past two decades. The four pillars widely recognised as global solutions to the problem are prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership between government and non-government organisations. While ‘sex-trafficking’ initially received major attention, this focus has shifted to other industries that conceal broader experiences of exploitation. However, within the regions of focus for this study, namely Australia and Thailand, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation remains the commonly uncovered narrative of criminal justice investigations. In these regions anti-trafficking action is characterised by government-led prevention and prosecution efforts; whereas protection and reintegration practices have received criticism. Typically, non-government organisations straddle the critical chasm between policy and practice; therefore, they are perfectly positioned to contribute valuable experiential knowledge toward understanding how both sectors can support survivors in the post-trafficking experience. The aim of this research is to inform improved partnerships throughout government and non-government post-trafficking services by illuminating gaps in protection and reintegration initiatives. This research will explore government and non-government responses to human trafficking in Thailand and Australia, in order to understand how meaning is constructed in this context and how the construction of meaning effects survivors in the post-trafficking experience. A qualitative, three-stage methodology was adopted for this study. The initial stage of enquiry consisted of a discursive analysis, in order to deconstruct the broader discourses surrounding human trafficking. The data included empirical papers, grey literature such as publicly available government and non-government reports, and anti-trafficking policy documents. The second and third stages of enquiry will attempt to further explore the findings of the discourse analysis and will focus more specifically on protection and reintegration in Australia and Thailand. Stages two and three will incorporate process observations in government and non-government survivor support services, and semi-structured interviews with employees and volunteers within these settings. Two key findings emerged from the discursive analysis. The first exposed conflicting feminist arguments embedded throughout anti-trafficking discourse. Informed by conflicting feminist discourses on sex-work, a discursive relationship has been constructed between sex-industry policy and anti-trafficking policy. In response to this finding, data emerging from the process observations and semi-structured interviews will be interpreted using a feminist theoretical framework. The second finding progresses from the construction in the first. The discursive construction of sex-trafficking appears to have had influence over perceptions of the legitimacy of survivors, and therefore the support they receive in the post-trafficking experience. For example; women who willingly migrate for employment in the sex-industry, and on arrival are faced with exploitative conditions, are not perceived to be deserving of the same support as a woman who is not coerced, but rather physically forced, into such circumstances, yet both meet the criteria for a victim of human trafficking. The forthcoming study is intended to contribute toward building knowledge and understanding around the implications of the construction of legitimacy; and contextualise this in reference to government led protection and reintegration support services for survivors in the post-trafficking experience.

Keywords: Australia, government, human trafficking, non-government, reintegration, Thailand

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30 'Innovations among People' in Selected Social Economy Enterprises in Poland

Authors: Hanna Kroczak


In Poland, the system of social and professional reintegration of people at risk of social exclusion is, in fact, based on the activity of social economy enterprises. Playing this significant role these entities have to cope with various problems, related to the necessity of being successful on the open market, location on the peripheral (especially rural) areas or the “socialist heritage” in social and economic relations, which is certainly not favorable for implementing the idea of activation policy. One of the main objectives of the project entitled “Innovation among people. The analysis of the innovations creation and implementation in companies and social economy enterprises operating in Poland”, was to investigate the innovativeness of Polish social economy entities as a possible way for them to be prosperous (the project was funded by the Polish National Science Centre grant on the decision DEC-2013/11/B/HS4/00691). The ethnographic research in this matter was conducted in 2015 in two parts: six three-day studies using participant observation and individual in-depth interview (IDI) techniques (in three social cooperatives and three social integration centres) and two one-month shadowings (in one social cooperative and one social integration centre). Enterprises were selected from various provinces in Poland on the basis of data from previous computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) research, where they declared that innovation management is a central element of their strategy. The ethnographic study revealed that they, indeed, create innovations and the main types of them are social and organisational innovations – but not always and not all the employees are aware of that. Moreover, it turned out that wherever the research was conducted, researchers found some similar opportunities of innovations creating process, like a “charismatic leader”, true passion and commitment not depended on the earned money or building local institutional networks, and similar threats, e.g. under-staffed offices or the great bureaucracy of some institutions. The primary conclusion for the studied entities is that being innovative is not only their challenge and opportunity for well-being at the same time, but even a necessity, something deeply rooted in their specific organisational structures. Explanations and illustrations for the statements above will be presented in the proposed paper.

Keywords: ethnographic research, innovation, Polish social economy, professional reintegration, social economy enterprises, social reintegration

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29 Introducing Information and Communication Technologies in Prison: A Proposal in Favor of Social Reintegration

Authors: Carmen Rocio Fernandez Diaz


This paper focuses on the relevance of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred as ‘ICTs’) as an essential part of the day-to-day life of all societies nowadays, as they offer the scenario where an immense number of behaviors are performed that previously took place in the physical world. In this context, areas of reality that have remained outside the so-called ‘information society’ are hardly imaginable. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify a means that continue to be behind this reality, and it is the penitentiary area regarding inmates rights, as security aspects in prison have already be improved by new technologies. Introducing ICTs in prisons is still a matter subject to great rejections. The study of comparative penitentiary systems worldwide shows that most of them use ICTs only regarding educational aspects of life in prison and that communications with the outside world are generally based on traditional ways. These are only two examples of the huge range of activities where ICTs can carry positive results within the prison. Those positive results have to do with the social reintegration of persons serving a prison sentence. Deprivation of liberty entails contact with the prison subculture and the harmful effects of it, causing in cases of long-term sentences the so-called phenomenon of ‘prisonization’. This negative effect of imprisonment could be reduced if ICTs were used inside prisons in the different areas where they can have an impact, and which are treated in this research, as (1) access to information and culture, (2) basic and advanced training, (3) employment, (4) communication with the outside world, (5) treatment or (6) leisure and entertainment. The content of all of these areas could be improved if ICTs were introduced in prison, as it is shown by the experience of some prisons of Belgium, United Kingdom or The United States. However, rejections to introducing ICTs in prisons obey to the fact that it could carry also risks concerning security and the commission of new offences. Considering these risks, the scope of this paper is to offer a real proposal to introduce ICTs in prison, trying to avoid those risks. This enterprise would be done to take advantage of the possibilities that ICTs offer to all inmates in order to start to build a life outside which is far from delinquency, but mainly to those inmates who are close to release. Reforming prisons in this sense is considered by the author of this paper an opportunity to offer inmates a progressive resettlement to live in freedom with a higher possibility to obey the law and to escape from recidivism. The value that new technologies would add to education, employment, communications or treatment to a person deprived of liberty constitutes a way of humanization of prisons in the 21st century.

Keywords: deprivation of freedom, information and communication technologies, imprisonment, social reintegration

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28 Film Review of 'Heroic Saviours and Survivors': The Representation of Sex Trafficking in Popular Films in India

Authors: Nisha James, Shubha Ranganathan


One of the most poignant forms of organized crime against women, which has rarely made it to the world of Indian cinema, is that of sex trafficking, i.e. the forcible involvement of women in the sex trade through fraud or coercion (Hughes, 2005). In the space of Indian cinema, much of the spotlight has been on the sensational drug trafficking and gang mafia of Bombay. During our research on sex trafficking, the rehabilitated women interviewed often expressed strong criticism about mass media’s naive portrayal of prostitutes as money-minting, happy and sexually driven women. They argued that this unrealistic portrayal ignored the fact that this was not a reality for the majority of trafficked women. Given the gravity of sex trafficking as a human rights issue, it is, therefore, refreshing to see three recent films on sex trafficking in Indian Languages – Naa Bangaaru Talli (2014, Telugu), Mardaani (2014, Hindi) and Lakshmi (2014, Hindi). This paper reviews these three films to explore the portrayal of the everyday reality of trafficking for women. Film analysis was used to understand the representation of psychological issues in the media. The strength of these movies starts with their inspirations which are of true stories and that they are all aimed at bringing awareness about the issue of sex trafficking, which is a rising social evil in Indian society though none of the three films move to portray the next phase of rehabilitation and reintegration of victims, which is a very complex and important process in the life of a survivor. According to findings, survivors of sex trafficking find the rehabilitation and reintegration into society to be a slow and tough part of their life as they continuously face stigma and social exclusion and have to strive to live against all odds of non-acceptance starting from their family.

Keywords: film review, Indian films, sex trafficking, survivors

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27 The Recording of Personal Data in the Spanish Criminal Justice System and Its Impact on the Right to Privacy

Authors: Deborah García-Magna


When a person goes through the criminal justice system, either as a suspect, arrested, prosecuted or convicted, certain personal data are recorded, and a wide range of persons and organizations may have access to it. The recording of data can have a great impact on the daily life of the person concerned during the period of time determined by the legislation. In addition, this registered information can refer to various aspects not strictly related directly to the alleged or actually committed infraction. In some areas, the Spanish legislation does not clearly determine the cancellation period of the registers nor what happens when they are cancelled since some of the files are not really erased and remain recorded, even if their consultation is no more allowed or it is stated that they should not be taken into account. Thus, access to the recorded data of arrested or convicted persons may reduce their possibilities of reintegration into society. In this research, some of the areas in which data recording has a special impact on the lives of affected persons are analyzed in a critical manner, taking into account Spanish legislation and jurisprudence, and the influence of the European Court of Human Rights, the Council of Europe and other supranational instruments. In particular, the analysis cover the scope of video-surveillance in public spaces, the police record, the recording of personal data for the purposes of police investigation (especially DNA and psychological profiles), the registry of administrative and minor offenses (especially as they are taken into account to impose aggravating circumstaces), criminal records (of adults, minors and legal entities), and the registration of special circumstances occurred during the execution of the sentence (files of inmates under special surveillance –FIES–, disciplinary sanctions, special therapies in prison, etc.).

Keywords: ECHR jurisprudence, formal and informal criminal control, privacy, disciplinary sanctions, social reintegration

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26 Recycling, Reuse and Reintegration of Steel Plant Fines

Authors: R. K. Agrawal, Shiv Agrawal


Fines and micro create fundamental problems of respiration. From mines to mills steel plants generate lot of pollutants. Legislation & Government laws are stricter day by day & each plant has to think of recycling, reuse &reintegration of pollutants generated during the process of steel making. This paper deals with experiments conducted in Bhilai Steel Plant and Real Ispat and Power Limited for reuse, recycle & reintegrate some of the steel making process fines. Iron ore fines with binders have been agglomerated to be used as a part of the charge for small furnaces. This will improve yield at nominal cost. Rolling mill fines have been recycled to increase the yield of sinter making. This will solve the problems of fine disposal. Huge saving on account of recycling will be achieved. Lime fines after briquetting is used along with prime lime. Lime fines have also been used as a binding material during production of fly ash bricks. These fines serve as low-cost binder. Experiments have been conducted along with coke breeze & gas cleaning plant sludge. As a result, the anti-sloping compound has been developed for converter vessels. Dolo char and Char during Sponge Iron production have been successfully used in power generation and brick making. Pellets have been made with ventilation dust & flue dust. These samples have been tried as a coolant in the converter. Pellets have been made with Sinter Plant electrostatic precipitator micro fines with liquid binder. Trials have been conducted to reuse these pellets in sinter making. Coke breeze from coke-ovens fines and mill scale along with binders were agglomerated. This was used in furnace after attaining required screening and reactivity index. These actions will definitely bring social, economic and environment-friendly universe.

Keywords: briquette, dolo char, electrostatic precipitator, pellet, sinter

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25 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh


This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

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24 Patients in Opioid Maintenance Programs: Psychological Features that Predict Abstinence

Authors: Janaina Pereira, Barbara Gonzalez, Valentina Chitas, Teresa Molina


Intro: The positive impact of opioid maintenance programs on the health of heroin addicts, and on public health in general, has been widely recognized, namely on the prevalence reduction of infectious diseases as HIV, and on the social reintegration of this population. Nevertheless, a part of patients in these programs cannot remain heroin abstinent, or has relapses, during the treatment. Method: Thus, this cross-sectional research aims at analyzing the relation between a set of psychological and psychosocial variables, which have been associated with the onset of heroin use, and assess if they are also associated with absence of abstinence in participants in an opioid maintenance program. A total of 62 patients, aged between 26 and 58 years old (M= 40.87, DP= 7.39) with a time in opioid maintenance program between 1 and 10 years (M= 5.42, DP= 3.05), 77.4% male and 22.6% female, participated in this research. To assess the criterion variable (heroin use) we used the mean value of positive results in urine tests during the participation in the program, weighted according to the number of months in program. The predictor variables were the coping strategies, the dispositional sensation seeking, and the existence of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results: The results showed that only 33.87% of the patients were totally abstinent of heroin use since the beginning of the program, and the absence of abstinence, as the number of positive heroin tests, was primarily predicted by less proactive coping, and secondarily by a higher level of sensation seeking. 16.13% of the sample fulfilled diagnosis criteria for PTSD, and 67.74 % had at least one traumatic experience throughout their lives. The total of PTSD symptoms had a positive correlation with the number of physical health problems, and with the lack of professional occupation. These results have several implications for the clinical practice in this field, and we suggest the promotion of proactive coping strategies should integrate these opioid maintenance programs, as they represent the tendency to face future events as challenges and opportunities, being positively related to positive results on several fields. The early identification of PTSD in the participants, before entering the opioid maintenance programs, would be important as it is related to negative features that hinder social reintegration, Finally, to identify individuals with a sensation seeking profile would be relevant, not only because they face a higher risk of relapse, but also because the therapeutical approaches should not ignore this dispositional feature in the alternatives they propose to the patients.

Keywords: opioid maintenance programs, proactive coping, PTSD, sensation seeking

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23 Qualitative Profiling in Practice: The Italian Public Employment Services Experience

Authors: L. Agneni, F. Carta, C. Micheletta, V. Tersigni


The development of a qualitative method to profile jobseekers is needed to improve the quality of the Public Employment Services (PES) in Italy. This is why the National Agency for Active Labour Market Policies (ANPAL) decided to introduce a Qualitative Profiling Service in the context of the activities carried out by local employment offices’ operators. The qualitative profiling service provides information and data regarding the jobseeker’s personal transition status, through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to PES clients during the guidance interview. The questionnaire responses allow PES staff to identify, for each client, proper activities and policy measures to support jobseekers in their reintegration into the labour market. Data and information gathered by the qualitative profiling tool are the following: frequency, modalities and motivations for clients to apply to local employment offices; clients’ expectations and skills; difficulties that they have faced during the previous working experiences; strategies, actions undertaken and activated channels for job search. These data are used to assess jobseekers’ personal and career characteristics and to measure their employability level (qualitative profiling index), in order to develop and deliver tailor-made action programmes for each client. This paper illustrates the use of the above-mentioned qualitative profiling service on the national territory and provides an overview of the main findings of the survey: concerning the difficulties that unemployed people face in finding a job and their perception of different aspects related to the transition in the labour market. The survey involved over 10.000 jobseekers registered with the PES. Most of them are beneficiaries of the “citizens' income”, a specific active labour policy and social inclusion measure. Furthermore, data analysis allows classifying jobseekers into a specific group of clients with similar features and behaviours, on the basis of socio-demographic variables, customers' expectations, needs and required skills for the profession for which they seek employment. Finally, the survey collects PES staff opinions and comments concerning clients’ difficulties in finding a new job and also their strengths. This is a starting point for PESs’ operators to define adequate strategies to facilitate jobseekers’ access or reintegration into the labour market.

Keywords: labour market transition, public employment services, qualitative profiling, vocational guidance

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22 A Cultural-Sensitive Approach to Counseling a Samoan Sex Offender

Authors: Byron Malaela Sotiata Seiuli


Sexual violation is any form of sexual violence, including rape, child molestation, incest, and similar forms of non-consensual sexual contact. Much of these acts of violation are perpetuated, but not entirely, by men against women and children. Moetolo is a Samoan term that is used to describe a person who sexually violates another while they or their family are asleep. This paper presents and discusses sexual abuse from a Samoan viewpoint. Insights are drawn from the authors’ counseling engagement with a Samoan sex offender as part of his probation review process. Relevant literature is also engaged to inform and provide interpretation to the therapeutic work carried out. This article seeks to contribute new understanding to patterned responses of some Samoan people to sexual abuse behaviors, and steps to remedy arising concerns with perpetrators seeking reintegration back into their communities.

Keywords: Fa'asamoa, Samoan identity, sexual abuse counseling, Uputaua therapeutic approach

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21 Sonic Therapeutic Intervention for Preventing Financial Fraud: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Vasudev Das


In a global survey of more than 5,000 participants in 99 territories, PwC found a loss of $42 billion through fraud in the last 24 months. The specific problem is that private and public organizational leaders often do not understand the importance of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The study aimed to explore sonic therapeutic intervention practitioners' lived experiences regarding the value of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The data collection methods were semi-structured interviews of purposeful samples and documentary reviews, which were analyzed thematically. Four themes emerged from the analysis of interview transcription data: Sonic therapeutic intervention enabled self-control, pro-spiritual values, consequentiality mindset, and post-conventional consciousness. The itemized four themes helped non-engagement in financial fraud. Implications for positive social change include enhanced financial fraud management, more significant financial leadership, and result-oriented decision-taking in the financial market. Also, the study results can improve the increased de-escalation of anxiety/stress associated with defrauding.

Keywords: consciousness, consequentiality, rehabilitation, reintegration

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20 The Social Construction of the Family among the Survivors of Sex Trafficking

Authors: Nisha James, Shubha Ranganathan


Sex trafficking is a traumatic ongoing process which includes human rights violations against the victims. Majority of the trafficked individuals in India are from families with low socioeconomic status, from rural areas, unmarried or married off at a very young age. Many of the sex trafficked feel that it is necessary to make sacrifices, for the benefit of their families. The combination of these cultural family values with the stigma of rape and prostitution are manipulated and used as a tool in the abuse of power against the sex trafficked. The rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration of these individuals are usually difficult due to the stigma and social exclusion that they face. In these circumstances, social support is very effective in social inclusion of these individuals. The present study was a qualitative one, using semi-structured interviews with 29 Indian survivors of sex trafficking and a few sex workers. Thematic analysis was done on the data derived from the semi-structured interviews. The major findings indicate that the family can be seen as both the ‘cause’ for being sex trafficked, and the factor in victim continuing to be sex trafficked. At the same time, it can also become a driver for getting rescued, rehabilitated and reintegrated. The study also explores the social construction about ‘family’ among the survivors of sex trafficking, reflecting on who they refer to as ‘family’, what they mean by the term ‘family’ and how these families emerge. Therefore the analytic concept of ‘family’ is a crucial element in sex trafficking and cannot be defined only in terms of its conventional definition of a basic unit of society.

Keywords: sex-trafficking, survivor, family, social construction

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19 Understanding of Heritage Values within University Education Systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mahmoud Tarek Mohamed Hammad


Despite the importance of the role and efforts made by the universities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in reviving and preserving heritage architecture as an important cultural heritage in the Kingdom, The idea revolves around restoration and conservation processes and neglects the architectural heritage values, whose content can be used in sustainable contemporary architectural works. Educational values based on heritage architecture and how to integrate with the contemporary requirements were investigated in this research. For this purpose, by understanding the heritage architectural values as well as educational, academic process, the researcher presented an educational model of questionnaire forms for architecture students and the staff at the Architecture Department at Al-Baha University as a case study that serves the aims of the research. The results of the research show that heritage values especially those interview results are considered as a positive indicator of the importance of these values. The students and the staff need both to gain an understanding of heritage values as well as an understanding of theories of incorporating those values into the design process of contemporary local architecture. The research concludes that a correct understanding of the heritage values, its performance, and its reintegration with modern architecture technology should be focused on architectural education.

Keywords: heritage architecture, academic work, heritage values, sustainable contemporary local architectural

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18 Strengthening Deradicalizing Islamist Extremism in Indonesia: A Victim-Centred Approach

Authors: Milda Istiqomah


Deradicalization program has long been the subject of investigation. There is a steadily growing interest in examining the results on how Islamist terrorists agree to abandon violence and leave radicalism; however, it is argued that de-radicalization program on terrorism in many countries is still questionable for its effectiveness. This article aims to provide an overview of the deradicalization program specifically related to the victim-centred approach conducted by the Indonesian government and investigates critical issues surrounding the analysis of their effectiveness and outcomes. This research employs several case studies of a victim-centred approach conducted by the Indonesian Witness and Victim Protection Agency as well as the Indonesian Counter-terrorism Agency. This paper argues that the victim-centred approach to de-radicalize former terrorist prisoners faces several implemental challenges; however, the initiative may offer promise for future successful de-radicalization program. Furthermore, until more data surrounding the efficacy of this initiative available, the victim-centred approach may also constitute a significant and essential component of disengagement, de-radicalisation, and reintegration of terrorist prisoners. In conclusion, this paper suggests that further empirical research concerning prevention policies and disengagement interventions related to victim-centred approach need to be explored to give more inputs to the Indonesian government to achieve the effectiveness of de-radicalization program.

Keywords: terrorism, victim-centred approach, de-radicalization, Islamist extremism

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17 Restorative Justice Programmes in South African Prison Environment: A Qualitative Enquiry

Authors: Clarice Zimbili Zondi


This study investigates the effect of restorative justice programmes offered to offenders in prison environment (Correctional Centres) during their rehabilitation. The study looks specifically to programmes offered by a Non-Profit Organisation (NPO), Phoenix Zululand (PZ) in twelve (12) different prisons in Zululand, South Africa. Document analysis, interviews and participant observation methods were used to test whether the work done by Phoenix Zululand is in line with the remarks made on restorative justice as encapsulated in the White Paper on Corrections 2005 in South Africa. Also tested was whether a better understanding of restorative justice programmes assists in coming up with better strategies to change the behaviour of offenders. The study findings discovered that the work that is done by PZ is not in line with the remarks made in the White Paper on Corrections. Also the importance of a full comprehension of what one is doing in order to be effective in rehabilitation. However, rehabilitation that is aimed at only changing the decision-making processes of offenders not to reoffend, does not serve as a total rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation is only successful if ex-offenders, whilst still in prison, have developed market-related skills and become employed or self-employed. Restorative Justice Programmes offered by PZ, although they play a critical role, appears to be lacking in equipping offenders with skills for effective reintegration into society and, subsequently, self-reliance.

Keywords: offender, rehabilitation, restorative justice, prison

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16 Self-Regulation in Socially Rejected Pupils

Authors: Karla Hrbackova, Irena Balaban Cakirpaloglu


This paper is a report on self-regulation in socially rejected pupils. A certain form of social rejection can be found in almost every class within the school environment. Research shows that due to social rejection mechanisms supporting the individual´s effort of reintegration into the group are not triggered. Paradoxically the opposite tendency arises, i.e., an increase in selfish and defeating behaviour. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of a type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). The paper aims to clarify the level of self-regulation related to interpersonal cognitive problem-solving within the process of social rejection in a school class. The research was done on a sample of 1,133 upper-primary school pupils using the Means-Ends Problem Solving technique (MEPS) and peer sociometric nomination. The results showed that the level of self-regulated skills is related to the status of social rejection. Socially rejected pupils achieve lower levels of self-regulation than other classmates. We found deficiency in the regulation of behaviour, emotions and the regulation of will in the peer rejected pupils with the exception of cognitive regulation in which no differences were detected between socially rejected pupils and other classmates. The results have implications for early prevention and intervention efforts to foster adaptive self-regulation and reduce the risk of later social rejection.

Keywords: interpersonal cognitive problem-solving, self-regulation, socially rejected pupils, upper-primary school pupils

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15 Future Considerations for Wounded Service Members and Veterans of the Global War on Terror

Authors: Selina Doncevic, Lisa Perla, Angela Kindvall


The Global War on Terror which began after September 11, 2011, increased survivability of severe injuries requiring varying trajectories of rehabilitation and recovery. The costs encompass physiologic, functional, social, emotional, psychological, vocational and scholastic domains of life. The purpose of this poster is to inform private sector health care practitioners and clinicians at various levels of the unique and long term dynamics of healthcare recovery for polytrauma, and traumatic brain injured service members and veterans in the United States of America. Challenges include care delivery between the private sector, the department of defense, and veterans affairs healthcare systems while simultaneously supporting the dynamics of acute as well as latent complications associated with severe injury and illness. Clinical relevance, subtleties of protracted recovery, and overwhelmed systems of care are discussed in the context of lessons learned and in reflection on previous wars. Additional concerns for consideration and discussion include: the cost of protracted healthcare, various U.S. healthcare payer systems, lingering community reintegration challenges, ongoing care giver support, the rise of veterans support groups and the development of private sector clinical partnerships.

Keywords: brain injury, future, polytrauma, rehabilitation

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14 Victims of Imprisonment: Incarceration and Post-Release Effects of Confinement with Women with a Mental Illness

Authors: Anat Yaron Antar, Tomer Einat


This study explores the effects of the imprisonment of women together with females with mental disorders on the well-being of the former both during imprisonment and after their release from prison. Based on in-depth interviews with 22 women ex-prisoners who had been imprisoned for a period of at least two years in the single Israeli female correctional facility, Neve Tirza Prison, and released one to three months before the initiation of the study to a community-based agency managed by the Israeli Prisoner Rehabilitation Authority, and based on a qualitative, constructive strategy. We found that: (i) mentally ill prisoners’ conduct creates severe feelings of stress and discomfort among many of the prisoners without a mental disorder prisoners; (ii) The intimate and often long-term encounters with prisoners with a mental illness lead to increased feelings of distress, helplessness, fear, and frustration among many of the women prisoners; (iii) the damaging encounters between women prisoners and mentally-ill prisoners harmed the reintegration of the formers into society after release, and (iv) The women ex-prisoners lacked the basic mental, cognitive, and social tools necessary for dealing with female inmates with a mental illness and had received no psychological or emotional support from the prison personnel. Consequently, they suffered – and still suffer – from traumatic and upsetting memories Our findings led us to conclude that women prisoners should be imprisoned separately from female prisoners with mental disorders or be offered a wide range of psychological and emotional coping tools as well as various rehabilitative treatment programs.

Keywords: women, prisoners, mentally ill, health

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13 The Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace, a Transitional Justice Mechanism That Prioritizes Reconciliation over Punishment: A Content Analysis of the Colombian Peace Agreement

Authors: Laura Mendez


Tribunals for the prosecution of crimes against humanity have been implemented in recent history via international intervention or imposed by one side of the conflict, as in the cases of Rwanda, Iraq, Argentina, and Chile. However, the creation of a criminal tribunal as the result of a peace agreement between formerly warring parties has been unique to the Colombian peace process. As such, the Colombian Jurisdiction for Peace (SJP), or JEP for its Spanish acronym, is viewed as a site of social contestation where actors shape its design and implementation. This study contributes to the literature of transitional justice by analyzing how the framing of the creation of the Colombian tribunal reveals the parties' interests. The analysis frames the interests of the power-brokers, i.e., the government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the victims in light of the tribunal’s functions. The purpose of this analysis is to understand how the interests of the parties are embedded in the designing of the SJP. This paper argues that the creation of the SJP rests on restorative justice, for which the victim, not the perpetrator, is at the center of prosecution. The SJP’s approach to justice moves from prosecution as punishment to prosecution as sanctions. SJP’s alternative sanctions focused on truth, reparation, and restoration are designed to humanize both the victim and the perpetrator in order to achieve reconciliation. The findings also show that requiring the perpetrator to perform labor to repair the victim as an alternative form of sanction aims to foster relations of reintegration and social learning between victims and perpetrators.

Keywords: transitional justice mechanisms, criminal tribunals, Colombia, Colombian Jurisdiction for Peace, JEP

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12 Social Ties and Integration of the Offenders

Authors: C. Chaillou


The dominant theoretical approaches in Criminology are interested in the phenomenon of delinquency from the question of the management of the risks incurred by the population. Thus, this research advocate prevention of this phenomenon by a tracking of early disorders in children. Treatments offered to rely on medical research (genetics and biology are cited as a reference) and assuming a high naturalization of delinquent behaviour. Programs that are offered also reduce to a recovery of the deviant behaviour, and rely readily on behavioral guidelines, with an educational grant. Public policy then rely on these programs to prevent unwanted behaviour within a given population and to reduce the risk for the company. This is the case in France, with national institutes making (juvenile) violence a public health problem. We consider that other approaches, issues of sociology, are more relevant to the treatment of offenders. These approaches are moving, not on its prevention, but from its inputs and its outputs. Several modalities of entries and exits of delinquency can find and analyze in terms of process. We assume that there is a dynamic inherent in the individual and it is important to take into account the environment of the offender. These different types of processes can illuminate from the derived work of the Psychoanalytical psychopathology and lead to more effective treatment of delinquent acts. Psychoanalytic concepts have enabled us to offer a new look means to treat delinquency, placing several types of relationship with the other and relating to the clinical structure and the uniqueness of the case, we have been able to enter subjective and unconscious logics at work in delinquent acts. This research has facilitated the reduction of these types of subjective responses and proposed others, opening to a reintegration of offenders in a social link them being more favourable and in a longer term.

Keywords: delinquency, insertion, social link, unconscious

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11 Creating Systems Change: Implementing Cross-Sector Initiatives within the Justice System to Support Ontarians with Mental Health and Addictions Needs

Authors: Tania Breton, Dorina Simeonov, Shauna MacEachern


Ontario’s 10 Year Mental Health and Addictions Strategy has included the establishment of 18 Service Collaborative across the province; cross-sector tables in a specific region coming together to explore mental health and addiction system needs and adopting an intervention to address that need. The process is community led and supported by implementation teams from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), using the framework of implementation science (IS) to enable evidence-based and sustained change. These justice initiatives are focused on the intersection of the justice system and the mental health and addiction systems. In this presentation, we will share the learnings, achievements and challenges of implementing innovative practices to the mental health and addictions needs of Ontarians within the justice system. Specifically, we will focus on the key points across the justice system - from early intervention and trauma-informed, culturally appropriate services to post-sentence support and community reintegration. Our approach to this work involves external implementation support from the CAMH team including coaching, knowledge exchange, evaluation, Aboriginal engagement and health equity expertise. Agencies supported the implementation of tools and processes which changed practice at the local level. These practices are being scaled up across Ontario and community agencies have come together in an unprecedented collaboration and there is a shared vision of the issues overlapping between the mental health, addictions and justice systems. Working with ministry partners has allowed space for innovation and created an environment where better approaches can be nurtured and spread.

Keywords: implementation, innovation, early identification, mental health and addictions, prevention, systems

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10 Constitutional Transition and Criminal Justice: Proposals for Reform of Kenya’s Youth Justice System Based on Restorative Justice Principles

Authors: M. Wangai


Following the promulgation of a new Constitution of Kenya in 2010, wide-ranging proposals for reform of the criminal justice system have been made. Proposed measures include a clear and separate system of dealing with juvenile offenders with a greater focus on rehabilitation and reintegration. As part of a broader constitutional transition, this article considers the contribution of restorative justice to reforming the youth justice system. The paper analyses Kenya’s juvenile justice legal framework measured against current international trends in youth justice. It identifies the first post-independence juvenile justice system as a remnant of the colonial period and notes that the post-2001 system is a marked improvement. More recent legal and institutional efforts to incorporate restorative justice are also examined. The paper advocates further development of the juvenile justice system by mainstreaming of restorative justice principles through national level legislative amendments. International and comparative perspectives are used to inform a diversion centered model of restorative justice. In addition, a case is made for the use of existing forms of alternative dispute resolution. Conscious of a tense political climate, the paper also proposes strategies to address challenges posed by a punitive penal environment, chiefly the linking of restorative justice to wider democratic goals and community spirit. The article concludes that restorative justice led juvenile justice reform will contribute to better treatment of young offenders under the criminal justice system and has the potential to set a new precedent for fair, sustainable and effective justice. Further, as part of far-reaching criminal justice reform, the proposed efforts may strengthen democratic progress in Kenya’s ensuing phase of political transition.

Keywords: constitutional transition, criminal justice, restorative justice, young offenders

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9 Interests and Perspectives of a Psychosocial Rehabilitation Diagnosis : A Useful Tool in the Evaluation About the Potentials of Long-Term Institutionalized Chronic Patients

Authors: I. Dumand, C. Clesse, M. Decker, C. Savini, J. Lighezzolo-Alnot


In the landscape of French psychiatry, long-term institutionalization of patients with severe and disabling chronics disorders is common. Faced with the failures of classical reinsertion, sometimes these users are hurriedly considered as 'insortables'. However, this representation is often swayed by the current behavior of the patient observed through the clinical observation. Unfortunately, it seems that this way of proceeding can not integrate the potentialities of the institutionalized patients and their possible evolution. Therefore, in order not to make hasty conclusions about the life perspectives of these individuals, it seems essential to associate with clinical observation a psycho social rehabilitation diagnosis. Multidisciplinary, it combine all the aspects that make up the life of the subject (the life aspirations, psycho social determinants, family support, cognitive potential, symptoms ...). In this paper, we will rank these different aspects necessary prerequisites to the realization of a psycho social rehabilitation diagnosis. Then, we will specifically speak of the issue of psychological evaluation. By adopting an integrative approach combining neuro psychological tools (Grober and Buschke, Stroop, WCST, AIPSS, WAIS, Eyes test ...) and projective tools interpreted under a psycho dynamic angle (Rorschach, TAT ..) we think that we can grasp the patient in his globality. Thus, during this process we will justify the interest of combining a cognitive and a psycho affective approach, we will identify the different items assessed and their future implications on the everyday life of the users. Finally, we show that this diagnosis can give a chance to reintegration to 30% of patients considered as ''insortables''. In conclusion, we will highlight the importance of this process dear to the community psychology emphasizing in the same time the interests of this approach in terms of empowerment, recovery and quality of life.

Keywords: assessment, potentiality, psychosocial rehabilitation diagnosis, tools

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