Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8958

Search results for: border control

8958 Resource Allocation Modeling and Simulation in Border Security Application

Authors: Kai Jin, Hua Li, Qing Song

Abstract:

Homeland security and border safety is an issue for any country. This paper takes the border security of US as an example to discuss the usage and efficiency of simulation tools in the homeland security application. In this study, available resources and different illegal infiltration parameters are defined, including their individual behavior and objective, in order to develop a model that describes border patrol system. A simulation model is created in Arena. This simulation model is used to study the dynamic activities in the border security. Possible factors that may affect the effectiveness of the border patrol system are proposed. Individual and factorial analysis of these factors is conducted and some suggestions are made.

Keywords: resource optimization, simulation, modeling, border security

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8957 The Effects of European Union’s Bordering Process

Authors: Ebru Dalgakiran

Abstract:

Border and bordering studies have come to the forefront in recent years especially with parallel to increase in international migratory movements. Although conceptualizations of the border and bordering are quite contested within academia, the general point of view is that borders are politically and socially constructed. It means that borders have always their own ‘us vs. them’, and bordering process produce separate identities as well. In that case, Turkey and Greece are notable examples since these two nation-states constructed their borders upon each other’s for years although the Turkish-Greek border was drawn with the Lausanne Treaty of 1923. Nevertheless, on the other hand, The European Union (EU) has been externalized of border management policies to build a stronger area of freedom, security, and justice within the borders. Thus, Turkish-Greek border has become one of the significant external borders of the EU. In this context, this study aims to understand whether the EU’s bordering process through externalizing border management policies can affect Turkey’s and Greece’s bordering processes. By examining official documents of the EU and conducting in-depth interviews with local actors of the border management policies of the EU in Edirne, where is the border city of Turkey with Greece, this study’s main finding is that the EU’s bordering process to control migration at the external borders affects Turkey’s and Greece’s bordering processes. It seems that Turkey and Greece construct their borders upon a common Other, ‘irregular migrants’ now.

Keywords: border, bordering, the European Union, externalization

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8956 Analysis on Cyber Threat Actors Targeting Automated Border Security Systems

Authors: Mirko Sailio

Abstract:

Border crossing automatization reduces required human resources in handling people crossing borders. As technology replaces and augments the work done by border officers, new cyber threats arise to threaten border security. This research analyses the current cyber threat actors and their capabilities. The analysis is conducted by gathering the threat actor data from a wide range of public sources. A model for a general border automatization system is presented, and its most significant cyber-security attributes are then compared to threat actor activity and capabilities in order to predict priorities in securing such systems. Organized crime and nation-state actors present the clearest threat to border cyber-security, and additional focus is given to their motivations and activities.

Keywords: border automation, cyber-security, threat actors, border cyber-security

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8955 Development of Border Trade of Thailand-Myanmar: Case Study of Ranong Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

This research has objective to study and analysis, expending linkage of trading border of Thai-Myanmar and the way of development trading of Thai-Myanmar border. There are advantage of competition in ASEAN Community on collection data and observation, in-depth interview, group conversation and exchange opinion of public agency, entrepreneur and people. Result of study found that main development of border trade is 1) Cross-border service should be development infrastructure of land telecommunication, sea has support economics of cross-border trade, 2) International consumption service should be expand service with Myanmar and India for linkage with entrepreneur and trading from international to Thailand, 3) Establish business for provide service has development cooperation of logistics via Andaman of Thailand, and 4) Mobility personnel, exchange personnel including labor for development potential of border trade has competition advantage.

Keywords: border trade, development, service, ASEAN

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8954 Border Control and Human Rights Violations: Lessons Learned from the United States and Potential Solutions for the European Union

Authors: María Elena Menéndez Ibáñez

Abstract:

After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, new measures were adopted by powerful countries and regions like the United States and the European Union in order to safeguard their security. In 2002, the US created the Department of Homeland Security with one sole objective; to protect American soil and people. The US adopted new policies that made every immigrant a potential terrorist and a threat to their national security. Stronger border control became one of the key elements of the fight against organized crime and terrorism. The main objective of this paper is to compare some of the most important and radical measures adopted by the US, even those that resulted in systematic violations of human rights, with some of the European measures adopted after the 2015 Paris attacks of 2015, such as unlawful detainment of prisoners and other measures against foreigners. Through the Schengen agreement, the European Union has tried to eliminate tariffs and border controls, in order to guarantee successful economic growth. Terrorists have taken advantage of this and have made the region vulnerable to attacks. Authorities need to strengthen their surveillance methods in order to safeguard the region and its stability. Through qualitative methods applied to social sciences, this research will also try to explain why some of the mechanisms proven to be useful in the US would not be so in Europe, especially because they would result in human rights violations. Finally, solutions will be offered that would not put the whole Schengen Agreement at risk. Europe cannot reinstate border control, without making individuals vulnerable to human rights violations.

Keywords: border control, immigration, international cooperation, national security

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8953 World on the Edge: Migration and Cross Border Crimes in West Africa

Authors: Adeyemi Kamil Hamzah

Abstract:

The contiguity of nations in international system suggests that world is a composite of socio-economic unit with people exploring and exploiting the potentials in the world via migrations. Thus, cross border migration has made positive contributions to social and economic development of individuals and nations by increasing the household incomes of the host countries. However, the cross border migrations in West Africa are becoming part of a dynamic and unstable world migration system. This is due to the nature and consequences of trans-border crimes in West Africa, with both short and long term effects on the socio-economic viability of developing countries like West African States. The paper identified that migration influenced cross-border crimes as well as the high spate of insurgencies in the sub-region. Furthermore, the consequential effect of a global village has imbalanced population flows, making some countries host and parasites to others. Also, stern and deft cross-border rules and regulations, as well as territorial security and protections, ameliorate cross border crimes and migration in West African sub-regions. Therefore, the study concluded that cross border migration is the linchpin of all kinds of criminal activities which affect the security of states in the sub-region.

Keywords: cross-border migration, border crimes, security, West Africa, development, globalisation

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8952 Detention Experiences of Asylum Seeking Children in Canada: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Zohra Faize

Abstract:

Globalization has expanded the mobility privileges of the Global North population while simultaneously, those in the Global South, namely poor, and racialized minorities are increasingly criminalized for crossing international borders. As part of this global trend, Canada also engages in tight border control practices, which often result in marginalization and criminalization of asylum seekers, including children. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as a theoretical framework and methodology, this research explores the effects of tight border control practices on children asylum-seekers; with a specific focus on detention experiences in Canadian prisons and immigration Holding Centers. The preliminary results of interviews with 8 participants confirm the violations of child rights that stem from the detention practice. Children also report that they find immigration detention to be a stressful and a confusing experience, often resulting in feeling of shame and guilt after their release into the community.

Keywords: border control, crimmigration, Canada, children asylum seekers, immcarceration, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

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8951 Study of the Economic Development of Border Areas Malinau District

Authors: Indri Nilam Sari, Aris Subagiyo, Nindya Sari

Abstract:

Malinau Regency border area is an area which is based on the RTRWN and the development priority. But, in real border area Malinau Regency placed as backyard from Indonesian area and caused development lag that is fairly large compared by town area in Malinau Regency. This research aimed to know the condition of the gap in the Malinau Regency border and its influence on the development of the border region as well as knowing the problems related to the economy development of society in the area of the border district of Malinau. Methods of analysis are used in namely descriptive analysis that represent analysis of land use and analysis of movement activities of the population, level analysis facility and infrastructure, economy analysis that represent top commodity determination analysis (LQ and Growth Share) and accessibility. The results of the study showed that the condition of the Malinau Regency border come within the gap as seen from the contributions of infrastructure repair facilities and accessibility advocates, communities, scattered seed commodities come within the borders and human resources with the condition of the most Upstream Bahau town in the backwaters of the town more. There are a few problems that cause the condition area of the border experiencing inequality, lack of human resources, poor infrastructure, lack of accessibility and low levels of security so that it brings development recommendations was the development of the flagship commodities and infrastructure as well as supporting community economic infrastructure, as well as human resources.

Keywords: border, economy, development, Malinau

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8950 The Tourist Satisfaction on Logo Design of Huay Kon Border Market, Chaloemphrakiat District, Nan Province

Authors: Panupong Chanplin, Wilailuk Mepracha, Sathapath Kilaso

Abstract:

The aims of this research were twofold: 1) to logo design of Huay Kon Border Market, Chaloemphrakiat District, Nan Province and 2) to study the level of tourist satisfaction towards logo design of Huay Kon Border Market, Chaloemphrakiat District, Nan Province. Tourist satisfaction was measured using four criteria: a unique product identity, ease of remembrance, product utility, and beauty/impressiveness. The researcher utilized a probability sampling method via simple random sampling. The sample consisted of 30 tourists in the Huay Kon Border Market. Statistics utilized for data analysis were percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results suggest that tourist had high levels of satisfaction towards all four criteria of the logo design that was designed to target them. This study proposes that specifically logo designed of Huay Kon Border Market could also be implemented with other real media already available on the market.

Keywords: satisfaction, logo, design, Huay Kon border market

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8949 Efficiency Analysis of Trader in Thailand and Laos Border Trade: Case Study of Textile and Garment Products

Authors: Varutorn Tulnawat, Padcharee Phasuk

Abstract:

This paper investigates the issue of China’s dumping on border trade between Thailand and Laos. From the pass mostly, the border trade goods are traditional textile and garment mainly served locals and tourists which majority of traders is of small and medium size. In the present day the competition is fierce, the volume of trade has expanded far beyond its original intent. The major competitors in Thai-Laos border trade are China, Vietnam and also South Korea. This research measures and compares the efficiency and ability to survive the onslaught of Thai and Laos firm along Thailand (Nong Kai province) and Laos (Vientiane) border. Two attack strategies are observed, price cutting and incense such as full facilitation for big volume order. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to data surveyed from 90 Thai and Laos entrepreneurs. The expected results are the proportion of efficiency and inefficiency firms. Points of inefficiency and suggested improvement are also discussed.

Keywords: border trade, dea, textile, garment

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8948 Strengthening the Security of the Thai-Myanmar Border Trade of the People in the Mae Sot Customs Checkpoint Area, Tak Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

A Study on Strengthening the Security of the Thai-Myanmar Border Trade Area of the people in the Mae Sot customs checkpoint area, Tak province, was designed as a qualitative research study. Its objectives were to study the principles of strengthening border trade security and enhancing people's participation. To develop a border trade model that enhances the spatial economy and improves people's quality of life by collecting data using a participant observation method. In-depth interview group chats border checkpoint administrators, Mae Sot customs checkpoint, Tak province, private entrepreneurs, community leaders, and the opening of a community forum to exchange opinions with people in the area. The results of the study found that 1. Security development is to promote crime reduction. Reduce drug trafficking problems Smuggling and human trafficking have been reduced. Including planning and preparation to protect people from terrorism, epidemics, and communicable diseases, including cooperation with Burma on border rules for people and workers, 2. Wealth development is to promote investment. Transport links value chain logistics Cross-border goods and services on the Thai-Myanmar border Both amending regulations and laws to promote fair trade. Emphasis on convenient and fast service as well as promoting the Thai border area to be a tourist attraction that can create prosperity and income for the community in the area By using balanced natural resources, with production and consumption that are environmentally friendly, and emphasizes the participation of the public sector, the private sector, and people from all sectors in the sustainable development of the Thai border.

Keywords: security, border trade, customs, participation, people

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8947 Border Trade Policy to Promote Thailand - Myanmar Mae Sai, Chiang Rai Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai, Pichamon Chansuchai

Abstract:

Research Thai- Myanmar Border Trade Promotion Policy, Mae Sai District, Chiang Rai Province The objectives of this study were to study the policy of promoting Thai- Myanmar border trade in Mae Sai district, Chiang Rai province. And suitable models for the development of border trade in Mae Sai. Chiang Rai province This research uses qualitative methodology. The method of collecting data from research papers. Participatory Observation In-depth interviews in which the information is important, the governor of Chiang Rai. Chiang Rai Customs Service Executive Office of Mae Sai Immigration Bureau Maesai Chamber of Commerce and Private Entrepreneurs By specific sampling Data analysis uses content analysis. The study indicated that Border Trade Promotion Policy The direction taken by the government to focus on developing 1. Security is further reducing crime. Smuggling and human trafficking Including the preparation to protect people from terrorism and natural disasters. And cooperation with Burma on border security. 2. The development of wealth is the promotion of investment. The transport links, logistics value chain. Products and services across the Thai-Myanmar border. Improve the regulations and laws to promote fair trade. Convenient and fast 3. Sustainable development is the ability to generate income, quality of life of people in the Thai border to increase continuously. By using balanced natural resources, production and consumption are environmentally friendly. Which featured the participation of all sectors of the public and private sectors in the region to drive the development of the border with Thailand. Chiang Rai province To be more competitive .

Keywords: Border, Trade, Policy, Promote

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8946 Long-Term Modal Changes in International Traffic - Example of the Polish Eastern Border

Authors: Tomasz Komornicki

Abstract:

The possibilities of cross-border traffic depend on the degree of permeability of a given border as well as the state of the existing transport infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to identify the impact of economic transformation, EU accession, and infrastructure development on modal shifts in border traffic through the Polish eastern boundary. In the 1980s railway was still the main mode of cross-border transport in Poland. At the beginning of the 1990s, the role of the road and rail transborder passenger traffic was similar, but since 1993, the role of rail was decreasing. The general decline in rail infrastructure in Poland continued uninterruptedly until accession to the European Union. The slow opposite trend can be observed later as a result of the inflow of European funds. In the countries neighbouring Poland from the east, these processes took place with some delay, and the loss of railway position was not so drastic. Therefore, cross-border railway connections have been maintained for quite a long time since the break-up of the USSR. However, finally, cross-border rail transport proved to be completely inflexible in relation to both economic, geopolitical, and transport transformations. It has been shown that the current modal split of the passenger border traffic was shaped by the following factors: a) closure of many transborder railway lines, especially local ones; b) the signing of an agreement on minor border traffic with Ukraine; c) rapidly growing number of citizens of Ukraine working in Poland (unofficial transportation of workers by car directly to their workplaces in Poland); d) the emergence of low-cost air connections between Ukraine and Poland and the growing role of air transport in the Russia-Poland relationship. The summary points to the possibility of a renewed increase in the importance of rail transport on the eastern border of the European Union.

Keywords: modal change, border, rail transport, Poland

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8945 Stressors Faced by Border Security Officers: The Singapore Experience

Authors: Jansen Ang, Andrew Neo, Dawn Chia

Abstract:

Border Security is unlike mainstream policing in that officers are essentially in static deployment, working round the clock every day and every hour of the year looking for illegitimate entry of persons and goods. In Singapore, Border Security officers perform multiple functions to ensure the nation’s safety and security. They are responsible for safeguarding the borders of Singapore to prevent threats from entering the country. Being the first line of defence in ensuring the nation’s border security officers are entrusted with the responsibility of screening travellers inbound and outbound of Singapore daily. They examined 99 million arrivals and departures at the various checkpoints in 2014, which is a considerable volume compared to most immigration agencies. The officers’ work scopes also include cargo clearance, protective and security functions of checkpoints. The officers work in very demanding environment which can range from the smog at the land checkpoints to the harshness of the ports at the sea checkpoints. In addition, all immigration checkpoints are located at the boundaries, posing commuting challenges for officers. At the land checkpoints, festive seasons and school breaks are peak periods as given the surge of inbound and outbound travellers at the various checkpoints. Such work provides unique challenges in comparison to other law enforcement duties. This paper assesses the current stressors faced by officers of a border security agency through the conduct of ground observations as well as a perceived stress survey as well as recommendations in combating stressors faced by border security officers. The findings from the field observations and surveys indicate organisational and operational stressors that are unique to border security and recommends interventions in managing these stressors. Understanding these stressors would better inform border security agencies on the interventions needed to enhance the resilience of border security officers.

Keywords: border security, Singapore, stress, operations

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8944 Different Approaches to the Study of Territorial Dispute between China and India

Authors: Albina Muratbekova

Abstract:

One of the main tensions and challenges in the development of Sino-Indian relation is the demarcation of its frontiers. The fact that throughout the history borders had never been demarcated on ground occur a dispute between China and India after receiving sovereignty. Boundaries of India and China are divided into three sectors: Eastern, Middle and Western. The middle sector runs from India’s Uttar Pradesh to the Punjab, 545 km length of the Line of Actual Control, the lines of which was confirmed at the 9th meeting of the Expert Group held in 2001, in New Delhi. Other two sectors are still not determined and cause disputes. A western sector of the frontier is the Aksai Chin plateau, covers areas of Ladakh, Tibet, and Sinkiang. Another disputed area lies in the Eastern sector in the Himalayan region, which after 1986 became the Indian state called Arunachal Pradesh. There are two different approaches in the ways of resolving the border dispute. Chinese side keeps an opinion that the border dispute must be resolved in a timely matter unless it is favorable for China, the resolution can be left to a later generation. While India’s government due to security reasons is eager to demarcate the border. In order to study this conflict was used as a descriptive-comparative-analytical method. Also, it was done a profound analyze of conflict nature.

Keywords: border dispute, China, India, territorial claim

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8943 Sea Border Dispute between Greece and Turkey in the Mediterrenean: Implications for Turkey’s Maritime Security and Its Military Spending

Authors: Aslihan Caliskan

Abstract:

The term Mediterranean comes from the Latin “mediterraneus” (Medius, "middle" plus Terra, "land, earth"). For the ancient Romans, the Mediterranean was the center of the earth as they knew it. The desire to gain control of the Mediterranean has led to disputes between many nations throughout history, some of which continue to this day. The recent major natural gas discoveries in the Mediterranean have aggravated ongoing tensions in some neighboring countries. The sea border dispute between Turkey and Greece & Greek-Cypriot side is one of the most critical conflicts in the Mediterranean Sea region. This unresolved dispute has many implications for all countries involved, as well as for third parties that have direct or indirect interests in the region. The research question of this context is what are the implications of this controversial sea border problem on the maritime security of Turkey and its military spending. In this paper, the quantitative method is used. Records from the Turkish Defense Ministry, data from the Turkish naval forces have been obtained. In addition, literature research and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) application cases were evaluated, and an incident analysis was carried out. This research shows that the sea border dispute issue has a significant impact on the Turkish military both in terms of the structures required to ensure maritime and border security, as well as rising military costs and its macroeconomic implications. The paper begins with a brief overview of relevant principles and methods applied for delimiting th esea borders. The paper continues with a brief description and a background of the sea border dispute between Turkey and Greece & Greek-Cypriot side in the light of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). An analysis of the implications of the dispute on Turkey’s maritime security and its military spending is provided in the following chapters. The paper ends with concluding remarks of the author, including suggestions for the way forward.

Keywords: sea border security, mediterranean sea, greece-turkey dispute, limitation of sea, united nations convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS)

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8942 A Location-based Authentication and Key Management Scheme for Border Surveillance Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have shown their effectiveness in the deployment of many critical applications especially in the military domain. Border surveillance is one of these applications where a set of wireless sensors are deployed along a country border line to detect illegal intrusion attempts to the national territory and report this to a control center to undergo the necessary measures. Regarding its nature, this wireless sensor network can be the target of many security attacks trying to compromise its normal operation. Particularly, in this application the deployment and location of sensor nodes are of great importance for detecting and tracking intruders. This paper proposes a location-based authentication and key distribution mechanism to secure wireless sensor networks intended for border surveillance where the key establishment is performed using elliptic curve cryptography and identity-based public key scheme. In this scheme, the public key of each sensor node will be authenticated by keys that depend on its position in the monitored area. Before establishing a pairwise key between two nodes, each one of them must verify the neighborhood location of the other node using a message authentication code (MAC) calculated on the corresponding public key and keys derived from encrypted beacon messages broadcast by anchor nodes. We show that our proposed public key authentication and key distribution scheme is more resilient to node capture and node replication attacks than currently available schemes. Also, the achievement of the key distribution between nodes in our scheme generates less communication overhead and hence increases network performances.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, border surveillance, security, key distribution, location-based

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8941 Migration Law in Republic of Panama

Authors: Ronel Solis, Leonardo Collado

Abstract:

Migration law in the Republic of Panama has been regulated mainly by the executive branch. This has created a crisis not only institutional but also social because the evolution of these norms has rested greatly from the discretion of the government in office. This has created instability in immigration regulation and more now, with the migration crisis of which Panama is also part. Different migration policies have been established. The most recent is that of the controlled migration flow, in which, for humanitarian reasons, migrants move from the border with Colombia to the border with Costa Rica. Unfortunately, such control is not enough, and in some cases, unprotected migrants have been confined for months, their passports have been withheld, and no recognition of their rights is offered. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has condemned Panama for the unfair detention of an irregular migrant, who was detained for two years in Panamanian prisons, without having committed a crime and without accessing a just defense. This is the case Vélez Loor vs. the Republic of Panama. Uncontrollable migration has been putting pressure on Panamanian public health services. The recent denunciation of HIV-related NGOs that warns that there are hundreds of foreigners who receive expensive antiretroviral therapy in Panama is serious, and several of them are irregular migrants. On the other hand, there are no border control posts with the Republic of Colombia, because it is a jungle area and migrants are exposed to arms and drug trafficking, and unfortunately, also to prostitution. Government entities such as the border police service have provided humanitarian support to migrants on the border with Colombia, although it is not their administrative function, and various entities discuss who should address this crisis. However, few economic resources are allocated by the government to solve this problem, especially with the recent mass migration of Venezuelans who have fled their country. The establishment of a migratory normative code is necessary to establish uniformity in the recognition and application of migratory rights. In this way, dependence on the changing migration policies of the different Panamanian governments would be eliminated, and the rights of migrants and nationals would be guaranteed.

Keywords: executive branch, irregular migration, migration code, Republic of Panama

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8940 A Comparative Study of Environmental, Social and Economic Cross-Border Cooperation in Post-Conflict Environments: The Israel-Jordan Border

Authors: Tamar Arieli

Abstract:

Cross-border cooperation has long been hailed as a means for stabilizing and normalizing relations between former enemies. Cooperation in problem-solving and realizing of local interests in post-conflict environments can indeed serve as a basis for developing dialogue and meaningful relations between neighbors across borders. Hence the potential for formerly sealed borders to serve as a basis for generating local and national perceptions of interdependence and as a buffer against the resume of conflict. Central questions which arise for policy-makers and third parties are how to facilitate cross-border cooperation and which areas of cooperation best serve to normalize post-conflict border regions. The Israel-Jordan border functions as a post-conflict border, in that it is a peaceful border since the 1994 Israel-Jordan peace treaty yet cross-border relations are defined but the highly securitized nature of the border region and the ongoing Arab-Israel regional conflict. This case study is based on long term qualitative research carried out in the border regions of both Israel and Jordan, which mapped and analyzed cross-border in a wide range of activities – social interactions sponsored by peace-facilitating NGOs, government sponsored agricultural cooperation, municipal initiated emergency planning in cross-border continuous urban settings, private cross-border business ventures and various environmental cooperative initiatives. These cooperative initiatives are evaluated through multiple interviews carried out with initiators and partners in cross-border cooperation as well as analysis of documentation, funding and media. These cooperative interactions are compared based on levels of cross-border local and official awareness and involvement as well as sustainability over time. This research identifies environmental cooperation as the most sustainable area of cross- border cooperation and as most conducive to generating perceptions of regional interdependence. This is a variation to the ‘New Middle East’ vision of business-based cooperation leading to conflict amelioration and regional stability. Environmental cooperation serving the public good rather than personal profit enjoys social legitimization even in the face of widespread anti-normalization sentiments common in the post-conflict environment. This insight is examined in light of philosophical and social aspects of the natural environment and its social perceptions. This research has theoretical implications for better understanding dynamics of cooperation and conflict, as well as practical ramifications for practitioners in border region policy and management.

Keywords: borders, cooperation, post-conflict, security

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8939 EU Border Externalisation in Conflict Zones: Living at and Migrating Across the Iran-Turkey Border

Authors: Karolína Augustovaá

Abstract:

Turkey’s eastern borders have been at the center of criticism by the European Commission who condemns restrictions against Kurdish civilians as the result of Turkey’s military operations against terrorist organizations (namely PKK). Yet, the Commission has launched economic and political support for numerous military projects along the Iran-Turkey border to fight cross-border crime (namely “illegal” migration) along its external borders. Whilst border externalization has been extensively examined in the EU’s wide neighborhood, its analysis from the ground in conflict zones is emerging. The existing analysis also rarely considers the impact of external border management beyond international migration - on the local context and its people. However, tough externalization policies at borders, where local wars are fought, are fundamental to scrutinize as they invite us to question the effects of EU’s migration management on diverse communities navigating their life along external borders. To fill this research lacunae, this article examines intersections between the local military operations and international (EU-Turkey) migration management at the Turkey’s border with Iran and questions their impact on the everyday struggles of people living at and migrating across the border. To do so, it applies critical feminist and military literature to border studies. Methodologically, the article draws upon ethnographic research in Van (Eastern Turkey), using participant observations and interviews with sixty participants. This article argues that the EU’s externalization policies add to the violence generated by the local militarized conflict and eventually (re-)produce it in the forms of push-backs and physical violence against people who daily cross the border irregularly for their physical/economic survival. By doing so, I suggest that (inter)national fears of terrorism and migration inter-sect, materialize and affect everyday sites of diverse racialized groups living at and moving across external borders, such as international migrants (Afghans) and the local residents (Kurds) at the Turkey-Iran border. This article highlights the need to analyze the local border context in tandem with international migration management in the EU’s wider neighborhood to understand how conflict and violence evolves there.

Keywords: european union border externalization, eastern turkey, migration, conflict, kurdish question

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8938 Domestic and Foreign Terrorism: Evaluation of the Breeding Ground

Authors: T. K. Hung

Abstract:

Terrorism acts have occurred across both developed and developing states, with well-identified motivation and causes. For many years, terrorism eradication has become a major topic yet only passive actions were taken in response to acts. The linkage between the location of terrorism occurrence and breeding ground is not well-documented, resulting in the passive approach used in counter-terrorism nowadays. The evaluation investigates all post-9/11 terrorism affairs considering their state capacity, safety, ease of border access control, religion diversity, and technology access, to measure the level of breeding ground of the states. Those "weak" states with poor border access control, resources capacity and domestic safety are the best breeding ground for terrorists. Although many attacks were caused by religious motivation, religion diversity does not predict the breeding ground. States with censored technology access, particular computer-mediated communication, predict on the terrorism breeding ground, moderated by the level of breeding ground of neighboring states.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, lethality, security, terrorism

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8937 Women's Vulnerability to Cross-Border Criminality in Saki/Iseyin Area of Oyo State in Nigeria: Insight and Experiences

Authors: Samuel Kehinde Okunade, Daniel Sunday Tolorunshagba

Abstract:

Globally women are classified to be part of the vulnerable group in any environment. In a conflict-ridden environment, women being vulnerable often suffer the consequences as it relates to security and access to basic social services such as medical care. This is the situation in border communities in Nigeria where cross-border crimes are on the rife, thus, putting women at a disadvantaged position and, eventually, victims of such inimical activities. Border communities in the Saki/Iseyin area of Oyo state are a case in point where the lives of inhabitants are daily threatened most, especially women. In light of the above, this article examined the security situation of the Saki/Iseyin area of Oyo State with a view to ascertaining its status in terms of safety of lives and property. This paper also explored the experiences of women in the border communities within the area as it relates to their safety, the safety of their children, access to good health facilities in their immediate environment, and above all, how they have been able to cope or manage the situation. The qualitative research model was adopted utilizing a phenomenological case study approach. A Focused Group Discussion was conducted with 10 pregnant women and 10 mothers in Okerete and Abugudu communities while a Key Informant Interview was conducted with the women leaders in both communities of the Saki/Iseyin border area of Oyo State. The findings of the study revealed the poor state of basic infrastructure. So bad to a point that inhabitants of these communities no longer see themselves as Nigerians because they have been neglected by the government for too long. The only solution is for the government to embark on developmental projects within these communities so that they can live a good life just as those in the cities do. More importantly, this will increase the loyalty of these communities to the Nigeria state by defending and resisting all forms of cross-border criminal activities that go on along the porous borders.

Keywords: security, women, Saki/Iseyin border area, cross-border criminalities, basic infrastructure

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8936 In a Situation of Great Distress: Cross Border Migration and the Quest for Enduring Security in North-East Nigeria

Authors: Nuhu Bitrus Mailabari

Abstract:

Nigeria is a highly multifarious nation trapped between affluence and affliction. On one hand, the state has vast territorial size, economic strength, relative internal cohesion, and good external linkages. On the other, it is bedeviled with enormous challenges. It is common knowledge that the North-East geo-political zone has suffered colossal destruction for the most part of the last ten years due to the activities of the insurgent group Boko Haram. Several factors (political, economic, religious, socio-cultural) have been credited with the heightened insecurity in the region. Without a doubt, the security crisis in the region has rekindled several discussions critical to Nigeria’s security architecture. However, the debate on finding an enduring solution to the devastation in the North East continually neglects the nexus between cross border migration and national security. Using content analysis, this paper debates two main issues that continue to affect security in the North East. One, the cumulative impact of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) protocol on the free movement of people and goods. Two, the porous nature of Nigeria’s borders. Theoretically, the paper will rely on the systems theory because of its broad focus on structure, linkage, and process. The work concludes in twofold. First, that cross border migration and poor border management processes further worsened the political and socio-economic conditions of a region that is already in a bad state. Secondly, in addition to the existing strategies, Nigeria must develop a holistic approach including new methods of handling cross border movements in solving the security issues.

Keywords: border, cross border, migration, Nigeria, northeast region, security

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8935 The Effects of Cross-Border Use of Drones in Nigerian National Security

Authors: H. P. Kerry

Abstract:

Drone technology has become a significant discourse in a nation’s national security, while this technology could constitute a danger to national security on the one hand, on the other hand, it is used in developed and developing countries for border security, and in some cases, for protection of security agents and migrants. In the case of Nigeria, drones are used by the military to monitor and tighten security around the borders. However, terrorist groups have devised a means to utilize the technology to their advantage. Therefore, the potential danger in the widespread proliferation of this technology has become a myriad of risks. The research on the effects of cross-border use of drones in Nigerian national security looks at the negative and positive consequences of using drone technology. The study employs the use of interviews and relevant documents to obtain data while the study applied the Just War theory to justify the reason why countries use force; it further buttresses the points with what the realist theory thinks about the use of force. In conclusion, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government through the National Assembly should pass a bill for the establishment of a law that will guide the use of armed and unarmed drones in Nigeria enforced by the Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority and the office of the National Security Adviser.

Keywords: armed drones, drones, cross-border, national security

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8934 Human Rights in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Exploratory Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo

Abstract:

Cross-border commercial surrogacy, where Australians travel overseas to access reproduction through a surrogate mother, is an increasing phenomenon. This paper focuses on the role of Australian surrogacy facilitators, including lawyers, non-for-profit agents, fertility counselors, who act as intermediaries managing cross-border surrogacy arrangements in Australia. It explores the extent to which surrogacy facilitators are concerned with the human rights of children born through cross-border surrogacy, surrogate mothers in developing countries, and intended parents. Commercial surrogacy is a matter that is often cast in the language of human rights. This paper will contribute to an in-depth understanding of the dynamics between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by adopting a human rights framework to inform data analysis regarding the role of facilitators. The purpose of this research is to inform debate and discussion on law reform related to surrogacy. This paper presented here centers on interviews with surrogacy facilitators in Australia and non-participant observations in Australia to generate thick, empirical data about the fertility industry. The data showed that the process of facilitating surrogacy arrangements had prompted facilitators to form a view on human rights as they applied to their works. Although facilitators claimed that the right of intended parents, surrogate mothers, and children were all taken into consideration, the researcher observed that the commercial surrogacy contracts described by these facilitators favored the interests of intended parents with the baby acting as their unique selling point. The interests and needs of surrogate mothers were not prioritized in the views or actions of facilitators. The result was a commercial transaction that entailed the purchase, through cross-border surrogacy, of a child, as a commodity, by relatively affluent intended parents from disadvantaged surrogate mothers through unfair contracts.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, human rights, surrogacy

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8933 The Gaze; Objectification of the Surrogate Mother in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Empirical Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo

Abstract:

Cross-border surrogacy is seen by many as a market in which women are bought and sold commodities at risk of trafficking. A surrogate can be framed as either a fully acknowledged subject, with whom intended parents engage in cross-border surrogacy—or as a tool utilized by intended parents and surrogacy facilitators in the furtherance of their own objectives. In order to identify which frame prevails, this paper applies subjectivity theory to an empirical study of cross-border surrogacy facilitated by facilitators in Australia analysing interviews with surrogate agents, counsellors and lawyers, and observations at trade show. The aim of the paper is to advance understanding of the dynamics of the relationship between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by collecting new data and applying unique framework. As dominant players, surrogacy facilitators have a significant impact on determining the nature of cross-border surrogacy. However, little is known concerning the manner in which facilitators influence the inter-subjectivity between surrogate mothers and intended parents. Thus, this paper intends to identify how facilitators depict surrogate mothers, the degree to which their perspectives bear upon both the subjectivity of the surrogate mother and the relationship of intended parents with surrogate mothers. For the purpose of introducing and developing this framework in the context of cross-border surrogacy, this paper borrows from the work of theorists not often mentioned in bioethics, including Jacques Lacan, Marco Cavallaro, Michel Foucault, and others. It also applies the concept of 'the gaze' along with the dynamic of 'self' and 'other' to the cross-border surrogacy arrangement. Applying the concept of the gaze can provide a new way to interpret the power dynamic that plays out among surrogacy facilitators, intended parents, and surrogates within the commercial surrogacy arrangement and how the subjectivity is produced through the power. Viewing the relationships between the players in cross-border surrogacy through the lens of gaze theory, this paper finds that, in cross-border surrogacy, due to the structural power imbalance, affluent intended parents and surrogacy facilitators are possessors of the gaze, while surrogate mothers are under the thrall of the gaze. Specifically, facilitators frame surrogate mothers' reproductive abilities as commodities that intended parents can purchase to fulfil their urgent need to have children and experience full subjectivity, and they take a cut of the money that paid by intended parents. Therefore, commodification of the body results in degrading a surrogate mother (the object), reifying her as no more than a walking womb (the other), a process which is highly detrimental to the self of surrogate mothers. This relationship, formalized through contractual means, allows intended parents and facilitators to take advantage of surrogate mothers in the furtherance of their own objectives. This argument is enriched by new data from interviews and observations that provide nuance to this understanding of inter-subjectivity.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, self, surrogate mothers

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8932 Heilong-Amur River: From Disputed Border to Brigde of Cooperation

Authors: Wan Wang, Xing Li

Abstract:

With the international river playing an increasingly important role in international relations, the border river between China and Russia has attracted more attention. During the history of Sino-Russian relations, Heilong-Amur River used to be a disputed border. The Sino-Russian transboundary water cooperation regarding the Heilong-Amur River started in 1950s and has obtained rapid improvement. In the 21st century, this cooperation has made substantial progress, which is worthy of a further study. However, this cooperation is facing with obstacles in aspects of economy, policy, implementation and mutual understandings. Under this circumstance, from the perspective of China, it is of necessity to realize these problems and take appropriate measures to promote the cooperation. The current Sino-Russian relations is conducive to transboundary water resources cooperation regarding the Heilong-Amur River and some measures adopted by China are already ongoing.

Keywords: China, cooperation, Heilong-Amur River, Russia

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8931 Potential of Tourism Logistic Service Business in the Border Areas of Chong Anma, Chong Sa-Ngam, and Chong Jom Checkpoints in Thailand to Increase Competitive Efficiency among the ASEAN Community

Authors: Pariwat Somnuek

Abstract:

This study focused on tourism logistic services in the border areas of Thailand by an analysis and comparison of the opinions of tourists, villagers, and entrepreneurs of these services. Sample representatives of this study were a total of 600 villagers and 15 entrepreneurs in the three border areas consisting of Chong Anma, Chong Sa-Ngam, and Chong Jom checkpoints. For methodology, survey questionnaires, situation analysis, TOWS matrix, and focus group discussions were used for data collection, as well as descriptive analysis and statistics such as arithmetic means and standard deviations, were employed for data analysis. The findings revealed that business potential was at the medium level and entrepreneurs were satisfied with their turnovers. However, perspectives of transportation and tourism services provided for tourists need to be immediately improved. Recommendations for the potential development included promotion of border tourism destinations and foreign investments into accommodation, restaurants, and transport, as well as the establishment of business networks between Thailand and Cambodia, along with the introduction of new tourism destinations by co-operation between entrepreneurs in both countries. These initiatives may lead to increased visitors, collaboration of security offices, and an improved image of tourism security.

Keywords: business potential, potential development, tourism logistics, services

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8930 The Existence of Field Corn Networks on the Thailand-Burma Border under the Patron-Client Contract Farming System

Authors: Kettawa Boonprakarn, Jedsarid Sangkaphan, Bejapornd Deekhuntod, Nuntharat Suriyo

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the existence of field corn networks on the Thailand-Burma border under the patron-client contract farming system. The data of this qualitative study were collected through in-depth interviews with nine key informants. The results of the study revealed that the existence of the field corn networks was associated with the relationship where farmers had to share their crops with protectors in the areas under the influence of the KNU (Karen National Union) and the DKBA (Democratic Karen Buddhist Army) or Burmese soldiers. A Mae Liang, the person who starts a network has a connection with a Thaokae, Luk Rai Hua Chai or the head of a group of farmers, and farmers. They are under the patron-client system with trust and loyalty that enable the head of the group and the farmers in the Burma border side to remain under the same Mae Liang even though the business has been passed down to later generations.

Keywords: existence, field-corn networks, patron-client system, contract farming

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8929 Saudi Arabia Border Security Informatics: Challenges of a Harsh Environment

Authors: Syed Ahsan, Saleh Alshomrani, Ishtiaq Rasool, Ali Hassan

Abstract:

In this oral presentation, we will provide an overview of the technical and semantic architecture of a desert border security and critical infrastructure protection security system. Modern border security systems are designed to reduce the dependability and intrusion of human operators. To achieve this, different types of sensors are use along with video surveillance technologies. Application of these technologies in a harsh desert environment of Saudi Arabia poses unique challenges. Environmental and geographical factors including high temperatures, desert storms, temperature variations and remoteness adversely affect the reliability of surveillance systems. To successfully implement a reliable, effective system in a harsh desert environment, the following must be achieved: i) Selection of technology including sensors, video cameras, and communication infrastructure that suit desert environments. ii) Reduced power consumption and efficient usage of equipment to increase the battery life of the equipment. iii) A reliable and robust communication network with efficient usage of bandwidth. Also, to reduce the expert bottleneck, an ontology-based intelligent information systems needs to be developed. Domain knowledge unique and peculiar to Saudi Arabia needs to be formalized to develop an expert system that can detect abnormal activities and any intrusion.

Keywords: border security, sensors, abnormal activity detection, ontologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 406