Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 432

Search results for: mitigation

432 Effects of Viscoelastic and Viscous Links on Seismic Pounding Mitigation in Buildings

Authors: Ali Reza Mirzagoltabar Roshan, H. Ahmadi Taleshian, A. Eliasi

Abstract:

This paper examines the effects of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an efficient technique for seismic pounding mitigation. To aim that, 15 steel frame models with different numbers of stories and bays and also with different types of ductility were analyzed under 10 different earthquake records for assigned values of link damping and stiffness and the most suitable values of damper parameters (damping and stiffness) are presented. Moreover, it is demonstrated that viscous dampers can perform as efficiently as viscoelastic alternative with a more economical aspect for pounding mitigation purposes.

Keywords: adjacent buildings, separation distance, seismic pounding mitigation, viscoelastic link

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
431 Android-Based Edugame Application for Earthquakes Disaster Mitigation Education

Authors: Endina P. Purwandari, Yolanda Hervianti, Feri Noperman, Endang W. Winarni

Abstract:

The earthquakes disaster is an event that can threaten at any moment and cause damage and loss of life. Game earthquake disaster mitigation is a useful educational game to enhance children insight, knowledge, and understanding in the response to the impact of the earthquake. This study aims to build an educational games application on the Android platform as a learning media for earthquake mitigation education and to determine the effect of the application toward children understanding of the earthquake disaster mitigation. The methods were research and development. The development was to develop edugame application for earthquakes mitigation education. The research involved elementary students as a research sample to test the developed application. The research results were valid android-based edugame application, and its the effect of application toward children understanding. The application contains an earthquake simulation video, an earthquake mitigation video, and a game consisting three stages, namely before the earthquake, when the earthquake occur, and after the earthquake. The results of the feasibility test application showed that this application was included in the category of 'Excellent' which the average percentage of the operation of applications by 76%, view application by 67% and contents of application by 74%. The test results of students' responses were 80% that showed that a positive their responses toward the application. The student understanding test results show that the average score of children understanding pretest was 71,33, and post-test was 97,00. T-test result showed that t value by 8,02 more than table t by 2,001. This indicated that the earthquakes disaster mitigation edugame application based on Android platform affects the children understanding about disaster earthquake mitigation.

Keywords: Mitigation, Earthquakes, android, edugame

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
430 From Conflicts to Synergies between Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Lisbon Downtown 2010-2030

Authors: Nuno M. Pereira

Abstract:

In the last thirty years, European cities have been addressing global climate change and its local impacts by implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies. Lisbon Downtown is no exception with 10 plans under implementation since 2010 with completion scheduled for 2030 valued 1 billion euros of public investment. However, the gap between mitigation and adaptation strategies is not yet sufficiently studied alongside with its nuances- vulnerability and risk mitigation, resilience and adaptation. In Lisbon Downtown, these plans are being implemented separately, therefore compromising the effectiveness of public investment. The research reviewed the common ground of mitigation and adaptation strategies of the theoretical framework and analyzed the current urban development actions in Lisbon Downtown in order to identify potential conflicts and synergies. The empirical fieldwork supported by a sounding board of experts has been developed during two years and the results suggest that the largest public investment in Lisbon on flooding mitigation will conflict with the new Cruise ship terminal and old Downton building stock, therefore increasing risk and vulnerability factors. The study concludes that the Lisbon Downtown blue infrastructure plan should be redesigned in some areas in a trans- disciplinary and holistic approach and that the current theoretical framework on climate change should focus more on mitigation and adaptation synergies articulating the gray, blue and green infrastructures, combining old knowledge tested by resilient communities and new knowledge emerging from the digital era.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Conflict, Adaptation, Synergy, Lisbon Downtown

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
429 Development of Closed System for Bacterial CO2 Mitigation

Authors: Somesh Misha, Smita Raghuvanshi, Suresh Gupta

Abstract:

Increasing concentration of green house gases (GHG's), such as CO2 is of major concern and start showing its impact nowadays. The recent studies are focused on developing the continuous system using photoautotrophs for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous production of primary and secondary metabolites as a value addition. The advent of carbon concentrating mechanism had blurred the distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs and now the paradigm has shifted towards the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) rather than carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In the present work, a bioreactor was developed utilizing the chemolithotrophic bacterial species using CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition. The kinetic modeling was done and the biokinetic parameters are obtained for developing the bioreactor. The bioreactor was developed and studied for its operation and performance in terms of volumetric loading rate, mass loading rate, elimination capacity and removal efficiency. The characterization of effluent from the bioreactor was carried out for the products obtained using the analyzing techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR. The developed bioreactor promised an economic, efficient and effective solution for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition.

Keywords: NMR, FTIR, GC-MS, CO2 mitigation, bio-reactor, chemolithotrophic bacterial species

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
428 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew

Abstract:

The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: energy input, membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
427 Educating Farmers and Fishermen in Rural Areas in Nigeria on Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation for Global Sustainability

Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye, Okafor Joachim Chukwuma, Olamire James

Abstract:

The impacts of climate change are greatly felt on Nigeria’s agricultural sector which in turn affects the economy of the nation. There is an urgent need to educate farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria on climate change adaptation and mitigation for sustainable development. Through our literature and participant observation, it has been discovered that many farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria have little or no knowledge about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper seeks to draw the attention of policy makers in government, private sectors, non-governmental organizations and interested individuals to the need to seek for innovative ways of educating farmers and fishermen in rural areas about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability. This study also explores the effective methods of bridging the communication gaps through efficient information dissemination, intensive awareness outreach, use of climate change poems and blogs, innovative loan scheme to farmers and fishermen, etc. to help ensure that farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria are adequately educated about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability.

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, farmers, fishermen

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
426 Technical and Economic Evaluation of Harmonic Mitigation from Offshore Wind Power Plants by Transmission Owners

Authors: A. Prajapati, K. L. Koo, F. Ghassemi, M. Mulimakwenda

Abstract:

In the UK, as the volume of non-linear loads connected to transmission grid continues to rise steeply, the harmonic distortion levels on transmission network are becoming a serious concern for the network owners and system operators. This paper outlines the findings of the study conducted to verify the proposal that the harmonic mitigation could be optimized and can be managed economically and effectively at the transmission network level by the Transmission Owner (TO) instead of the individual polluter connected to the grid. Harmonic mitigation studies were conducted on selected regions of the transmission network in England for recently connected offshore wind power plants to strategize and optimize selected harmonic filter options. The results – filter volume and capacity – were then compared against the mitigation measures adopted by the individual connections. Estimation ratios were developed based on the actual installed and optimal proposed filters. These estimation ratios were then used to derive harmonic filter requirements for future contracted connections. The study has concluded that a saving of 37% in the filter volume/capacity could be achieved if the TO is to centrally manage the harmonic mitigation instead of individual polluter installing their own mitigation solution.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Optimization, Harmonics, Offshore Wind Farms, HVDC, C-type filter, interconnectors, transmission owner

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
425 Integrated Modeling Approach for Energy Planning and Climate Change Mitigation Assessment in the State of Florida

Authors: K. Thakkar, C. Ghenai

Abstract:

An integrated modeling approach was used in this study to (1) track energy consumption, production, and resource extraction, (2) track greenhouse gases emissions and (3) analyze emissions for local and regional air pollutions. The model was used in this study for short and long term energy and GHG emissions reduction analysis for the state of Florida. The integrated modeling methodology will help to evaluate the alternative energy scenarios and examine emissions-reduction strategies. The mitigation scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies. They consist of various demand and supply side scenarios. One of the GHG mitigation scenarios is crafted by taking into account the available renewable resources potential for power generation in the state of Florida to compare and analyze the GHG reduction measure against ‘Business As Usual’ and ‘Florida State Policy’ scenario. Two more ‘integrated’ scenarios, (‘Electrification’ and ‘Efficiency and Lifestyle’) are crafted through combination of various mitigation scenarios to assess the cumulative impact of the reduction measures such as technological changes and energy efficiency and conservation.

Keywords: Energy Alternatives, Energy planning, climate change mitigation assessment, integrated modeling approach, and GHG emission reductions

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
424 Improvement of Model for SIMMER Code for SFR Corium Relocation Studies

Authors: A. Bachrata, N. Marie, F. Bertrand, J. B. Droin

Abstract:

The in-depth understanding of severe accident propagation in Generation IV of nuclear reactors is important so that appropriate risk management can be undertaken early in their design process. This paper is focused on model improvements in the SIMMER code in order to perform studies of severe accident mitigation of Sodium Fast Reactor. During the design process of the mitigation devices dedicated to extraction of molten fuel from the core region, the molten fuel propagation from the core up to the core catcher has to be studied. In this aim, analytical as well as the complex thermo-hydraulic simulations with SIMMER-III code are performed. The studies presented in this paper focus on physical phenomena and associated physical models that influence the corium relocation. Firstly, the molten pool heat exchange with surrounding structures is analysed since it influences directly the instant of rupture of the dedicated tubes favouring the corium relocation for mitigation purpose. After the corium penetration into mitigation tubes, the fuel-coolant interactions result in formation of debris bed. Analyses of debris bed fluidization as well as sinking into a fluid are presented in this paper.

Keywords: corium, mitigation tubes, SIMMER-III, sodium fast reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
423 Development of Pre-Mitigation Measures and Its Impact on Life-Cycle Cost of Facilities: Indian Scenario

Authors: Mahima Shrivastava, Soumya Kar, B. Swetha Malika, Lalu Saheb, M. Muthu Kumar, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi

Abstract:

Natural hazards and manmade destruction causes both economic and societal losses. Generalized pre-mitigation strategies introduced and adopted for prevention of disaster all over the world are capable of augmenting the resiliency and optimizing the life-cycle cost of facilities. In countries like India where varied topographical feature exists requires location specific mitigation measures and strategies to be followed for better enhancement by event-driven and code-driven approaches. Present state of vindication measures followed and adopted, lags dominance in accomplishing the required development. In addition, serious concern and debate over climate change plays a vital role in enhancing the need and requirement for the development of time bound adaptive mitigation measures. For the development of long-term sustainable policies incorporation of future climatic variation is inevitable. This will further assist in assessing the impact brought about by the climate change on life-cycle cost of facilities. This paper develops more definite region specific and time bound pre-mitigation measures, by reviewing the present state of mitigation measures in India and all over the world for improving life-cycle cost of facilities. For the development of region specific adoptive measures, Indian regions were divided based on multiple-calamity prone regions and geo-referencing tools were used to incorporate the effect of climate changes on life-cycle cost assessment. This study puts forward significant effort in establishing sustainable policies and helps decision makers in planning for pre-mitigation measures for different regions. It will further contribute towards evaluating the life cycle cost of facilities by adopting the developed measures.

Keywords: Climate Change, life-cycle cost, geo-referencing tools, multiple-calamity prone regions, pre-mitigation strategies, sustainable policies

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
422 Human-Elephant Conflict and Mitigation Measures in Buffer Zone of Bardia National Park, Nepal

Authors: Rabin Paudel, Dambar Bahadur Mahato, Prabin Poudel, Bijaya Neupane, Sakar Jha

Abstract:

Understanding Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) is very important in countries like Nepal, where solutions to escalating conflicts are urgently required. However, most of the HEC mitigation measures implemented so far have been done on an ad hoc basis without the detailed understanding of nature and extent of the damage. This study aims to assess the current scenario of HEC in regards to crop and property damages by Wild Asian Elephant and people’s perception towards existing mitigating measures and elephant conservation in Buffer zone area of Bardia National Park. The methods used were a questionnaire survey (N= 178), key-informant interview (N= 18) and focal group discussions (N= 6). Descriptive statistics were used to determine the nature and extent of damage and to understand people’s perception towards HEC, its mitigation measures and elephant conservation. Chi-square test was applied to determine the significance of crop and property damages with respect to distance from the park boundary. Out of all types of damage, crop damage was found to be the highest (51%), followed by house damage (31%) and damage to stored grains (18%) with winter being the season with the greatest elephant damage. Among 178 respondents, the majority of them (82%) were positive towards elephant conservation despite the increment in HEC incidents as perceived by 88% of total respondents. Among the mitigation measures present, the most applied was electric fence (91%) followed by barbed wire fence (5%), reinforced concrete cement wall (3%) and gabion wall (1%). Most effective mitigation measures were reinforced concrete cement wall and gabion wall. To combat increasing crop damage, the insurance policy should be initiated. The efficiency of the mitigation measures should be timely monitored, and corrective measures should be applied as per the need.

Keywords: mitigation measures, crop and property damage, elephant conflict, Asiatic wild elephant

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
421 Strategies of Smart City in Response to Climate Change: Focused on the Case Studies of Sweden, Japan, and Korea

Authors: S. J. Lee, K. M. Kim, D. S. Oh, Sadohara Satoru

Abstract:

The climate change poses a serious challenge to urban sustainability. To alleviate the environmental risk, urban planning has been concentrated on climate adaptation and mitigation, and the sustainable urban model, smart city, has been suggested. However, with regard to sustainable smart city development, a majority of researchers have focused mainly on the aspect of adaptation, which causes the lack of the approaches for mitigation. Therefore, the objective was to identify the planning elements of smart city with integrative reviews about mitigation and adaptation. Moreover, the concepts of smart cities in Sweden, Japan, and Korea were analyzed to find out the country-specific characteristics and strategies for achieving smart city.

Keywords: Climate Change, Smart City, sustainable urban planning, mitigating and adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
420 Problems of Drought and Its Management in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: David Oloke, Michael A. Fullen, Hassan Gana Abdullahi

Abstract:

Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This investigation aims to develop a workable framework and management tool for drought mitigation in Yobe State. Mixed methods were employed during the study and additional qualitative information was gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Data on socio-economic impacts of drought were thus collected via both questionnaire surveys and FGD. In all, 1,040 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the State and 721 were completed, representing a return rate of 69.3%. Data analysis showed that 97.9% of respondents considered themselves to be drought victims, whilst 69.3% of the respondents were unemployed and had no other means of income, except through rain-fed farming. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arrest and hopefully reverse environment degradation. Analysed data will be used to develop an integrated framework for drought mitigation and management in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought in Yobe State.

Keywords: Climate Change, Management, Mitigation, Drought, Yobe State

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
419 Attitude of Youth Farmers to Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Cynthia E. Nwobodo, A. E. Agwu

Abstract:

The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from two agricultural zones in the State. Data was collected using interview schedule. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. Findings showed that youth farmers in the area had positive attitude to climate change adaptation and mitigation as shown by their response to a set of positive and negative statement including: the youth are very important stakeholders in climate change issues (M= 2.91), youths should be encouraged to be climate change conscious (2.90), everybody should be involved in planting trees not just the government (M= 2.89), I will be glad to participate in climate change seminars (M= 2.89) among others. Findings on information seeking behavior indicate that majority (80.8 %) of the respondents sought climate change information from radio at an average of 19.78 times per month, 53.3 % sought from friends and neighbours at an average of 12.55 times per month and 42.5 % sought from family members at an average of 12.55 times per month among others. It was recommended that Youth farmers should be made important stakeholders in climate change policies and programmes since they have a very positive attitude to climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Adaptation, attitude, youth farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
418 Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods

Authors: D. De-León-Escobedo, D. J. Delgado-Hernández, S. Pérez

Abstract:

A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.

Keywords: Storms, failure probability, expected life-cycle cost, slopes failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
417 Measures for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Algeria

Authors: Farah Lazzali, Yamina Ait Meziane

Abstract:

Recent earthquakes in Algeria have demonstrated the need for seismic risk reduction. In fact, the latest major earthquake that affected the Algiers-Boumerdes region in 2003 caused excessive levels of loss of life and property. Economic, social and environmental damage were also experienced. During the three days following the event, a relatively weak coordination of public authority was noted. Many localities did not receive any relief due to lack of information from concerned authorities and delay in connecting damaged roads. Following this event, Algerian government and civil society has recognized the urgent need for an appropriate and immediate seismic risk mitigation strategy. This paper describes procedures for emergency response following past earthquakes in Algeria and provides a brief review of risk mitigation activities since 1980. The paper also aims to provide measures to reduce earthquake risk through general strategy and practical implementation of the mitigation actions.

Keywords: Prevention, Earthquake, Strategy, risk reduction, Hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
416 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Amit Kumar, Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: Co2 Emissions, CO2 mitigation, solar water heating system, natural gas consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
415 Risk Assessment for International Investment: A Standardized Approach to Identify Risk, Risk Appetite, Risk Rating, Risk Treatment and Mitigation Plans

Authors: Pui Yong Leo, Normy Maziah Mohd Said

Abstract:

Change of global economy landscape and business environment has led to companies’ decision to go global and enter international markets. As the companies go beyond the comfort zone (i.e. investing in the home country), it is important to ensure a comprehensive risk assessment is carried out. This paper describes a standardized approach for international investment, ensuring identification of risk, risk appetite, risk rating, risk treatment and mitigation plans for respective international investment proposal. The standardized approach is divided into three (3) stages as follows: Stage 1 – Preliminary Risk profiling; with the objective to gauge exposure to countries and high level risk factors as first level assessment. Stage 2 – Risk Parameters; with the objective to define risk appetite for the international investment from the perspective of likelihood and impact. Stage 3 – Detailed Risk Assessments; with the objectives to assess in detail any triggered elements from Stage 1, and project specific risks. The final output will include the mitigation plans for the identified risks for the total investment. Example will be given in this paper to show how comprehensive risk assessment is carried out for an international investment in power energy sector.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, International Investment, mitigation plans, risk appetite

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
414 Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution

Authors: A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Alawi, T. Al-Said, E. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Roumi

Abstract:

Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.

Keywords: Mitigation, Sea cucumbers, organic pollution, Stichopus hermanni, Holothuria atra

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
413 Vibration Mitigation in Partially Liquid-Filled Vessel Using Passive Energy Absorbers

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

The following study deals with fluid vibration of a liquid in a partially filled vessel under periodic ground excitation. This external excitation might lead to hidraulic impact applied on the vessel inner walls. In order to model these sloshing dynamic regimes, several equivalent mechanical models were suggested in the literature, such as series of pendula or mass-spring systems that are able to impact the inner tank walls. In the following study, we use the latter methodology, use parameter values documented in literature corresponding to cylindrical tanks and consider structural elasticity of the tank. The hydraulic impulses are modeled by the high-exponent potential function. Additional system parameters are found with the help of Finite-Element (FE) analysis. Model-driven stress assessment method is developed. Finally, vibration mitigation performances of both tuned mass damper (TMD) and nonlinear energy sink (NES) are examined.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
412 Fouling Mitigation Using Helical Baffle Heat Exchangers and Comparative Analysis Using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational Software

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi

Abstract:

Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat from one fluid to another via convection and conduction. The need for effective heat transfer has made their presence vital in hundreds of industries including petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, fertiliser plants and pharmaceutical companies. Fouling has been one of the major problems hindering efficient transfer of thermal energy in heat exchangers. Several design changes have been coined for fighting fouling. A recent development involves using helical baffles in place of conventional segmented baffles in shell and tube heat exchangers. The aim of this paper is to understand the advantages of helical baffle exchangers, how they aid in fouling mitigation and its corresponding limitations. A comparative analysis was conducted between a helical baffle heat exchanger and a conventional segmented baffle heat exchanger using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational software and conclusions were drawn to study how the heat transfer process differs in the two cases.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Heat Exchangers, fouling mitigation, helical baffles

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
411 A Legal Opinion on Mitigation and Adaptation on Air Pollution Strategies for Local Governments in South Africa

Authors: C. M. van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the foundation and evolution of environmental related problems in local governments with specific reference on air pollution in South Africa. Local government has a direct mandate in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereafter, the Constitution). This mandate to protect, fulfil, respect and promote the Bill of Rights by local governments in respect of the powers and functions creates confusion around the role of where a local government fits in, in addressing the problem of climate change in South Africa. A reflection of the evolving legislations, developments, and processes regarding climate change that shaped local government dispensation in South Africa is addressed by the notion of developmental local governments. This paper seeks to examine the advances for mitigation and adaptation regulation of air pollution and application in South Africa. This study involves a qualitative approach that will involve South African national legislation as well as an interpretation of international strategies. A literature review study was conducted to undertake the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands, as well as the relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act. It then proceeds to outline the responsibilities of local governments in South Africa to mitigate and adapt to air pollution strategies.

Keywords: Climate Change, Disaster, Adaptation, local governments and mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
410 Climate Change: A Critical Analysis on the Relationship between Science and Policy

Authors: Paraskevi Liosatou

Abstract:

Climate change is considered to be of global concern being amplified by the fact that by its nature, cannot be spatially limited. This fact makes necessary the intergovernmental decision-making procedures. In the intergovernmental level, the institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change develop efforts, methods, and practices in order to plan and suggest climate mitigation and adaptation measures. These measures are based on specific scientific findings and methods making clear the strong connection between science and policy. In particular, these scientific recommendations offer a series of practices, methods, and choices mitigating the problem by aiming at the indirect mitigation of the causes and the factors amplifying climate change. Moreover, modern production and economic context do not take into consideration the social, political, environmental and spatial dimensions of the problem. This work studies the decision-making process working in international and European level. In this context, this work considers the policy tools that have been implemented by various intergovernmental organizations. The methodology followed is based mainly on the critical study of standards and process concerning the connections and cooperation between science and policy as well as considering the skeptic debates developed. The finding of this work focuses on the links between science and policy developed by the institutional and scientific mechanisms concerning climate change mitigation. It also analyses the dimensions and the factors of the science-policy framework; in this way, it points out the causes that maintain skepticism in current scientific circles.

Keywords: Climate Change, Skepticism, Climate Change Mitigation, IPCC, climate change skepticism

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
409 Release of Legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mitigating Their Effects in Downstream Communities

Authors: Kimberley Rain Miner, Karl Kreutz, Larry LeBlanc

Abstract:

During the period of 1950-1970 persistent organic pollutants such as DDT, dioxin and PCB were released in the atmosphere and distributed through precipitation into glaciers throughout the world. Recent abrupt climate change is increasing the melt rate of these glaciers, introducing the toxins to the watershed. Studies have shown the existence of legacy pollutants in glacial ice, but neither the impact nor quantity of these toxins on downstream populations has been assessed. If these pollutants are released at toxic levels it will be necessary to create a mitigation plan to lower their impact on the affected communities.

Keywords: Climate Change, Risk management, Mitigation, Adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
408 Identifying Mitigation Plans in Reducing Usability Risk Using Delphi Method

Authors: Suhaimi Bin Ibrahim, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin, Jayaletchumi T. Sambantha Moorthy

Abstract:

Most quality models have defined usability as a significant factor that leads to improving product acceptability, increasing user satisfaction, improving product reliability, and also financially benefiting companies. Usability is also the best factor that acts as a balance for both the technical and human aspects of a software product, which is an important aspect in defining quality during software development process. A usability risk can be defined as a potential usability risk factor that a chosen action or activity may lead to a possible loss or an undesirable outcome. This could impact the usability of a software product thereby contributing to negative user experiences and causing a possible software product failure. Hence, it is important to mitigate and reduce usability risks in the software development process itself. By managing possible involved usability risks in software development process, failure of software product could be reduced. Therefore, this research uses the Delphi method to identify mitigation plans to reduce potential usability risks. The Delphi method is conducted with seven experts from the field of risk management and software development.

Keywords: Risk management, Usability, risk mitigation, usability risk, delphi study

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
407 Homelessness and Disaster Mitigation: An Exploratory Study into How Casualties Can Be Reduced with the Homeless

Authors: Blythe Maltby

Abstract:

Homeless populations are one of the sections of society most vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters. Channels of communication to these populations are limited as they lack access to mainstream modes of emergency notification, often being the last to know about state emergencies. This study aims to answer if there is a way that cities and policies be designed to help reduce casualty rates to the homeless during state emergencies, such as earthquake and tsunami preparations. The study used a qualitative research approach, namely by speaking to levels of government, homelessness charities and workers and others about preparations and their experiences with the response of state emergencies. The proposed paper may help countries identify the gaps in their preparations to help facilitate better resources to look after these vulnerable populations.

Keywords: Accessibility, disaster mitigation, Homeless, Vancouver

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
406 Roles of Aquatic Plants on Erosion Relief of Stream Bed

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim

Abstract:

Roles of the vegetation to mitigate the erosion of the stream bed or to facilitate the deposition of the fine sediments by the species of the aquatic plants were presented. Field investigation on the estimation of the change of the bed level and the estimation of the flow characteristics were performed. The results showed that Phragmites japonica has the mitigation function of 0.3m-0.4m of the erosion in the range of higher than 1.0m/s of flow velocity at the vegetated region. Phragmites communis has the mitigation function of 0.2m-0.3m of the erosion in the range of higher than 0.7m/s of flow velocity at the vegetated region. Salix gracilistyla has greater role than Phragmites japonica and Phragmites communis to sustain the stable channel. It has the mitigation function of 0.4m-0.5m of the erosion in the range of higher than 1.4m/s of flow velocity. Miscanthus sacchariflorus has a weak role compared with that of Phragmites japonica and Salix gracilistyla, but it has still function for sustaining the stable bed. From these results, the vegetation has effective roles to mitigate the erosion or to facilitate the deposition of the stream bed.

Keywords: Aquatic Plants, Phragmites japonica, Phragmites communis, Salix gracilistyla

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
405 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis for Radon Dispersion Study and Mitigation

Authors: A. K. Visnuprasad, P. J. Jojo, Reshma Bhaskaran

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the distribution of indoor radon concentration in a living room with elevated levels of radon concentration which varies from 22 Bqm-3 to 1533 Bqm-3 in 24 hours. Finite volume method (FVM) was used for the simulation. The simulation results were experimentally validated at 16 points in two horizontal planes (y=1.4m & y=2.0m) using pin-hole dosimeters and at 3 points using scintillation radon monitor (SRM). Passive measurement using pin-hole dosimeters were performed in all seasons. Another simulation was done to find a suitable position for a passive ventilation system for the effective mitigation of radon.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, indoor radon, radon flux, ventilation rate, pin-hole dosimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
404 Chairussyuhur Arman, Totti Tjiptosumirat, Muhammad Gunawan, Mastur, Joko Priyono, Baiq Tri Ratna Erawati

Authors: Maria M. Giannakou, Athanasios K. Ziliaskopoulos

Abstract:

Transmission pipelines carrying natural gas are often routed through populated cities, industrial and environmentally sensitive areas. While the need for these networks is unquestionable, there are serious concerns about the risk these lifeline networks pose to the people, to their habitat and to the critical infrastructures, especially in view of natural disasters such as earthquakes. This work presents an Integrated Pipeline Risk Management methodology (IPRM) for assessing the hazard associated with a natural gas pipeline failure due to natural or manmade disasters. IPRM aims to optimize the allocation of the available resources to countermeasures in order to minimize the impacts of pipeline failure to humans, the environment, the infrastructure and the economic activity. A proposed knapsack mathematical programming formulation is introduced that optimally selects the proper mitigation policies based on the estimated cost – benefit ratios. The proposed model is demonstrated with a small numerical example. The vulnerability analysis of these pipelines and the quantification of consequences from such failures can be useful for natural gas industries on deciding which mitigation measures to implement on the existing pipeline networks with the minimum cost in an acceptable level of hazard.

Keywords: Risk management, Cost Benefit Analysis, risk mitigation, knapsack problem, natural gas distribution network

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
403 The Mitigation Strategy Analysis of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool Using MELCOR2.1/SNAP

Authors: J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. Chiang, S. W. Chen, Y. S. Tseng, J. H. Yang

Abstract:

Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 plant in Taiwan. There is more concern for the safety of Spent Fuel Pools (SFPs) in Taiwan after Fukushima event. In order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP SFP, by using MELCOR2.1 and SNAP, the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP SFP was performed combined with the mitigation strategy of NEI 06-12 report. There were several steps in this research. First, the Kuosheng NPP SFP models were established by MELCOR2.1/SNAP. Second, the Station Blackout (SBO) analysis of Kuosheng SFP was done by TRACE and MELCOR under the cooling system failure condition. The results showed that the calculations of MELCOR and TRACE were very similar in this case. Second, the mitigation strategy analysis was done with the MELCOR model by following the NEI 06-12 report. The results showed the effectiveness of NEI 06-12 strategy in Kuosheng NPP SFP. Finally, a sensitivity study of SFP quenching was done to check the differences of different water injection time and the phenomena during the quenching. The results showed that if the cladding temperature was over 1600 K, the water injection may have chance to cause the accident more severe with more hydrogen generation. It was because of the oxidation heat and the “Breakaway” effect of the zirconium-water reaction. An animation model built by SNAP was also shown in this study.

Keywords: quenching, spent fuel pool, SNAP, MELCOR

Procedia PDF Downloads 209