Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 922

Search results for: petroleum crude oil

922 Efficient of Technology Remediation Soil That Contaminated by Petroleum Based on Heat without Combustion

Authors: Gavin Hutama Farandiarta, Hegi Adi Prabowo, Istiara Rizqillah Hanifah, Millati Hanifah Saprudin, Raden Iqrafia Ashna


The increase of the petroleum’s consumption rate encourages industries to optimize and increase the activity in processing crude oil into petroleum. However, although the result gives a lot of benefits to humans worldwide, it also gives negative impact to the environment. One of the negative impacts of processing crude oil is the soil will be contaminated by petroleum sewage sludge. This petroleum sewage sludge, contains hydrocarbon compound and it can be calculated by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH).Petroleum sludge waste is accounted as hazardous and toxic. The soil contamination caused by the petroleum sludge is very hard to get rid of. However, there is a way to manage the soil that is contaminated by petroleum sludge, which is by using heat (thermal desorption) in the process of remediation. There are several factors that affect the success rate of the remediation with the help of heat which are temperature, time, and air pressure in the desorption column. The remediation process using the help of heat is an alternative in soil recovery from the petroleum pollution which highly effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly that produces uncontaminated soil and the petroleum that can be used again.

Keywords: petroleum sewage sludge, remediation soil, thermal desorption, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

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921 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz


The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

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920 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka


Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon contamination, bioremediation, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid

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919 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali


The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
918 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: removal, metal, heavy oil, nickel, vanadium

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917 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu


The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metals

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916 Blending Effects on Crude Oil Stability: An Experimental Study

Authors: Muheddin Hamza, Entisar Etter


This study is a part of investigating the possibility of blending two crude oils obtained from Libyan oil fields, namely crude oil (A) and crude oil (B) with different ratios, prior to blending the crude oils have to be compatible in order to avoid phase out and precipitation of asphaltene from the bulk of crude. The physical properties of both crudes such as density, viscosity, pour point and sulphur content were measured according to (ASTM) method. To examine the stability of both crudes and their blends, the oil compatibility model using microscopic, colloidal instability index (CII) using SARA analysis and asphaltene stabilization test using Turbiscan tests were conducted in the Libyan Petroleum Institute laboratories. Compatibility tests were carried out with both crude oils, the insolubility number (IN), and the solubility blending number (SBN), for both crude oils and their blends were calculated. The criteria for compatibility of any blend is that the volume average solubility blending number (SBN) is greater than the insolubility number (IN) of any component in the blend, the results indicated that both crudes were compatible. To support the results of compatibility tests the SARA analysis was done for the fractional determination of (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) content. From this result, the colloidal Instability index (CII) and resin to asphaltenes ratio (R/A) were calculated for crudes and their blends. The results show that crude oil (B) which has higher (R/A) and lower (CII) is more stable than crude oil (A) and as the ratio of crude (B) increases in the blend the (CII) and (R/A) were improved, and the blends becomes more stable. Asphaltene stabilization test was also conducted for the crudes and their blends using Turbiscan MA200 according to the standard test method ASTM D7061-04, the Turbiscan shows that the crude (B) is more stable than crude (A) which shows a fair tendency. The (CII) and (R/A) were compared with the solubility number (SBN) for each crude and the blends along with Turbiscan results. The solubility blending number (SBN) of the crudes and their blends show that the crudes are compatible, also by comparing (R/A) and (SBN) values of the blends, it can be seen that they are complements of each other. All the experimental results show that the blends of both crudes are more stability.

Keywords: asphaltene, crude oil, compatibility, oil blends, resin, SARA

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915 The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries

Authors: Chinwendu R. Nnabalu, Gioia Falcone, Imma Bortone


Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which the raw material (crude oil) is converted to finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries, requiring optimised processes in the context of engineering design. Following the first stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 per cent quantity is attainable in the gasoline pool with further conversion of the downgraded product of crude oil (residue from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. Effective removal of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires greater separation efficiency and involves an enormous environmental significance. The FCC unit is primarily a reactor and regeneration system which employs cyclone systems for separation.  Catalyst losses in FCC cyclones lead to high particulate matter emission on the regenerator side and fines carryover into the product on the reactor side. This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of FCC unit design criteria in terms of technical performance and compliance with environmental legislation. A systematic review of state-of-the-art FCC technology was carried out, identifying its key technical challenges and sources of emissions.  Case studies of petroleum refineries in Nigeria were assessed against selected global case studies. The review highlights the need for further modelling investigations to help improve FCC design to more effectively meet product specification requirements while complying with stricter environmental legislation.

Keywords: design, emission, fluid catalytic cracking, petroleum refineries

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914 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira


True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

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913 Investments in Petroleum Industry Abnormally Normal: A Case Study Based on Petroleum and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Radhika Ramanchi


The oil market during 2014-2015 in India with large price fluctuations is very confusing to individual investor. The drop in oil prices supported stocks of some oil marketing companies (OMCs) like Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and Indian Oil Corporation etc their shares rose 84.74%, 128.63% and 59.16%, respectively. Lower oil prices, and lower current account, a smaller subsidy burden are the reasons for outperformance. On the other hand, lower crude prices giving downward pressure on upstream companies like Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd (ONGC) and Reliance Petroleum (RIL) Oil India Ltd (OIL). Not having clarity on a subsidy sharing mechanism is the reason for downward trend on these stocks. Shares of ONGC and RIL have underperformed so far in 2015. When the oil price fall profits of the companies will effect, generate less money and may cut their dividends in Long run. In this situation this paper objective is to study investment strategies in oil marketing companies, by applying CAPM and Security Market Line.

Keywords: petrol industry, price fluctuations, sharp single index model, SML, Markowitz model

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912 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae

Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar


The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.

Keywords: algae, crude oil, green algae, Cyanobacteria

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911 Human Health Risk Assessment from Metals Present in a Soil Contaminated by Crude Oil

Authors: M. A. Stoian, D. M. Cocarta, A. Badea


The main sources of soil pollution due to petroleum contaminants are industrial processes involve crude oil. Soil polluted with crude oil is toxic for plants, animals, and humans. Human exposure to the contaminated soil occurs through different exposure pathways: Soil ingestion, diet, inhalation, and dermal contact. The present study research is focused on soil contamination with heavy metals as a consequence of soil pollution with petroleum products. Human exposure pathways considered are: Accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil and dermal contact. The purpose of the paper is to identify the human health risk (carcinogenic risk) from soil contaminated with heavy metals. The human exposure and risk were evaluated for five contaminants of concern of the eleven which were identified in soil. Two soil samples were collected from a bioremediation platform from Muntenia Region of Romania. The soil deposited on the bioremediation platform was contaminated through extraction and oil processing. For the research work, two average soil samples from two different plots were analyzed: The first one was slightly contaminated with petroleum products (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil was 1420 mg/kgd.w.), while the second one was highly contaminated (TPH in soil was 24306 mg/kgd.w.). In order to evaluate risks posed by heavy metals due soil pollution with petroleum products, five metals known as carcinogenic were investigated: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), ChromiumVI (CrVI), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb). Results of the chemical analysis performed on samples collected from the contaminated soil evidence soil contamination with heavy metals as following: As in Site 1 = 6.96 mg/kgd.w; As in Site 2 = 11.62 mg/kgd.w, Cd in Site 1 = 0.9 mg/kgd.w; Cd in Site 2 = 1 mg/kgd.w; CrVI was 0.1 mg/kgd.w for both sites; Ni in Site 1 = 37.00 mg/kgd.w; Ni in Site 2 = 42.46 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 1 = 34.67 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 2 = 120.44 mg/kgd.w. The concentrations for these metals exceed the normal values established in the Romanian regulation, but are smaller than the alert level for a less sensitive use of soil (industrial). Although, the concentrations do not exceed the thresholds, the next step was to assess the human health risk posed by soil contamination with these heavy metals. Results for risk were compared with the acceptable one (10-6, according to World Human Organization). As, expected, the highest risk was identified for the soil with a higher degree of contamination: Individual Risk (IR) was 1.11×10-5 compared with 8.61×10-6

Keywords: carcinogenic risk, heavy metals, human health risk assessment, soil pollution

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910 Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty of Gırardınıa Heterophılla

Authors: P. S. BEDI* , Neavty Thakur, Balvınder Sıngh


In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3, NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria eg. Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria eg. E. coli, K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant posseses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, Antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.

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909 Surface Modified Electrospun Expanded Polystyrene Fibre with Superhydrophobic/Superoleophillic Properties as Potential Oil Membrane

Authors: S. Oluwagbemiga Alayande, E. Olugbenga Dare, Titus A. M. Msagati, A. Kehinde Akinlabi , P. O. Aiyedun


This paper presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential oil membrane with superhydrophobic /superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In these study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water and crude oil. The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

Keywords: expanded polystyrene, superhydrophobic, superoleophillic, oil-membrane

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908 Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy in Environmental Control

Authors: Subir Kundu, Sukhendra Singh, Sumedha Ojha, Kanika Kundu


The continuous decline of petroleum and natural gas reserves and non linear rise of oil price has brought about a realisation of the need for a change in our perpetual dependence on the fossil fuel. A day to day increased consumption of crude and petroleum products has made a considerable impact on our foreign exchange reserves. Hence, an alternate resource for the conversion of energy (both liquid and gas) is essential for the substitution of conventional fuels. Biomass is the alternate solution for the present scenario. Biomass can be converted into both liquid as well as gaseous fuels and other feedstocks for the industries.

Keywords: bioenergy, biomass conversion, biorefining, efficient utilisation of night soil

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907 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina

Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan


A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.

Keywords: Avicennia marina, morphology, oil contamination, protein content

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906 Removal of Nickel and Vanadium from Crude Oil by Using Solvent Extraction and Electrochemical Process

Authors: Aliya Kurbanova, Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Yerzhigit Sugurbekov, Ramiz Zulkharnay, Gulzat Demeuova, Murat Baisariyev, Gulnar Sugurbekova


Last decades crude oils have tended to become more challenge to process due to increasing amounts of sour and heavy crude oils. Some crude oils contain high vanadium and nickel content, for example Pavlodar LLP crude oil, which contains more than 23.09 g/t nickel and 58.59 g/t vanadium. In this study, we used two types of metal removing methods such as solvent extraction and electrochemical. The present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Applying the cyclic voltametric analysis (CVA) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for nickel and 51.2% for vanadium content from crude oil. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits into the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V.

Keywords: demetallization, deasphalting, electrochemical removal, heavy metals, petroleum engineering, solvent extraction

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905 Physicochemical Characterization of Asphalt Ridge Froth Bitumen

Authors: Nader Nciri, Suil Song, Namho Kim, Namjun Cho


Properties and compositions of bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids have significant influences on the selection of recovery, upgrading and refining processes. Optimal process conditions can often be directly related to these properties. The end uses of bitumen and bitumen products are thus related to their compositions. Because it is not possible to conduct a complete analysis of the molecular structure of bitumen, characterization must be made in other terms. The present paper focuses on physico-chemical analysis of two different types of bitumens. These bitumen samples were chosen based on: the original crude oil (sand oil and crude petroleum), and mode of process. The aim of this study is to determine both the manufacturing effect on chemical species and the chemical organization as a function of the type of bitumen sample. In order to obtain information on bitumen chemistry, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S, and O), heavy metal (Ni, V) concentrations, IATROSCAN chromatography (thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection), FTIR spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy have all been used. The characterization includes information about the major compound types (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) which can be compared with similar data for other bitumens, more importantly, can be correlated with data from petroleum samples for which refining characteristics are known. Examination of Asphalt Ridge froth bitumen showed that it differed significantly from representative petroleum pitches, principally in their nonhydrocarbon content, heavy metal content and aromatic compounds. When possible, properties and composition were related to recovery and refining processes. This information is important because of the effects that composition has on recovery and processing reactions.

Keywords: froth bitumen, oil sand, asphalt ridge, petroleum pitch, thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection, infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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904 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh


Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity

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903 Process Optimization for Albanian Crude Oil Characterization

Authors: Xhaklina Cani, Ilirjan Malollari, Ismet Beqiraj, Lorina Lici


Oil characterization is an essential step in the design, simulation, and optimization of refining facilities. To achieve optimal crude selection and processing decisions, a refiner must have exact information refer to crude oil quality. This includes crude oil TBP-curve as the main data for correct operation of refinery crude oil atmospheric distillation plants. Crude oil is typically characterized based on a distillation assay. This procedure is reasonably well-defined and is based on the representation of the mixture of actual components that boil within a boiling point interval by hypothetical components that boil at the average boiling temperature of the interval. The crude oil assay typically includes TBP distillation according to ASTM D-2892, which can characterize this part of oil that boils up to 400 C atmospheric equivalent boiling point. To model the yield curves obtained by physical distillation is necessary to compare the differences between the modelling and the experimental data. Most commercial use a different number of components and pseudo-components to represent crude oil. Laboratory tests include distillations, vapor pressures, flash points, pour points, cetane numbers, octane numbers, densities, and viscosities. The aim of the study is the drawing of true boiling curves for different crude oil resources in Albania and to compare the differences between the modeling and the experimental data for optimal characterization of crude oil.

Keywords: TBP distillation curves, crude oil, optimization, simulation

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902 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion

Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas


The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.

Keywords: demulsifier, emulsion, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)

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901 Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soil Incorporated into E. coli DH5α Host

Authors: C. S. Jeba Samuel


Soil, especially from oil field has posed a great hazard for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The traditional treatment of oil contaminated soil cannot degrade the crude oil completely. So far, biodegradation proves to be an efficient method. During biodegradation, crude oil is used as the carbon source and addition of nitrogenous compounds increases the microbial growth, resulting in the effective breakdown of crude oil components to low molecular weight components. The present study was carried out to evaluate the biodegradation of crude oil by hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from natural environment like oil contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an oil degrading microorganism also called as hydrocarbon utilizing microorganism (or “HUM” bug) can utilize crude oil as sole carbon source. In this study, the biodegradation of crude oil was conducted with modified mineral basal salt medium and nitrogen sources so as to increase the degradation. The efficacy of the plasmid from the isolated strain was incorporated into E.coli DH5 α host to speed up the degradation of oil. The usage of molecular techniques has increased oil degradation which was confirmed by the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic rings of hydrocarbons and was inferred by the lesser number of peaks in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The gas chromatogram again confirms better degradation by transformed cells by the lesser number of components obtained in the oil treated with transformed cells. This study demonstrated the technical feasibility of using direct inoculation of transformed cells onto the oil contaminated region thereby leading to the achievement of better oil degradation in a shorter time than the degradation caused by the wild strain.

Keywords: biodegradation, aromatic rings, plasmid, hydrocarbon, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

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900 Demulsification of Oil from Produced water Using Fibrous Coalescer

Authors: Nutcha Thianbut


In the petroleum drilling industry, besides oil and gas, water is also produced from petroleum production. which will have oil droplets dispersed in the water as an emulsion. Commonly referred to as produced water, most industrial water-based produced water methods use the method of pumping water back into wells or catchment areas. because it cannot be utilized further, but in the compression of water each time, the cost is quite high. And the survey found that the amount of water from the petroleum production process has increased every year. In this research, we would like to study the removal of oil in produced water by the Coalescer device using fibers from agricultural waste as an intermediary. As an alternative to reduce the cost of water management in the petroleum drilling industry. The objectives of this research are 1. To study the fiber pretreatment by chemical process for the efficiency of oil-water separation 2. To study and design the fiber-packed coalescer device to destroy the emulsion of crude oil in water. 3. To study the working conditions of coalescer devices in emulsion destruction. using a fiber medium. In this research, the experiment was divided into two parts. The first part will study the absorbency of fibers. It compares untreated fibers with chemically treated alkaline fibers that change over time as well as adjusting the amount of fiber on the absorbency of the fiber and the second part will study the separation of oil from produced water by Coalescer equipment using fiber as medium to study the optimum condition of coalescer equipment for further development and industrial application.

Keywords: produced water, fiber, surface modification, coalescer

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899 Phytochemical and Proximate Composition Analysis of Aspillia kotschyi

Authors: A. U. Adamu, E. D Paul, C. E. Gimba, I. G. Ndukwe


The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum sprit extract of the plant. The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glyscosides, flavonoids, triterpene, and alkaloids. The Petroleum sprit extract showed the presence of only carbohydrates and alkaloid. Proximate composition analysis shows moisture content of 5.7%, total ash of 4.03%, crude protein 10.94%, fibre 9.06%, fat value 0.83%, and nitrogen free extract of 70.19%. The results of this study suggest some merit in the popular use of Aspillia kotschi in herbal medicine.

Keywords: Aspillia kotschyi, herbal medicine, phytochemical, proximate composition

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898 Calculating Asphaltenes Precipitation Onset Pressure by Using Cardanol as Precipitation Inhibitor: A Strategy to Increment the Oil Well Production

Authors: Camilo A. Guerrero-Martin, Erik Montes Paez, Marcia C. K. Oliveira, Jonathan Campos, Elizabete F. Lucas


Asphaltenes precipitation is considered as a formation damage problem, which can reduce the oil recovery factor. It fouls piping and surface installations, as well as cause serious flow assurance complications and decline oil well production. Therefore, researchers have shown an interest in chemical treatments to control this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to assess the asphaltenes precipitation onset of crude oils in the presence of cardanol, by titrating the crude with n-heptane. Moreover, based on this results obtained at atmosphere pressure, the asphaltenes precipitation onset pressure were calculated to predict asphaltenes precipitation in the reservoir, by using differential liberation and refractive index data of the oils. The influence of cardanol concentrations in the asphaltenes stabilization of three Brazilian crude oils samples (with similar API densities) was studied. Therefore, four formulations of cardanol in toluene were prepared: 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 m/m%. The formulations were added to the crude at 2:98 ratio. The petroleum samples were characterized by API density, elemental analysis and differential liberation test. The asphaltenes precipitation onset (APO) was determined by titrating with n-heptane and monitoring with near-infrared (NIR). UV-Vis spectroscopy experiments were also done to assess the precipitate asphaltenes content. The asphaltenes precipitation envelopes (APE) were also determined by numerical simulation (Multiflash). In addition, the adequate artificial lift systems (ALS) for the oils were selected. It was based on the downhole well profile and a screening methodology. Finally, the oil flowrates were modelling by NODAL analysis production system in the PIPESIM software. The results of this study show that the asphaltenes precipitation onset of the crude oils were 2.2, 2.3 and 6.0 mL of n-heptane/g of oil. The cardanol was an effective inhibitor of asphaltenes precipitation for the crude oils used in this study, since it displaces the precipitation pressure of the oil to lower values. This indicates that cardanol can increase the oil wells productivity.

Keywords: asphaltenes, NODAL analysis production system, precipitation pressure onset, inhibitory molecule

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897 Investigations of the Crude Oil Distillation Preheat Section in Unit 100 of Abadan Refinery and Its Recommendation

Authors: Mahdi GoharRokhi, Mohammad H. Ruhipour, Mohammad R. ZamaniZadeh, Mohsen Maleki, Yusef Shamsayi, Mahdi FarhaniNejad, Farzad FarrokhZadeh


Possessing massive resources of natural gas and petroleum, Iran has a special place among all other oil producing countries, according to international institutions of energy. In order to use these resources, development and functioning optimization of refineries and industrial units is mandatory. Heat exchanger is one of the most important and strategic equipment which its key role in the process of production is clear to everyone. For instance, if the temperature of a processing fluid is not set as needed by heat exchangers, the specifications of desired product can change profoundly. Crude oil enters a network of heat exchangers in atmospheric distillation section before getting into the distillation tower; in this case, well-functioning of heat exchangers can significantly affect the operation of distillation tower. In this paper, different scenarios for pre-heating of oil are studied using oil and gas simulation software, and the results are discussed. As we reviewed various scenarios, adding a heat exchanger to pre-heating network is proposed as the most efficient factor in improving all governing parameters of the tower i.e. temperature, pressure, and reflux rate. This exchanger is embedded in crude oil’s path. Crude oil enters the exchanger after E-101 and exchanges heat with discharging kerosene pump around from E-136. As depicted in the results, it will efficiently assist the improvement of process operation and side expenses.

Keywords: atmospheric distillation unit, heat exchanger, preheat, simulation

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896 The Effects of Water Fraction and Salinity on Crude Oil-Water Dispersions

Authors: Ramin Dabirian, Yi Zhang, Ilias Gavrielatos, Ram Mohan, Ovadia Shoham


Oil-water emulsions can be found in almost every part of the petroleum industry, namely in reservoir rocks, drilling cuttings circulation, production in wells, transportation pipelines, surface facilities and refining process. However, it is necessary for oil production and refinery engineers to resolve the petroleum emulsion problems as well as to eliminate the contaminants in order to meet environmental standards, achieve the desired product quality and to improve equipment reliability and efficiency. A state-of-art Dispersion Characterization Rig (DCR) has been utilized to investigate crude oil-distilled water dispersion separation. Over 80 experimental tests were ran to investigate the flow behavior and stability of the dispersions. The experimental conditions include the effects of water cuts (25%, 50% and 75%), NaCl concentrations (0, 3.5% and 18%), mixture flow velocities (0.89 and 1.71 ft/s), and also orifice place types on the separation rate. The experimental data demonstrate that the water cut can significantly affects the separation time and efficiency. The dispersion with lower water cut takes longer time to separate and have low separation efficiency. The medium and lower water cuts will result in the formation of Mousse emulsion and the phase inversion happens around the medium water cut. The data also confirm that increasing the NaCl concentration in aqueous phase can increase the crude oil water dispersion separation efficiency especially at higher salinities. The separation profile for dispersions with lower salt concentrations has a lower sedimentation rate slope before the inflection point. Dispersions in all tests with higher salt concentrations have a larger sedimenting rate. The presence of NaCl can influence the interfacial tension gradients along the interface and it plays a role in avoiding the Mousse emulsion formation.

Keywords: oil-water dispersion, separation mechanism, phase inversion, emulsion formation

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895 The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption and GDP for Israel: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010

Authors: Jinhoa Lee


The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of CO2 emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, electricity), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Israel using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Phillips–Perron (PP) test for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests significant positive impacts of coal and natural gas consumptions on GDP in Israel. In the short run, GDP positively affects coal consumption. While there exists a positive unidirectional causality running from coal consumption to consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil, there exists a negative unidirectional causality running from natural gas consumption to consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil in the short run. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use and economic output but the associations can to be differed by the sources of energy in the case of Israel over of period 1980-2010.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Israel, time series analysis

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894 Oil Logistics for Refining to Northern Europe

Authors: Vladimir Klepikov


To develop the programs to supply crude oil to North European refineries, it is necessary to take into account the refineries’ location, crude refining capacity, and the transport infrastructure capacity. Among the countries of the region, we include those having a marine boundary along the Northern Sea and the Baltic Sea (from France in the west to Finland in the east). The paper envisages the geographic allocation of the refineries and contains the evaluation of the refineries’ capacities for the region under review. The sustainable operations of refineries in the region are determined by the transportation system capacity to supply crude oil to them. The assessment of capacity of crude oil transportation to the refineries is conducted. The research is performed for the period of 2005/2015, using the quantitative analysis method. The countries are classified by the refineries’ aggregate capacities and the crude oil output on their territory. The crude oil output capacities in the region in the period under review are determined. The capacities of the region’s transportation system to supply crude oil produced in the region to the refineries are revealed. The analysis suggested that imported raw materials are the main source of oil for the refineries in the region. The main sources of crude oil supplies to North European refineries are reviewed. The change in the refineries’ capacities in the group of countries and each particular country, as well as the utilization of the refineries' capacities in the region in the period under review, was studied. The input suggests that the bulk of crude oil is supplied by marine and pipeline transport. The paper contains the assessment of the crude oil transportation by pipeline transport in the overall crude oil cargo flow. The refineries’ production rate for the groups of countries under the review and for each particular country was the subject of study. Our study yielded the trend towards the increase in the crude oil refining at the refineries of the region and reduction in the crude oil output. If this trend persists in the near future, the cargo flow of imported crude oil and the utilization of the North European logistics infrastructure may increase. According to the study, the existing transport infrastructure in the region is able to handle the increasing imported crude oil flow.

Keywords: European region, infrastructure, oil terminal capacity, pipeline capacity, tanker draft

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893 Delineation of Oil – Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria, Using Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John


Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the highest crude oil & condensate producer in Nigeria has its operational base and an oil terminal, the Qua Iboe terminal (QIT) located at Ibeno, Nigeria. Other oil companies like Network Exploration and Production Nigeria Ltd, Frontier Oil Ltd; Shell Petroleum Development Company Ltd; Elf Petroleum Nigeria Ltd and Nigerian Agip Energy, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI E&P operate onshore, on the continental shelf and in deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean, respectively with the coastal waters of Ibeno, Nigeria as the nearest shoreline. This study was designed to delineate the oil-polluted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria using microbiological and physico-chemical characterization of soils, sediments and ground and surface water samples from the study area. Results obtained revealed that there have been significant recent hydrocarbon inputs into this environment as observed from the high counts of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms in excess of 1% at all the stations sampled. Moreover, high concentrations of THC, BTEX and heavy metals contents in all the samples analyzed corroborate the high recent crude oil input into the study area. The results also showed that the pollution of the different environmental media sampled were of varying degrees, following the trend: Ground water > surface water > sediments > soils.

Keywords: microbiological characterization, oil-polluted sites, physico-chemical analyses, total hydrocarbon content

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