Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9808

Search results for: produced water

9808 Innovative Method for Treating Oil-Produced Water with Low Operating Cost

Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit, Ahmed Al-Haji, Saleh Al-Haddad, Abbas Al-Mesri, Mansour Al-Rugeeb

Abstract:

The high salinity of oil-produced water and its complicated chemical composition, makes designing a suitable treatment system for oil-produced water is extremely difficult and costly. On the current study, a new innovative method was proposed to treat the complicated oil-produced water through a simple mixing with brine stream produced from waste water treatment plant. The proposal will investigate the scaling potential of oil-produce water, seawater and the selected brine water (BW) produced from Sulaibiya waste water treatment and reclamation plant (SWWTRP) before and after the mixing with oil-produced water, and will calculate the scaling potential of all expected precipitated salts using different conversion and different % of mixing to optimize the % of mixing between the oil-produced water and the selected stream. The result shows a great, feasible and economic solution to treat oil produced with a very low capital cost.

Keywords: brine water, oil-produced water, scaling potential, Sulaibiyah waste water and reclaminatin plant

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9807 Investigation of Correlation Between Radon Concentration and Metals in Produced Water from Oilfield Activities

Authors: Nacer Hamza

Abstract:

Naturally radiation exposure that present due to the cosmic ray or the naturel occurring radioactives materials(NORMs) that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment(1) , a significant concentration of NORMs reported in the produced water which comes out during the oil extraction process, so that the management of this produced water is a challenge for oil and gas companies which include either minimization of produced water which considered as the best way in the term of environment based in the fact that ,the lower water produced the lower cost in treating this water , recycling and reuse by reinjected produced water that fulfills some requirements to enhance oil recovery or disposal in the case that the produced water cannot be minimize or reuse. In the purpose of produced water management, the investigation of NORMs activity concentration present in it considered as the main step for more understanding of the radionuclide’s distribution. Many studies reported the present of NORMs in produced water and investigated the correlation between 〖Ra〗^226and the different metals present in produced water(2) including Cations and anions〖Na〗^+,〖Cl〗^-, 〖Fe〗^(2+), 〖Ca〗^(2+) . and lead, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and copper commonly exist as heavy metal in oil and gas field produced water(3). However, there are no real interesting to investigate the correlation between 〖Rn〗^222and the different metals exist in produced water. methods using, in first to measure the radon concentration activity in produced water samples is a RAD7 .RAD7 is a radiometer instrument based on the solid state detectors(4) which is a type of semi-conductor detector for alpha particles emitting from Rn and their progenies, in second the concentration of different metals presents in produced water measure using an atomic absorption spectrometry AAS. Then to investigate the correlation between the 〖Rn〗^222concentration activity and the metals concentration in produced water a statistical method is Pearson correlation analysis which based in the correlation coefficient obtained between the 〖Rn〗^222 and metals. Such investigation is important to more understanding how the radionuclides act in produced water based on this correlation with metals , in first due to the fact that 〖Rn〗^222decays through the sequence 〖Po〗^218, 〖Pb〗^214, 〖Bi〗^214, 〖Po〗^214, and〖Pb〗^210, those daughters are metals thus they will precipitate with metals present in produced water, secondly the short half-life of 〖Rn〗^222 (3.82 days) lead to faster precipitation of its progenies with metals in produced water.

Keywords: norms, radon concentration, produced water, heavy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
9806 Demulsification of Oil from Produced water Using Fibrous Coalescer

Authors: Nutcha Thianbut

Abstract:

In the petroleum drilling industry, besides oil and gas, water is also produced from petroleum production. which will have oil droplets dispersed in the water as an emulsion. Commonly referred to as produced water, most industrial water-based produced water methods use the method of pumping water back into wells or catchment areas. because it cannot be utilized further, but in the compression of water each time, the cost is quite high. And the survey found that the amount of water from the petroleum production process has increased every year. In this research, we would like to study the removal of oil in produced water by the Coalescer device using fibers from agricultural waste as an intermediary. As an alternative to reduce the cost of water management in the petroleum drilling industry. The objectives of this research are 1. To study the fiber pretreatment by chemical process for the efficiency of oil-water separation 2. To study and design the fiber-packed coalescer device to destroy the emulsion of crude oil in water. 3. To study the working conditions of coalescer devices in emulsion destruction. using a fiber medium. In this research, the experiment was divided into two parts. The first part will study the absorbency of fibers. It compares untreated fibers with chemically treated alkaline fibers that change over time as well as adjusting the amount of fiber on the absorbency of the fiber and the second part will study the separation of oil from produced water by Coalescer equipment using fiber as medium to study the optimum condition of coalescer equipment for further development and industrial application.

Keywords: produced water, fiber, surface modification, coalescer

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
9805 Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technologies for Oilfield Produced Water Treatment

Authors: Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Oliver Schmitz, Axel Schmidt, Peter Czermak

Abstract:

“Produced water” (PW) is any fossil water that is brought to the surface along with crude oil or natural gas. By far, PW is the largest waste stream by volume associated with oil and gas production operations. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging PW on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies for PW treatment due to increase focus on water conservation and environmental regulation. The use of membrane processes for treatment of PW has several advantages over many of the traditional separation techniques. In oilfield produced water treatment with ceramic membranes, process efficiency is characterized by the specific permeate flux and by the oil separation performance. Apart from the membrane properties, the permeate flux during filtration of oily wastewaters is known to be strongly dependent on the constituents of the feed solution, as well as on process conditions, e.g. trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV). The research project presented in these report describes the application of different ceramic membrane filtration technologies for the efficient treatment of oil-field produced water and different model oily solutions.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, membrane fouling, oil rejection, produced water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
9804 Oil Field Water Production Problem and Control

Authors: Abdulsalam Agila Nagem

Abstract:

Water production usually represents as waste product in petroleum industry and is not a revenue stream, it is one of the major technical, environmental, and economical problems associated with oil and gas production The quantity of “produced water” generally increases substantially with the age of the oil field. Produced water handling tactic depends on the composition of produced water, location, quantity, and the availability of resources. Produced water can limit the productive life of the oil and gas wells and can cause several problems, including corrosion of tubular, fines migration, loading most onshore produced water is re-injected either to underground formations, to provide additional oil and gas recovery or for disposal Techniques to minimize and control produced water volumes should be establish by their major steps (Source of produced water - Methods to identify- Remedial actions, Water control problems can be classified into one of two major categories Near Well bore problems Mechanical problems (Casing leaks) /Communication problems Reservoir related problems Channels behind casing Barrier breakdowns Completion into or near water - Coning and cresting - Channeling through high perm zones or Fractures Methods to Identify Sources Chloride /TDS (Total Dissolved Water) tests Production logging (Spinner survey – Cased Hole Formation Resistivity – reservoir saturation Tool (RST) / Mechanical integrity tests (MIT) Remedial Action / Water Shutoff Technology is defined as an operation that hinders water from entering the production wells / Mechanical solution / Chemical solution (Cement squeeze - Polymer treatments) Abdul Salam Agila Nagem Production engineering department – Arabian Gulf Oil Company

Keywords: oil well production problems, environmental control, economic consideration, corrosion control

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9803 Photocatalytic Degradation of Produced Water Hydrocarbon of an Oil Field by Using AG-Doped TiO₂ Nanoparticles

Authors: Hamed Bazrafshan, Saeideh Dabirnia, Zahra Alipour Tesieh, Samaneh Alavi, Bahram Dabir

Abstract:

In this study, the removal of pollutants from real produced water samples from an oil reservoir (a light oil reservoir), using a photocatalytic degradation process in a cylindrical glass reactor was investigated. Using TiO₂ and Ag-TiO₂, in slurry form, photocatalytic degradation was studied by measuring the COD parameter, qualitative analysis, and GC-MS. At first, optimization of the parameters on photocatalytic degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants in real produced water, using TiO₂ nanoparticles as photocatalyst under UV light, was carried out applying response surface methodology. The results of the design of the experiment showed that the optimum conditions were at a catalyst concentration of 1.14 g/lit and pH of 2.67 and the percentage of COD removal was 72.65%.

Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, Ag-doped TiO₂ nanoparticle, oil field produced water

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
9802 Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Smita Krishnan, Krittika Chandran, Chandra Mohan Sinnathambi

Abstract:

Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, photochemical processes, degradation, organic contaminants

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
9801 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process Improvement of the Treated Water Quality by Using the Sludge Produced by the Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Derraz, M. Farhaoui

Abstract:

Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage Sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20, and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96%, and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge reuse, turbidity removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
9800 Effect of Polymer Residues for Wastewater Treatment from Petroleum Production

Authors: Chayonnat Thanamun, Kreangkrai Maneeintr

Abstract:

For petroleum industry, polymer flooding is the one of the main methods in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that is used water-soluble polymer such as partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) to increase oil production. It is added to the flooding water to improve the mobility ratio in the flooding process. During the polymer flooding process, water is produced as a by-product along with oil and gas production. This produced water is a mixture of inorganic and organic compound. Moreover, produced water is more difficult to treat than that from water flooding. In this work, the effect of HPAM residue on the wastewater treatment from polymer flooding is studied. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is selected to use as a flocculant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of polymer residues in produced water on the wastewater treatment by using PAC. The operating parameters of this study are flocculant dosage ranging from 300,400 and 500 mg/L temperature from 30-50 Celsius degree and HPAM concentrations from 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L. Furthermore, the turbidity, as well as total suspended solids (TSS), are also studied. The results indicated that with an increase in HPAM concentration, the TSS and turbidity increase gradually with the increasing of coagulant dosage under the same temperature. Also, the coagulation-flocculation performance is improved with the increasing temperature. This can be applied to use in the wastewater treatment from oil production before this water can be injected back to the reservoir.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, petroleum production, polyaluminium chloride, polyacrylamide

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
9799 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources

Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi

Abstract:

As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.

Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
9798 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz

Abstract:

Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage the sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20 and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96% and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge, turbidity removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
9797 Emulsified Oil Removal in Produced Water by Graphite-Based Adsorbents Using Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration

Authors: Zohreh Fallah, Edward P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

One of the big challenges for produced water treatment is removing oil from water in the form of emulsified droplets which are not easily separated. An attractive approach is adsorption, as it is a simple and effective process. However, adsorbents must be regenerated in order to make the process cost effective. Several sorbents have been tested for treating oily wastewater. However, some issues such as high energy consumption for activated carbon thermal regeneration have been reported. Due to their significant electrical conductivity, Graphite Intercalation Compounds (GIC) were found to be suitable to be regenerated electrochemically. They are non-porous materials with low surface area and fast adsorptive capacity which are useful for removal of low concentration of organics. An innovative adsorption/regeneration process has been developed at the University of Manchester in which adsorption of organics are done by using a patented GIC adsorbent coupled with subsequent electrochemical regeneration. The oxidation of adsorbed organics enables 100% regeneration so that the adsorbent can be reused over multiple adsorption cycles. GIC adsorbents are capable of removing a wide range of organics and pollutants; however, no comparable report is available for removal of emulsified oil in produced water using abovementioned process. In this study the performance of this technology for the removal of emulsified oil in wastewater was evaluated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm for both real produced water and model emulsions. The amount of oil in wastewater was measured by using the toluene extraction/fluorescence analysis before and after adsorption and electrochemical regeneration cycles. It was found that oil in water emulsion could be successfully treated by the treatment process and More than 70% of oil was removed.

Keywords: adsorption, electrochemical regeneration, emulsified oil, produced water

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
9796 Separation of Mercury(Ii) from Petroleum Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane and Mass Transfer Modeling

Authors: Srestha Chaturabul, Wanchalerm Srirachat, Thanaporn Wannachod, Prakorn Ramakul, Ura Pancharoen, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

The separation of mercury(II) from petroleum-produced water from the Gulf of Thailand was carried out using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane system (HFSLM). Optimum parameters for feed pretreatment were 0.2 M HCl, 4% (v/v) Aliquat 336 for extractant and 0.1 M thiourea for stripping solution. The best percentage obtained for extraction was 99.73% and for recovery 90.11%, respectively. The overall separation efficiency noted was 94.92% taking account of both extraction and recovery prospects. The model for this separation developed along a combined flux principle i.e. convection–diffusion–kinetic. The results showed excellent agreement with theoretical data at an average standard deviation of 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively.

Keywords: separation, mercury(ii), petroleum produced water, hollow fiber, liquid membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
9795 Investigation of Produced and Ground Water Contamination of Al Wahat Area South-Eastern Part of Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Khalifa Abdunaser, Salem Eljawashi

Abstract:

Study area is threatened by numerous petroleum activities. The most important risk is associated with dramatic dangers of misuse and oil and gas pollutions, such as significant volumes of produced water, which refers to waste water generated during the production of oil and natural gas and disposed on the surface surrounded oil and gas fields. This work concerns the impact of oil exploration and production activities on the physical and environment fate of the area, focusing on the investigation and observation of crude oil migration as toxic fluid. Its penetration in groundwater resulted from the produced water impacted by oilfield operations disposed to the earth surface in Al Wahat area. Describing the areal distribution of the dominant groundwater quality constituents has been conducted to identify the major hydro-geochemical processes that affect the quality of water and to evaluate the relations between rock types and groundwater flow to the quality and geochemistry of water in Post-Eocene aquifer. The chemical and physical characteristics of produced water, where it is produced, and its potential impacts on the environment and on oil and gas operations have been discussed. Field work survey was conducted to identify and locate a large number of monitoring wells previously drilled throughout the study area. Groundwater samples were systematically collected in order to detect the fate of spills resulting from the various activities at the oil fields in the study area. Spatial distribution maps of the water quality parameters were built using Kriging methods of interpolation in ArcMap software. Thematic maps were generated using GIS and remote sensing techniques, which were applied to include all these data layers as an active database for the area for the purpose of identifying hot spots and prioritizing locations based on their environmental conditions as well as for monitoring plans.

Keywords: Sirt Basin, produced water, Al Wahat area, Ground water

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
9794 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul

Abstract:

Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: extraction, membrane process, microalgae, natural compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
9793 Evaluation of Produced Water Treatment Using Advanced Oxidation Processes and Sodium Ferrate(VI)

Authors: Erica T. R. Mendonça, Caroline M. B. de Araujo, Filho, Osvaldo Chiavone, Sobrinho, Maurício A. da Motta

Abstract:

Oil and gas exploration is an essential activity for modern society, although the supply of its global demand has caused enough damage to the environment, mainly due to produced water generation, which is an effluent associated with the oil and gas produced during oil extraction. It is the aim of this study to evaluate the treatment of produced water, in order to reduce its oils and greases content (OG), by using flotation as a pre-treatment, combined with oxidation for the remaining organic load degradation. Thus, there has been tested Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) using both Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions, as well as a chemical oxidation treatment using sodium ferrate(VI), Na2[FeO4], as a strong oxidant. All the studies were carried out using real samples of produced water from petroleum industry. The oxidation process using ferrate(VI) ion was studied based on factorial experimental designs. The factorial design was used in order to study how the variables pH, temperature and concentration of Na2[FeO4] influences the O&G levels. For the treatment using ferrate(VI) ion, the results showed that the best operating point is obtained when the temperature is 28 °C, pH 3, and a 2000 mg.L-1 solution of Na2[FeO4] is used. This experiment has achieved a final O&G level of 4.7 mg.L-1, which means 94% percentage removal efficiency of oils and greases. Comparing Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, it was observed that the Fenton reaction did not provide good reduction of O&G (around 20% only). On the other hand, a degradation of approximately 80.5% of oil and grease was obtained after a period of seven hours of treatment using photo-Fenton process, which indicates that the best process combination has occurred between the flotation and the photo-Fenton reaction using solar radiation, with an overall removal efficiency of O&G of approximately 89%.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, ferrate (VI) ion, oils and greases removal, produced water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
9792 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz

Abstract:

In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9791 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil

Authors: L. G. Karancsi

Abstract:

The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.

Keywords: hybrid, maize, nutrient, yield, water utilization

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9790 The Extraction and Stripping of Hg(II) from Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Contactor

Authors: Dolapop Sribudda, Ura Pancharoen

Abstract:

The separation of Hg(II) from produced water by hollow fiber contactors (HFC) was investigation. This system included of two hollow fiber modules in the series connecting. The first module used for the extraction reaction and the second module for stripping reaction. Aliquat336 extractant was fed from the organic reservoirs into the shell side of the first hollow fiber module and continuous to the shell side of the second module. The organic liquid was continuously feed recirculate and back to the reservoirs. The feed solution was pumped into the lumen (tube side) of the first hollow fiber module. Simultaneously, the stripping solution was pumped in the same way in tube side of the second module. The feed and stripping solution was fed which had a counter current flow. Samples were kept in the outlet of feed and stripping solution for 1 hour and characterized concentration of Hg(II) by Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Feed solution was produced water from natural gulf of Thailand. The extractant was Aliquat336 dissolved in kerosene diluent. Stripping solution used was nitric acid (HNO3) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). The effect of carrier concentration and type of stripping solution were investigated. Results showed that the best condition were 10 % (v/v) Aliquat336 and 1.0 M NH2CSNH2. At the optimum condition, the extraction and stripping of Hg(II) were 98% and 44.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Hg(II), hollow fiber contactor, produced water, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
9789 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, ammonium, NH₄-N, chemical oxygen demand, COD, greywater, nitrate, NO₃-N, total suspended solids, TSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
9788 Cost-Effective Materials for Hydrocarbons Recovery from Produced Water

Authors: Fahd I. Alghunaimi, Hind S. Dossary, Norah W. Aljuryyed, Tawfik A. Saleh

Abstract:

Produced water (PW) is one of the largest by-volume waste streams and one of the most challenging effluents in the oil and gas industry. This is due to the variation of contaminants that make up PW. Severalmaterialshavebeen developed, studied, and implemented to remove hydrocarbonsfrom PW. Adsorption is one of the most effective ways ofremoving oil fromPW. In this work, three new and cost-effective hydrophobic adsorbentmaterials based on 9-octadecenoic acid grafted graphene (POG) were synthesized for oil/water separation. Graphene derived from graphite was modified with 9-octadecenoic acid to yield 9-octadecenoic acid grafted graphene (OG). The newsynthesized materials which called POG25, POG50, and POG75 were characterized by using N₂-physisorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The BET surface area of POG75 was the highest with 288 m²/g, whereas POG50 was 225 m²/g and POG25 was lowest 79 m²/g. These three materials were also evaluated for their oil-water separation efficiency using a model mixture, whichdemonstrated that POG-75 has the highest oil removal efficiency and the faster rate of the adsorption (Figure-1). POG75 was regenerated, and its performance was verified again with a little reduced adsorption rate compared to the fresh material. The mixtures that used in the performance test were prepared by mixing nonpolar organic liquids such as heptane, dodecane, or hexadecane into the colored water. In general, the new materials showed fast uptake of the certain quantity of the oildue to the high hydrophobicity nature of the materials, which repel water as confirmed by the contact angle of approximately 150˚. Besides that, novel superhydrophobic material was also synthesized by introducing hydrophobic branches of laurate on the surface of the stainless steel mesh (SSM). This novel mesh could help to hold the novel adsorbent materials in a column to remove oil from PW. Both BOG-75 and the novel mesh have the potential to remove oil contaminants from produced water, which will help to provide an opportunity to recover useful components, in addition, to reduce the environmental impact and reuse produced water in several applications such as fracturing.

Keywords: graphite to graphene, oleophilic, produced water, separation

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9787 Ultrafine Non Water Soluble Drug Particles

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, David Martin, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo

Abstract:

Ultrafine hydrophobic and non-water-soluble drugs can increase the percentage of absorbed compared to their initial dosage. This paper provides a scalable new method of making ultrafine particles of substantially insoluble water compounds specifically, submicron particles of ethanol soluble and water insoluble pharmaceutical materials by steaming an ethanol droplet to prepare a suspension and then followed by immediate drying. This suspension is formed by adding evaporated water molecules as an anti-solvent to the solute of the samples and in early stage of precipitation continued to dry by evaporating both solvent and anti-solvent. This fine particle formation has produced fast dispersion powder in water. The new method is an extension of the antisolvent vapour precipitation technique which exposes a droplet to an antisolvent vapour with reference to the dissolved materials within the droplet. Ultrafine vitamin D3 and ibuprofen particles in the submicron ranges were produced. This work will form the basis for using spray dryers as high-throughput scalable micro-precipitators.

Keywords: single droplet drying, nano size particles, non-water-soluble drugs, precipitators

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
9786 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina

Abstract:

Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, distillation, mineral, potable, physicochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
9785 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: black grass jelly, powder, mass balance, energy balance, cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
9784 Characterization of Performance of Blocks Produced from Dredged Sample

Authors: Adebayo B., Omotehinse A. O.

Abstract:

The performance and characteristics of blocks produced from dredged sample was investigated. Blocks were produced using appropriate mixes of dredged sample and sharp sand. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of the dredged sample (Igbokoda dredged sample) were determined using the British Standard. The physico-mechanical properties (water absorption, density and compressive strength) of blocks produced were evaluated. The dredged sample is classified as a silty material. Seven replacement levels of sharp sand were considered in the study (SS- Sharp Sand and DS – Dredged Sample) was done with constant amount of cement. 1- 85 % DS and 15 % SS, 2- 70 % DS and 30 % SS, 3- 55 % DS and 45 % SS, 4- 50 % DS and 50 % SS, 5- 45 % DS and 55 % SS, 6- 30 % DS and 70 % SS, 7- 15 % DS and 85 % SS and 8 – IS 100 % with cement; 9 – SS 100 % with cement) of different ages (7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days) for the production of blocks. The compressive strength of the blocks produced ranges between 0.52 MPa to 3.0 MPa and considering the mixes, the highest compressive strength was found in mix of 15 % DS and 85 % SS.

Keywords: dredge sample, silt, sharp sand, block, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
9783 Seawater Changes' Estimation at Tidal Flat in Korean Peninsula Using Drone Stereo Images

Authors: Hyoseong Lee, Duk-jin Kim, Jaehong Oh, Jungil Shin

Abstract:

Tidal flat in Korean peninsula is one of the largest biodiversity tidal flats in the world. Therefore, digital elevation models (DEM) is continuously demanded to monitor of the tidal flat. In this study, DEM of tidal flat, according to different times, was produced by means of the Drone and commercial software in order to measure seawater change during high tide at water-channel in tidal flat. To correct the produced DEMs of the tidal flat where is inaccessible to collect control points, the DEM matching method was applied by using the reference DEM instead of the survey. After the ortho-image was made from the corrected DEM, the land cover classified image was produced. The changes of seawater amount according to the times were analyzed by using the classified images and DEMs. As a result, it was confirmed that the amount of water rapidly increased as the time passed during high tide.

Keywords: tidal flat, drone, DEM, seawater change

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
9782 Seepage Modelling of Jatigede Dam Towards Cisampih Village Based on Analysis Soil Characteristic Using Method Soil Reaction to Water, West Java Indonesia

Authors: Diemas Purnama Muhammad Firman Pratama, Denny Maulana Malik

Abstract:

Development of Jatigede Dam that was the mega project in Indonesia, since 1963. Area of around Jatigede Dam is complex, it has structural geology active fault, and as possible can occur landslide. This research focus on soil test. The purpose of this research to know soil quality Jatigede Dam which caused by water seepage of Jatigede Dam, then can be made seepage modelling around Jatigede Dam including Cisampih Village. Method of this research is SRW (Soil Reaction to Water). There are three samples are taken nearby Jatigede Dam. Four paramaters to determine water seepage such as : V ( velocity of soil to release water), Dl (Ability of soil to release water), Ds (Ability of soil to absorb water), Dt (Ability of soil to hold water). meanwhile, another proscess of interaction beetween water and soil are produced angle, which is made of water flow and vertikal line. Called name SIAT. SIAT has two type is na1 and na2. Each samples has a value from the first sample is 280,333(degree), the second 270 (degree) and the third 270 (degree). The difference na1 is, water interaction towards Dt value angle, while na2 is water interaction towards Dl and Ds value angle. Result of calculating SRW method, first till third sample has a value 7, 11,5 and 9. Based on data, interpreted in around teritory of Jatigede Dam, will get easier impact from water seepage because, condition soil reaction too bad so, it can not hold water.

Keywords: Jatigede Dam, Cisampih village, water seepage, soil quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
9781 Water Injection in One of the Southern Iranian Oil Field, a Case Study

Authors: Hooman Fallah

Abstract:

Seawater injection and produced water re-injection are presently the most commonly used approach to enhanced recovery. The dominant factors for total oil recovery are the reservoir temperature, reservoir pressure, crude oil and water composition. In this study, the production under water injection in Soroosh, one of the southern Iranian heavy oil field has been simulated (the fluid properties are focused). In order to reveal the dominant factors in this production process, the sensitivity analysis has been done for the following effective factors, fluid viscosity, initial water saturation, gravity force and injection well strategy. It is crystal clear that the study of the dominant factors in production processes will help the engineers to design the best production mechanisms in our numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: water injection, initial water saturation, oil viscosity, gravity force, injection well strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
9780 Strengthening National Salt Industry through Cultivation Upgrading and Product Diversification

Authors: Etty Soesilowati

Abstract:

This research was intended to: (1) designing production systems that produce high quality salt and (2) diversification of salt products. This research used qualitative and quantitative approaches which Garam Mas Ltd. as the research site. The data were analyzed interactively and subjected to laboratory tests. The analyses showed that salt production system using HDPE geomembranes produced whiter and cleaner salts than those produced by conventional methods without HDPE geomembranes. High quality consumption salt contained 97% NaCl and a maximum of 0.05% water, in the form of white minute crystals and usually used for table salt of food and snack seasoning, souses and cheese and vegetable oil industries. Medium grade salt contained 94.7%-97% NaCl and 3%-7% water and usually used for kitchen salt, soy sauce, tofu industries and cattle feeding. Low quality salt contained 90%-94.7% NaCl and 5%-10% water, with dull white color and usually used for fish preservation and agriculture. The quality and quantity of salts production were influenced by temperatures, weather, water concentrations used during production processes and the discipline of salt farmers itself. The use of water temperature less than 23 °Be during the production processes produced low quality salts. Optimizing cultivation of the production process from raw material to end product (consumption salt) should be attempted to produce quality salt that fulfills the Indonesian National Standard. Therefore, the integrated policies among stakeholders are really needed to build strong institutional base at salt farmer level. This might be achieved through the establishment of specific region for salt production.

Keywords: cultivation system, diversification, salt products, high quality salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9779 Polymer Flooding: Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Technique

Authors: Abhinav Bajpayee, Shubham Damke, Rupal Ranjan, Neha Bharti

Abstract:

Polymer flooding is a dramatic improvement in water flooding and quickly becoming one of the EOR technologies. Used for improving oil recovery. With the increasing energy demand and depleting oil reserves EOR techniques are becoming increasingly significant .Since most oil fields have already begun water flooding, chemical EOR technique can be implemented by using fewer resources than any other EOR technique. Polymer helps in increasing the viscosity of injected water thus reducing water mobility and hence achieves a more stable displacement .Polymer flooding helps in increasing the injection viscosity as has been revealed through field experience. While the injection of a polymer solution improves reservoir conformance the beneficial effect ceases as soon as one attempts to push the polymer solution with water. It is most commonly applied technique because of its higher success rate. In polymer flooding, a water-soluble polymer such as Polyacrylamide is added to the water in the water flood. This increases the viscosity of the water to that of a gel making the oil and water greatly improving the efficiency of the water flood. It also improves the vertical and areal sweep efficiency as a consequence of improving the water/oil mobility ratio. Polymer flooding plays an important role in oil exploitation, but around 60 million ton of wastewater is produced per day with oil extraction together. Therefore the treatment and reuse of wastewater becomes significant which can be carried out by electro dialysis technology. This treatment technology can not only decrease environmental pollution, but also achieve closed-circuit of polymer flooding wastewater during crude oil extraction. There are three potential ways in which a polymer flood can make the oil recovery process more efficient: (1) through the effects of polymers on fractional flow, (2) by decreasing the water/oil mobility ratio, and (3) by diverting injected water from zones that have been swept. It has also been suggested that the viscoelastic behavior of polymers can improve displacement efficiency Polymer flooding may also have an economic impact because less water is injected and produced compared with water flooding. In future we need to focus on developing polymers that can be used in reservoirs of high temperature and high salinity, applying polymer flooding in different reservoir conditions and also combine polymer with other processes (e.g., surfactant/ polymer flooding).

Keywords: fractional flow, polymer, viscosity, water/oil mobility ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 324