Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 401

Search results for: petroleum cokes

401 Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes

Authors: Sewon Kim, Minjun Kwon, Changyeop Lee


This study is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air are optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.

Keywords: petroleum cokes, low NOx, combustion, equivalence ratio

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400 A Study on Removal of SO3 in Flue Gas Generated from Power Plant

Authors: E. Y. Jo, S. M. Park, I. S. Yeo, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, Y. K. Kim, Y. D. Kim, C. G. Park


SO3 is created in small quantities during the combustion of fuel that contains sulfur, with the quantity produced a function of the boiler design, fuel sulfur content, excess air level, and the presence of oxidizing agents. Typically, about 1% of the fuel sulfur will be oxidized to SO3, but it can range from 0.5% to 1.5% depending on various factors. Combustion of fuels that contain oxidizing agents, such as certain types of fuel oil or petroleum coke, can result in even higher levels of oxidation. SO3 levels in the flue gas emitted by combustion are very high, which becomes a cause of machinery corrosion or a visible blue plume. Because of that, power plants firing petroleum residues need to installation of SO3 removal system. In this study, SO3 removal system using salt solution was developed and several salts solutions were tested for obtain optimal solution for SO3 removal system. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the operation parameters such as gas-liquid ratio, concentration of salts.

Keywords: flue gas desulfurization, petroleum cokes, Sulfur trioxide, SO3 removal

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399 Efficient of Technology Remediation Soil That Contaminated by Petroleum Based on Heat without Combustion

Authors: Gavin Hutama Farandiarta, Hegi Adi Prabowo, Istiara Rizqillah Hanifah, Millati Hanifah Saprudin, Raden Iqrafia Ashna


The increase of the petroleum’s consumption rate encourages industries to optimize and increase the activity in processing crude oil into petroleum. However, although the result gives a lot of benefits to humans worldwide, it also gives negative impact to the environment. One of the negative impacts of processing crude oil is the soil will be contaminated by petroleum sewage sludge. This petroleum sewage sludge, contains hydrocarbon compound and it can be calculated by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH).Petroleum sludge waste is accounted as hazardous and toxic. The soil contamination caused by the petroleum sludge is very hard to get rid of. However, there is a way to manage the soil that is contaminated by petroleum sludge, which is by using heat (thermal desorption) in the process of remediation. There are several factors that affect the success rate of the remediation with the help of heat which are temperature, time, and air pressure in the desorption column. The remediation process using the help of heat is an alternative in soil recovery from the petroleum pollution which highly effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly that produces uncontaminated soil and the petroleum that can be used again.

Keywords: petroleum sewage sludge, remediation soil, thermal desorption, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
398 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz


The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

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397 Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta and the Right to a Healthy Environment

Authors: Olufunke Ayilara Aje-Famuyide


The centrality of the Petroleum Industry in the world energy is undoubted. The world economy almost runs and depends on petroleum. Petroleum industry is a multi-trillion industry; it turns otherwise poor and underdeveloped countries into wealthy nations and thrusts them at the center of international diplomacy. Although these developing nations lack the necessary technology to explore and exploit petroleum resources they are not without help as developed nations, represented by their multinational corporations are ready and willing to provide both the technical and managerial expertise necessary for the development of this natural resource. However, the exploration of these petroleum resources comes with, sometimes, grave, concomitant consequences. These consequences are especially pronounced with respect to the environment. From the British Petroleum Oil rig explosion and the resultant oil spillage and pollution in New Mexico, United States to the Mobil Oil spillage along Nigerian coast, the story and consequence is virtually the same. Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region produces Nigeria’s petroleum which accounts for more than ninety-five percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Between 1999 and 2007, Nigeria earned more than $400 billion from petroleum exports. Nevertheless, petroleum exploration and exploitation has devastated the Niger Delta environment. From oil spillage which pollutes the rivers, farms and wetlands to gas flaring by the multi-national corporations; the consequences is similar-a region that has been devastated by petroleum exploitation. This paper thus seeks to examine the consequences and impact of petroleum pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria with particular reference on the right of the people of Niger Delta to a healthy environment. The paper further seeks to examine the relevant international, regional instrument and Nigeria’s municipal laws that are meant to protect the result of the people of the Niger Delta and their enforcement by the Nigerian State. It is quite worrisome that the Niger Delta Region and its people have suffered and are still suffering grave violations of their right to a healthy environment as a result of petroleum exploitation in their region. The Nigerian effort at best is half-hearted in its protection of the people’s right.

Keywords: environment, exploration, petroleum, pollution

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396 Re-Os Application to Petroleum System: Implications from the Geochronology and Oil-Source Correlation of Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Authors: Junjie Liu, David Selby, Mark Obermajer, Andy Mort


The inaugural application of Re-Os dating, which is based on the beta decay of 187Re to 187Os with a long half-life of 41.577 ± 0.12 Byr and initially used for sulphide minerals and organic rich rocks, to petroleum systems was performed on bitumen of the Polaris Mississippi Valley Type Pb-Zn deposit, Canada. To further our understanding of the Re-Os system and its application to petroleum systems, here we present a study on Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The Late Devonian Duvernay Formation organic-rich shales are the only source of the petroleum system. The Duvernay shales reached maturation only during the Laramide Orogeny (80 – 35 Ma) and the generated oil migrated short distances into the interfingering Leduc reefs and overlying Nisku carbonates with no or little secondary alteration post oil-generation. Although very low in Re and Os, the asphaltenes of Duvernay-sourced Leduc and Nisku oils define a Laramide Re-Os age. In addition, the initial Os isotope compositions of the oil samples are similar to that of the Os isotope composition of the Duvernay Formation at the time of oil generation, but are very different to other oil-prone intervals of the basin, showing the ability of the Os isotope composition as an inorganic oil-source correlation tool. In summary, the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to record the timing of oil generation and trace the source of an oil is confirmed in the Re-Os study of Duvernay Petroleum System.

Keywords: Duvernay petroleum system, oil generation, oil-source correlation, Re-Os

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395 Phytoremediation Potenciality of ‘Polypogon monspeliensis L. in Detoxification of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Mozhgan Farzami Sepehr, Farhad Nourozi


In a greenhouse study, decontamination capacity of the species Polypogon monspoliensis, for detoxification of petroleum-polluted soils caused by sewage and waste materials of Tehran Petroleum Refinery. For this purpose, the amount of total oil and grease before and 45 days after transplanting one-month-old seedlings in the soils of five different treatments in which pollution-free agricultural soil and contaminated soil were mixed together with the weight ratio of respectively 1 to 9 (% 10), 2 to 8 (%20), 3 to 7 (%30) , 4 to 6 (%40), and 5 to 5 (%50) were evaluated and compared with the amounts obtained from control treatment without vegetation, but with the same concentration of pollution. Findings demonstrated that the maximum reduction in the petroleum rate ,as much as 84.85 percent, is related to the treatment 10% containing the plant. Increasing the shoot height in treatments 10% and 20% as well as the root dry and fresh weight in treatments 10% , 20% , and 30% shows that probably activity of more rhizosphere microorganisms of the plant in these treatments has led to the improvement in growth of plant organs comparing to the treatments without pollution.

Keywords: phytoremediation, total oil and grease, rhizosphere, microorganisms, petroleum-contaminated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
394 Application of Waterflooding Technique in Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi


Hydrocarbon resources are important for the redevelopment and sustainable progress of Afghanistan’s infrastructure. This paper aim is to increase the oil recovery of Hitervian reservoir of Angut oil field in north part of Afghanistan by an easy and available method, which is Buckley-Leveret frontal displacement theory. In this paper oil displacement by water that takes placed by injecting water into the under laying petroleum reservoir which called waterflooding technique is investigated. The theory is investigated in a laboratory experiment first then applied in Angut oil field which is now under the operation of a private petroleum company. Based on this study oil recovery of Angut oil field, residual oil saturation, Buckle-Leveret saturation and FBL is determined.

Keywords: waterflooding technique, two phase fluid flow, Buckley-Leveret, petroleum engineering

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393 Application of Artificial Intelligence in EOR

Authors: Masoumeh Mofarrah, Amir NahanMoghadam


Higher oil prices and increasing oil demand are main reasons for great attention to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Comprehensive researches have been accomplished to develop, appraise, and improve EOR methods and their application. Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) gained popularity in petroleum industry that can help petroleum engineers to solve some fundamental petroleum engineering problems such as reservoir simulation, EOR project risk analysis, well log interpretation and well test model selection. This study presents a historical overview of most popular AI tools including neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and expert systems in petroleum industry and discusses two case studies to represent the application of two mentioned AI methods for selecting an appropriate EOR method based on reservoir characterization infeasible and effective way.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, EOR, neural networks, expert systems

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392 Literature Review: Application of Artificial Intelligence in EOR

Authors: Masoumeh Mofarrah, Amir NahanMoghadam


Higher oil prices and increasing oil demand are main reasons for great attention to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Comprehensive researches have been accomplished to develop, appraise and improve EOR methods and their application. Recently Artificial Intelligence (AI) gained popularity in petroleum industry that can help petroleum engineers to solve some fundamental petroleum engineering problems such as reservoir simulation, EOR project risk analysis, well log interpretation and well test model selection. This study presents a historical overview of most popular AI tools including neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and expert systems in petroleum industry and discusses two case studies to represent the application of two mentioned AI methods for selecting an appropriate EOR method based on reservoir characterization in feasible and effective way.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, EOR, neural networks, expert systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
391 Recovery of Petroleum Reservoir by Waterflooding Technique

Authors: Zabihullah Mahdi, Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma


Through many types of research and practical studies, it has been identified that the average oil recovery factor of a petroleum reservoir is about 30 to 35 %. This study is focused on enhanced oil recovery by laboratory experiment and graphical investigation based on Buckley-Leverett theory. Horizontal oil displacement by water, in a petroleum reservoir is analyzed under the Buckley-Leverett frontal displacement theory. The extraction and prerequisite of this theory are based and pursued focusing on the key factors that control displacement. The theory is executable to the waterflooding method, which is generally employed in petroleum engineering reservoirs to sustain oil production recovery, and the techniques for evaluating the average water saturation behind the water front and the oil recovery factors in the reservoirs are presented. In this paper, the Buckley-Leverett theory handled to an experimental model and the amount of recoverable oil are investigated to be over 35%. The irreducible water saturation, viz. connate water saturation, in the reservoir is also a significant inspiration for the recovery.

Keywords: Buckley-Leverett theory, waterflooding technique, petroleum engineering, immiscible displacement

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390 Investments in Petroleum Industry Abnormally Normal: A Case Study Based on Petroleum and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Radhika Ramanchi


The oil market during 2014-2015 in India with large price fluctuations is very confusing to individual investor. The drop in oil prices supported stocks of some oil marketing companies (OMCs) like Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and Indian Oil Corporation etc their shares rose 84.74%, 128.63% and 59.16%, respectively. Lower oil prices, and lower current account, a smaller subsidy burden are the reasons for outperformance. On the other hand, lower crude prices giving downward pressure on upstream companies like Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd (ONGC) and Reliance Petroleum (RIL) Oil India Ltd (OIL). Not having clarity on a subsidy sharing mechanism is the reason for downward trend on these stocks. Shares of ONGC and RIL have underperformed so far in 2015. When the oil price fall profits of the companies will effect, generate less money and may cut their dividends in Long run. In this situation this paper objective is to study investment strategies in oil marketing companies, by applying CAPM and Security Market Line.

Keywords: petrol industry, price fluctuations, sharp single index model, SML, Markowitz model

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389 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira


True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

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388 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena


Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

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387 Permeable Bio-Reactive Barriers to Tackle Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in the Sub-Antarctic

Authors: Benjamin L. Freidman, Sally L. Gras, Ian Snape, Geoff W. Stevens, Kathryn A. Mumford


Increasing transportation and storage of petroleum hydrocarbons in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions have resulted in frequent accidental spills. Migrating petroleum hydrocarbon spills can have a significant impact on terrestrial and marine ecosystems in cold regions, as harsh environmental conditions result in heightened sensitivity to pollution. This migration of contaminants has led to the development of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) for application in cold regions. PRB’s are one of the most practical technologies for on-site or in-situ groundwater remediation in cold regions due to their minimal energy, monitoring and maintenance requirements. The Main Power House site has been used as a fuel storage and power generation area for the Macquarie Island research station since at least 1960. Soil analysis at the site has revealed Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) (C9-C28) concentrations as high as 19,000 mg/kg soil. Groundwater TPH concentrations at this site can exceed 350 mg/L TPH. Ongoing migration of petroleum hydrocarbons into the neighbouring marine ecosystem resulted in the installation of a ‘funnel and gate’ PRB in November 2014. The ‘funnel and gate’ design successfully intercepted contaminated groundwater and analysis of TPH retention and biodegradation on PRB media are currently underway. Installation of the PRB facilitates research aimed at better understanding the contribution of particle attached biofilms to the remediation of groundwater systems. Bench-scale PRB system analysis at The University of Melbourne is currently examining the role biofilms play in petroleum hydrocarbon degradation, and how controlled release nutrient media can heighten the metabolic activity of biofilms in cold regions in the presence of low temperatures and low nutrient groundwater.

Keywords: groundwater, petroleum, Macquarie island, funnel and gate

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386 Synthesis of Epoxidized Castor Oil Using a Sulphonated Polystyrene Type Cation Exchange Resin and Its Blend Preparation with Epoxy Resin

Authors: G. S. Sudha, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak


Epoxidized oils can replace petroleum derived materials in numerous industrial applications, because of their respectable oxirane oxygen content and high reactivity of oxirane ring. Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) has synthesized in the presence of a sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin. The formation of the oxirane ring was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The epoxidation reaction was evaluated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies. ECO is used as a toughening phase to increase the toughness of petroleum-based epoxy resin.

Keywords: epoxy resin, epoxidized castor oil, sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin, petroleum derived materials

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385 Separation of Mercury(Ii) from Petroleum Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane and Mass Transfer Modeling

Authors: Srestha Chaturabul, Wanchalerm Srirachat, Thanaporn Wannachod, Prakorn Ramakul, Ura Pancharoen, Soorathep Kheawhom


The separation of mercury(II) from petroleum-produced water from the Gulf of Thailand was carried out using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane system (HFSLM). Optimum parameters for feed pretreatment were 0.2 M HCl, 4% (v/v) Aliquat 336 for extractant and 0.1 M thiourea for stripping solution. The best percentage obtained for extraction was 99.73% and for recovery 90.11%, respectively. The overall separation efficiency noted was 94.92% taking account of both extraction and recovery prospects. The model for this separation developed along a combined flux principle i.e. convection–diffusion–kinetic. The results showed excellent agreement with theoretical data at an average standard deviation of 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively.

Keywords: separation, mercury(ii), petroleum produced water, hollow fiber, liquid membrane

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384 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Petroleum Ether Extract of Pleiogynium timorense Bark

Authors: Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Ataa A. Said, Khaled Y. Mohamed, Hala M. Mohammed


Pleiogynium timorense(DC.) Leenh is one of the therapeutically active plants belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The bark of Pleiogynium timorense needs further studies to investigate its phytochemical and biological activities. This work was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as well as to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageen hind paw oedema models in rats, respectively. The results showed that twenty one compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction were identified representing 92.54 % of the total beak area, the major compounds were 1-Heptene (35.32%), Butylated hydroxy toluene (19.42%) and phytol (12.53%), whereas fifteen compounds were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters fraction representing 94.15% of the total identified peak area. The major compounds were 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (35.34%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (29.32%). Moreover, petroleum ether extract showed a significant reduction in pain and inflammation in a dose dependent manner. This study aims to be the first step toward the use of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, bark, petroleum ether extract, Pleiogynium timorense

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383 Environmental Potential of Biochar from Wood Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

Authors: Cora Bulmău


Soil polluted with hydrocarbons spills is a major global concern today. As a response to this issue, our experimental study tries to put in evidence the option to choose for one environmentally friendly method: use of the biochar, despite to a classical procedure; incineration of contaminated soil. Biochar represents the solid product obtained through the pyrolysis of biomass, its additional use being as an additive intended to improve the quality of the soil. The positive effect of biochar addition to soil is represented by its capacity to adsorb and contain petroleum products within its pores. Taking into consideration the capacity of the biochar to interact with organic contaminants, the purpose of the present study was to experimentally establish the effects of the addition of wooden biomass-derived biochar on a soil contaminated with oil. So, the contaminated soil was amended with biochar (10%) produced by pyrolysis in different operational conditions of the thermochemical process. After 25 days, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil treated with biochar was measured. An analytical method as Soxhlet extraction was adopted to estimate the concentrations of total petroleum products (TPH) in the soil samples: This technique was applied to contaminated soil, also to soils remediated by incineration/adding biochar. The treatment of soil using biochar obtained from pyrolysis of the Birchwood led to a considerable decrease in the concentrations of petroleum products. The incineration treatments conducted under experimental stage to clean up the same soil, contaminated with petroleum products, involved specific parameters: temperature of about 600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and treatment time 30 and 60 minutes. The experimental results revealed that the method using biochar has registered values of efficiency up to those of all incineration processes applied for the shortest time.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, remediaton, soil, TPH

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382 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen


Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, biodegradation, lagoon marchika, emulsification index

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381 Demulsification of Oil from Produced water Using Fibrous Coalescer

Authors: Nutcha Thianbut


In the petroleum drilling industry, besides oil and gas, water is also produced from petroleum production. which will have oil droplets dispersed in the water as an emulsion. Commonly referred to as produced water, most industrial water-based produced water methods use the method of pumping water back into wells or catchment areas. because it cannot be utilized further, but in the compression of water each time, the cost is quite high. And the survey found that the amount of water from the petroleum production process has increased every year. In this research, we would like to study the removal of oil in produced water by the Coalescer device using fibers from agricultural waste as an intermediary. As an alternative to reduce the cost of water management in the petroleum drilling industry. The objectives of this research are 1. To study the fiber pretreatment by chemical process for the efficiency of oil-water separation 2. To study and design the fiber-packed coalescer device to destroy the emulsion of crude oil in water. 3. To study the working conditions of coalescer devices in emulsion destruction. using a fiber medium. In this research, the experiment was divided into two parts. The first part will study the absorbency of fibers. It compares untreated fibers with chemically treated alkaline fibers that change over time as well as adjusting the amount of fiber on the absorbency of the fiber and the second part will study the separation of oil from produced water by Coalescer equipment using fiber as medium to study the optimum condition of coalescer equipment for further development and industrial application.

Keywords: produced water, fiber, surface modification, coalescer

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380 The Potential of Tempo-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers to Replace EthylenE-propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber

Authors: Sibel Dikmen Kucuk, Yusuf Guner


In recent years, petroleum-based polymers began to be limited due to the effects on the human and environmental point of view in many countries. Thus, organic-based biodegradable materials have attracted much interest in the composite industry because of environmental concerns. As a result of this, it has been asked that inorganic and petroleum-based materials should be reduced and altered with biodegradable materials. In this point, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of the use of TEMPO (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose instead of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) rubber, which is a petroleum-based material. Thus, the exchange of petroleum-based EPDM rubber with organic-based cellulose nanofibers, which are environmentally friendly (green) and biodegradable, will be realized. The effect of tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TCNF) instead of EPDM rubber was analyzed by rheological, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and aging analyses. The aged surfaces were visually scrutinized, and surface morphological changes were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that TEMPO oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose could be used at an amount of 1.0 and 2.2 phr resulting the values stay within tolerance according to customer standard and without any chemical degradation, crack, color change or staining.

Keywords: EPDM, lignin, green materials, biodegradable fillers

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379 The Potential of Tempo-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers to Replace Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber

Authors: S. Dikmen Kucuk, A. Tozluoglu, Y. Guner


In recent years, petroleum-based polymers began to be limited due to effects on human and environmental point of view in many countries. Thus, organic-based biodegradable materials have attracted much interest in the composite industry because of environmental concerns. As a result of this, it has been asked that inorganic and petroleum-based materials should be reduced and altered with biodegradable materials. In this point, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of use of TEMPO (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose instead of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) rubber, which is a petroleum-based material. Thus, the exchange of petroleum-based EPDM rubber with organic based cellulose nanofibers, which are environmentally friendly (green) and biodegradable, will be realized. The effect of tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TCNF) instead of EPDM rubber was analyzed by rheological, mechanical, chemical, thermal and aging analyses. The aged surfaces were visually scrutinized and surface morphological changes were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that TEMPO oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose can be used at an amount of 1.0 and 2.2 phr resulting the values stay within tolerance according to customer standard and without any chemical degradation, crack, colour change or staining.

Keywords: EPDM, cellulose, green materials, nanofibrillated cellulose, TCNF, tempo-oxidized nanofiber

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378 Basin Professor, Petroleum Geology Assessor in Indonesia Basin

Authors: Arditya Nugraha, Herry Gunawan, Agung P. Widodo


The various possible strategies to find hydrocarbon are explored within a wide ranging of efforts. It started to identify petroleum concept in the basin. The main objectives of this paper are to integrate and develop information, knowledge, and evaluation from Indonesia’s sedimentary basins system in terms of their suitability for exploration activity and estimate the hydrocarbon potential available. The system which compiled data information and knowledge and comprised exploration and production data of all basins in Indonesia called as Basin Professor which stands for Basin Professional and Processor. Basin Professor is a website application using Geography Information System which consists of all information about basin montage, basin summary, petroleum system, stratigraphy, development play, risk factor, exploration history, working area, regional cross section, well correlation, prospect & lead inventory and infrastructure spatial. From 82 identified sedimentary basins, North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatera, East Java, Kutai, and Tarakan basins are respectively positioned of the Indonesia’ s mature basin and the most productive basin. The Eastern of Indonesia also have many hydrocarbon potential and discovered several fields in Papua and East Abadi. Basin Professor compiled the well data in all of the basin in Indonesia from mature basin to frontier basin. Well known geological data, subsurface mapping, prospect and lead, resources and established infrastructures are the main factors make these basins have higher suitability beside another potential basin. The hydrocarbon potential resulted from this paper based on the degree of geological data, petroleum, and economic evaluation. Basin Professor has provided by a calculator tool in lead and prospect for estimate the hydrocarbon reserves, recoverable in place and geological risk. Furthermore, the calculator also defines the preliminary economic evaluation such as investment, POT IRR and infrastructures in each basin. From this Basin Professor, petroleum companies are able to estimate that Indonesia has a huge potential of hydrocarbon oil and gas reservoirs and still interesting for hydrocarbon exploration and production activity.

Keywords: basin summary, petroleum system, resources, economic evaluation

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377 Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy in Environmental Control

Authors: Subir Kundu, Sukhendra Singh, Sumedha Ojha, Kanika Kundu


The continuous decline of petroleum and natural gas reserves and non linear rise of oil price has brought about a realisation of the need for a change in our perpetual dependence on the fossil fuel. A day to day increased consumption of crude and petroleum products has made a considerable impact on our foreign exchange reserves. Hence, an alternate resource for the conversion of energy (both liquid and gas) is essential for the substitution of conventional fuels. Biomass is the alternate solution for the present scenario. Biomass can be converted into both liquid as well as gaseous fuels and other feedstocks for the industries.

Keywords: bioenergy, biomass conversion, biorefining, efficient utilisation of night soil

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376 Co-Gasification of Petroleum Waste and Waste Tires: A Numerical and CFD Study

Authors: Thomas Arink, Isam Janajreh


The petroleum industry generates significant amounts of waste in the form of drill cuttings, contaminated soil and oily sludge. Drill cuttings are a product of the off-shore drilling rigs, containing wet soil and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Contaminated soil comes from different on-shore sites and also contains TPH. The oily sludge is mainly residue or tank bottom sludge from storage tanks. The two main treatment methods currently used are incineration and thermal desorption (TD). Thermal desorption is a method where the waste material is heated to 450ºC in an anaerobic environment to release volatiles, the condensed volatiles can be used as a liquid fuel. For the thermal desorption unit dry contaminated soil is mixed with moist drill cuttings to generate a suitable mixture. By thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of the TD feedstock it was found that less than 50% of the TPH are released, the discharged material is stored in landfill. This study proposes co-gasification of petroleum waste with waste tires as an alternative to thermal desorption. Co-gasification with a high-calorific material is necessary since the petroleum waste consists of more than 60 wt% ash (soil/sand), causing its calorific value to be too low for gasification. Since the gasification process occurs at 900ºC and higher, close to 100% of the TPH can be released, according to the TGA. This work consists of three parts: 1. a mathematical gasification model, 2. a reactive flow CFD model and 3. experimental work on a drop tube reactor. Extensive material characterization was done by means of proximate analysis (TGA), ultimate analysis (CHNOS flash analysis) and calorific value measurements (Bomb calorimeter) for the input parameters of the mathematical and CFD model. The mathematical model is a zero dimensional model based on Gibbs energy minimization together with Lagrange multiplier; it is used to find the product species composition (molar fractions of CO, H2, CH4 etc.) for different tire/petroleum feedstock mixtures and equivalence ratios. The results of the mathematical model act as a reference for the CFD model of the drop-tube reactor. With the CFD model the efficiency and product species composition can be predicted for different mixtures and particle sizes. Finally both models are verified by experiments on a drop tube reactor (1540 mm long, 66 mm inner diameter, 1400 K maximum temperature).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), drop tube reactor, gasification, Gibbs energy minimization, petroleum waste, waste tires

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375 System Engineering Design of Offshore Oil Drilling Production Platform from Marine Environment

Authors: C. Njoku Paul


This paper deals with systems engineering applications design for offshore oil drilling production platform in the Nigerian Marine Environment. Engineering Design model of the distribution and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons discharged into marine environment production platform and sources of impact of an offshore is treated.

Keywords: design of offshore oil drilling production platform, marine, environment, petroleum hydrocarbons

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374 Quaternary Ammonium Salts Based Algerian Petroleum Products: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Houria Hamitouche, Abdellah Khelifa


Quaternary ammonium salts (QACs) are the most common cationic surfactants of natural or synthetic origin usually. They possess one or more hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains and hydrophilic cationic group. In fact, the hydrophobic groups are derived from three main sources: petrochemicals, vegetable oils, and animal fats. These QACs have attracted the attention of chemists for a long time, due to their general simple synthesis and their broad application in several fields. They are important as ingredients of cosmetic products and are also used as corrosion inhibitors, in emulsion polymerization and textile processing. Within biological applications, QACs show a good antimicrobial activity and can be used as medicines, gene delivery agents or in DNA extraction methods. The 2004 worldwide annual consumption of QACs was reported as 500,000 tons. The petroleum product is considered a true reservoir of a variety of chemical species, which can be used in the synthesis of quaternary ammonium salts. The purpose of the present contribution is to synthesize the quaternary ammonium salts by Menschutkin reaction, via chloromethylation/quaternization sequences, from Algerian petroleum products namely: reformate, light naphtha and kerosene and characterize.

Keywords: quaternary ammonium salts, reformate, light naphtha, kerosene

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373 Effect of Fractional Flow Curves on the Heavy Oil and Light Oil Recoveries in Petroleum Reservoirs

Authors: Abdul Jamil Nazari, Shigeo Honma


This paper evaluates and compares the effect of fractional flow curves on the heavy oil and light oil recoveries in a petroleum reservoir. Fingering of flowing water is one of the serious problems of the oil displacement by water and another problem is the estimation of the amount of recover oil from a petroleum reservoir. To address these problems, the fractional flow of heavy oil and light oil are investigated. The fractional flow approach treats the multi-phases flow rate as a total mixed fluid and then describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. Laboratory experiments are implemented for two different types of oils, heavy oil, and light oil, to experimentally obtain relative permeability and fractional flow curves. Application of the light oil fractional curve, which exhibits a regular S-shape, to the water flooding method showed that a large amount of mobile oil in the reservoir is displaced by water injection. In contrast, the fractional flow curve of heavy oil does not display an S-shape because of its high viscosity. Although the advance of the injected waterfront is faster than in light oil reservoirs, a significant amount of mobile oil remains behind the waterfront.

Keywords: fractional flow, relative permeability, oil recovery, water fingering

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372 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang


Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

Procedia PDF Downloads 405