Search results for: hydrocarbon
324 The Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Fly Ash Concrete
Authors: Mustafa H. Omar
Abstract:Researchers have been working to find ways to reduce the detrimental effects of Hydrocarbon Solutions on concrete and increase the serviceability of oil concrete buildings by modifying the characteristics of concrete when exposed to hydrocarbon solutions. The goal of this effort is to improve concrete structures that come into direct contact with hydrocarbon solutions, such as oil storage tanks and oil pipelines. In the current study, the behavior of plain and fly ash concretes after exposure to various hydrocarbon exposure liquids (gasoline, gas oil, and kerosene) is investigated. The findings are then compared with reference concrete that is left in the open atmosphere. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests will be used to evaluate the most critical attributes of these concretes.
Keywords: cconcrete, fly ash, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 15
323 Reburning Characteristics of Biomass Syngas in a Pilot Scale Heavy Oil Furnace
Authors: Sang Heon Han, Daejun Chang, Won Yang
Abstract:NOx reduction characteristics of syngas fuel were numerically investigated for the 2MW pilot scale heavy oil furnace of KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology). The secondary fuel and syngas was fed into the furnace with two purposes- partial replacement of main fuel and reburning of NOx. Some portion of syngas was fed into the flame zone to partially replace the heavy oil, while the other portion was fed into the furnace downstream to reduce NOx generation. The numerical prediction was verified by comparing it with the experimental results. Syngas of KITECH’s experiment, assumed to be produced from biomass, had very low calorific value and contained 3% hydrocarbon. This study investigated the precise behavior of NOx generation and NOx reduction as well as thermo-fluidic characteristics inside the furnace, which was unavailable with experiment. In addition to 3% hydrocarbon syngas, 5%, and 7% hydrocarbon syngas were numerically tested as reburning fuels to analyze the effect of hydrocarbon proportion to NOx reduction. The prediction showed that the 3% hydrocarbon syngas is as much effective as 7% hydrocarbon syngas in reducing NOx.
Keywords: syngas, reburning, heavy oil, furnaceProcedia PDF Downloads 370
322 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil
Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka
Abstract:Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.
Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon contamination, bioremediation, biosurfactant, rhamnolipidProcedia PDF Downloads 288
321 Hydrocarbon New Business Opportunities in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges
Authors: N. G. Obaje, S. I. Ibrahim, N. Dadi-Mamud, M. K. Musa, I. Yusuf
Abstract:An integrated study combining geological prospectivity mapping and geophysical aeromagnetic interpretation was carried out to determine hydrocarbon new business opportunities that may exist in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria. Geological mapping was used to delineate the geological boundaries between the formations which is a significant initial criterion in evaluating hydrocarbon prospectivity. Processed and interpreted geophysical aeromagnetic data over the basin juxtaposed against the geological map has led to ranking of the prospectivity as less prospective, prospective and more prospective. The prospective and more prospective areas constitute new hydrocarbon business opportunities in the basin. The more prospective areas are at Pattishabakolo near Bida and at Kandi near Gulu. Prospective areas cover Badegi, Lemu, Duba, Kutigi, Auna, Mashegu and Mokwa. Geochemical data show that hydrocarbon source rocks exist within the Enagi and Patti formations in the northern and southern sections respectively. The geophysical aeromagnetic data indicates depths of more than 2,000m (> 2 Km) within the identified prospective areas. New business opportunities as used here refer to open acreages in Nigeria’s sedimentary basins that have not been licensed out by the government (Department of Petroleum Resources) to any operator but with significant potentials for commercial hydrocarbon accumulation.
Keywords: hydrocarbon, aeromagnetic, business opportunity, Bida BasinProcedia PDF Downloads 204
320 Assessing the Theoretical Suitability of Sentinel-2 and Worldview-3 Data for Hydrocarbon Mapping of Spill Events, Using Hydrocarbon Spectral Slope Model
Authors: K. Tunde Olagunju, C. Scott Allen, Freek Van Der Meer
Abstract:Identification of hydrocarbon oil in remote sensing images is often the first step in monitoring oil during spill events. Most remote sensing methods adopt techniques for hydrocarbon identification to achieve detection in order to model an appropriate cleanup program. Identification on optical sensors does not only allow for detection but also for characterization and quantification. Until recently, in optical remote sensing, quantification and characterization are only potentially possible using high-resolution laboratory and airborne imaging spectrometers (hyperspectral data). Unlike multispectral, hyperspectral data are not freely available, as this data category is mainly obtained via airborne survey at present. In this research, two (2) operational high-resolution multispectral satellites (WorldView-3 and Sentinel-2) are theoretically assessed for their suitability for hydrocarbon characterization, using the hydrocarbon spectral slope model (HYSS). This method utilized the two most persistent hydrocarbon diagnostic/absorption features at 1.73 µm and 2.30 µm for hydrocarbon mapping on multispectral data. In this research, spectra measurement of seven (7) different hydrocarbon oils (crude and refined oil) taken on ten (10) different substrates with the use of laboratory ASD Fieldspec were convolved to Sentinel-2 and WorldView-3 resolution, using their full width half maximum (FWHM) parameter. The resulting hydrocarbon slope values obtained from the studied samples enable clear qualitative discrimination of most hydrocarbons, despite the presence of different background substrates, particularly on WorldView-3. Due to close conformity of central wavelengths and narrow bandwidths to key hydrocarbon bands used in HYSS, the statistical significance for qualitative analysis on WorldView-3 sensors for all studied hydrocarbon oil returned with 95% confidence level (P-value ˂ 0.01), except for Diesel. Using multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA), the discriminating power of HYSS is statistically significant for most hydrocarbon-substrate combinations on Sentinel-2 and WorldView-3 FWHM, revealing the potential of these two operational multispectral sensors as rapid response tools for hydrocarbon mapping. One notable exception is highly transmissive hydrocarbons on Sentinel-2 data due to the non-conformity of spectral bands with key hydrocarbon absorptions and the relatively coarse bandwidth (> 100 nm).
Keywords: hydrocarbon, oil spill, remote sensing, hyperspectral, multispectral, hydrocarbon-substrate combination, Sentinel-2, WorldView-3Procedia PDF Downloads 135
319 Aspects of Environmental Sustainability in the Operation of Onshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines
Authors: Emil Aliyev
Abstract:The main focus of this conference paper is on the aspects of the environmental sustainability of onshore hydrocarbon pipelines. The latter is notorious for being a source of major environmental contamination and a consumer of vast amounts of natural resources such as water, land, steel, etc. Therefore, the environmentally sustainable operation of pipelines is a concern that requires attention and research. The geographical scope of the paper is confined to onshore hydrocarbon pipelines operated in the Middle East region. The research contains elements of originality as it draws on the author’s field experience and practical implementation of environmental and sustainability solutions in a major Middle East-based pipeline organization. The authors describe some of the most common significant environmental aspects of pipeline operations and provide examples of various approaches and technologies that can be successfully utilized to make pipelines more environmentally sustainable. The author concludes that the operation of onshore hydrocarbon pipelines can be made environmentally sustainable. This can be achieved by adopting a systematic framework, focusing limited resources on significant aspects, integrating a circular economy into day-to-day activities, and having strong management support.
Keywords: pipelines, onshore hydrocarbon pipelines, environmental sustainability, significant environmental aspectsProcedia PDF Downloads 17
318 Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete
Authors: Mustafa Hasan Omar
Abstract:The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by -21%, -27% and -23%, whereas in splitting tensile strength by -19%, -24% and -20%, respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are -17%, -22% and -19% and in cylindrical specimens are -20%, -25% and -22%, respectively.
Keywords: epoxy resin, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocityProcedia PDF Downloads 60
317 Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Prospects of 'ADE' Field, Niger Delta
Authors: Oluseun A. Sanuade, Sanlinn I. Kaka, Adesoji O. Akanji, Olukole A. Akinbiyi
Abstract:Prospect evaluation of ‘the ‘ADE’ field was done using 3D seismic data and well log data. The field is located in the offshore Niger Delta where water depth ranges from 450 to 800 m. The objectives of this study are to explore deeper prospects and to ascertain the kind of traps that are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the field. Six horizons with major and minor faults were identified and mapped in the field. Time structure maps of these horizons were generated and using the available check-shot data the maps were converted to top structure maps which were used to calculate the hydrocarbon volume. The results show that regional structural highs that are trending in northeast-southwest (NE-SW) characterized a large portion of the field. These highs were observed across all horizons revealing a regional post-depositional deformation. Three prospects were identified and evaluated to understand the different opportunities in the field. These include stratigraphic pinch out and bi-directional downlap. The results of this study show that the field has potentials for new opportunities that could be explored for further studies.
Keywords: hydrocarbon, play, prospect, stratigraphyProcedia PDF Downloads 166
316 Defining Unconventional Hydrocarbon Parameter Using Shale Play Concept
Authors: Rudi Ryacudu, Edi Artono, Gema Wahyudi Purnama
Abstract:Oil and gas consumption in Indonesia is currently on the rise due to its nation economic improvement. Unfortunately, Indonesia’s domestic oil production cannot meet it’s own consumption and Indonesia has lost its status as Oil and Gas exporter. Even worse, our conventional oil and gas reserve is declining. Unwilling to give up, the government of Indonesia has taken measures to invite investors to invest in domestic oil and gas exploration to find new potential reserve and ultimately increase production. Yet, it has not bear any fruit. Indonesia has taken steps now to explore new unconventional oil and gas play including Shale Gas, Shale Oil and Tight Sands to increase domestic production. These new plays require definite parameters to differentiate each concept. The purpose of this paper is to provide ways in defining unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir parameters in Shale Gas, Shale Oil and Tight Sands. The parameters would serve as an initial baseline for users to perform analysis of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. Some of the on going concerns or question to be answered in regards to unconventional hydrocarbon plays includes: 1. The TOC number, 2. Has it been well “cooked” and become a hydrocarbon, 3. What are the permeability and the porosity values, 4. Does it need a stimulation, 5. Does it has pores, and 6. Does it have sufficient thickness. In contrast with the common oil and gas conventional play, Shale Play assumes that hydrocarbon is retained and trapped in area with very low permeability. In most places in Indonesia, hydrocarbon migrates from source rock to reservoir. From this case, we could derive a theory that Kitchen and Source Rock are located right below the reservoir. It is the starting point for user or engineer to construct basin definition in relation with the tectonic play and depositional environment. Shale Play concept requires definition of characteristic, description and reservoir identification to discover reservoir that is technically and economically possible to develop. These are the steps users and engineers has to do to perform Shale Play: a. Calculate TOC and perform mineralogy analysis using water saturation and porosity value. b. Reconstruct basin that accumulate hydrocarbon c. Brittlenes Index calculated form petrophysical and distributed based on seismic multi attributes d. Integrated natural fracture analysis e. Best location to place a well.
Keywords: unconventional hydrocarbon, shale gas, shale oil tight sand reservoir parameters, shale playProcedia PDF Downloads 340
315 Unconventional Hydrocarbon Management Strategy
Authors: Edi Artono, Budi Tamtomo, Gema Wahyudi Purnama
Abstract:The world energy demand increasing extreamly high time by time, including domestic demand. That is impossible to avoid because energy a country demand proportional to surge in the number of residents, economic growth and addition of industrial sector. Domestic Oil and gas conventional reserves depleted naturally while production outcome from reservoir also depleted time to time. In the other hand, new reserve did not discover significantly to replace it all. Many people are investigating to looking for new alternative energy to answer the challenge. There are several option to solve energy fossil needed problem using Unconventional Hydrocarbon. There are four aspects to consider as a management reference in order that Unconventional Hydrocarbon business can work properly, divided to: 1. Legal aspect, 2. Environmental aspect, 3. Technical aspect and 4. Economy aspect. The economic aspect as the key to whether or not a project can be implemented or not in Oil and Gas business scheme, so do Unconventional Hydorcarbon business scheme. The support of regulation are needed to buttress Unconventional Hydorcarbon business grow up and make benefits contribute to Government.
Keywords: alternative energy, unconventional hydrocarbon, regulation support, management strategyProcedia PDF Downloads 252
314 Hyperspectral Band Selection for Oil Spill Detection Using Deep Neural Network
Authors: Asmau Mukhtar Ahmed, Olga Duran
Abstract:Hydrocarbon (HC) spills constitute a significant problem that causes great concern to the environment. With the latest technology (hyperspectral images) and state of the earth techniques (image processing tools), hydrocarbon spills can easily be detected at an early stage to mitigate the effects caused by such menace. In this study; a controlled laboratory experiment was used, and clay soil was mixed and homogenized with different hydrocarbon types (diesel, bio-diesel, and petrol). The different mixtures were scanned with HYSPEX hyperspectral camera under constant illumination to generate the hypersectral datasets used for this experiment. So far, the Short Wave Infrared Region (SWIR) has been exploited in detecting HC spills with excellent accuracy. However, the Near-Infrared Region (NIR) is somewhat unexplored with regards to HC contamination and how it affects the spectrum of soils. In this study, Deep Neural Network (DNN) was applied to the controlled datasets to detect and quantify the amount of HC spills in soils in the Near-Infrared Region. The initial results are extremely encouraging because it indicates that the DNN was able to identify features of HC in the Near-Infrared Region with a good level of accuracy.
Keywords: hydrocarbon, Deep Neural Network, short wave infrared region, near-infrared region, hyperspectral imageProcedia PDF Downloads 51
313 Characterization of Petrophysical Properties of Reservoirs in Bima Formation, Northeastern Nigeria: Implication for Hydrocarbon Exploration
Authors: Gabriel Efomeh Omolaiye, Jimoh Ajadi, Olatunji Seminu, Yusuf Ayoola Jimoh, Ubulom Daniel
Abstract:Identification and characterization of petrophysical properties of reservoirs in the Bima Formation were undertaken to understand their spatial distribution and impacts on hydrocarbon saturation in the highly heterolithic siliciclastic sequence. The study was carried out using nine well logs from Maiduguri and Baga/Lake sub-basins within the Borno Basin. The different log curves were combined to decipher the lithological heterogeneity of the serrated sand facies and to aid the geologic correlation of sand bodies within the sub-basins. Evaluation of the formation reveals largely undifferentiated to highly serrated and lenticular sand bodies from which twelve reservoirs named Bima Sand-1 to Bima Sand-12 were identified. The reservoir sand bodies are bifurcated by shale beds, which reduced their thicknesses variably from 0.61 to 6.1 m. The shale content in the sand bodies ranged from 11.00% (relatively clean) to high shale content of 88.00%. The formation also has variable porosity values, with calculated total porosity ranged as low as 10.00% to as high as 35.00%. Similarly, effective porosity values spanned between 2.00 to 24.00%. The irregular porosity values also accounted for a wide range of field average permeability estimates computed for the formation, which measured between 0.03 to 319.49 mD. Hydrocarbon saturation (Sh) in the thin lenticular sand bodies also varied from 40.00 to 78.00%. Hydrocarbon was encountered in three intervals in Ga-1, four intervals in Da-1, two intervals in Ar-1, and one interval in Ye-1. Ga-1 well encountered 30.78 m thick of hydrocarbon column in 14 thin sand lobes in Bima Sand-1, with thicknesses from 0.60 m to 5.80 m and average saturation of 51.00%, while Bima Sand-2 intercepted 45.11 m thick of hydrocarbon column in 12 thin sand lobes with an average saturation of 61.00% and Bima Sand-9 has 6.30 m column in 4 thin sand lobes. Da-1 has hydrocarbon in Bima Sand-8 (5.30 m, Sh of 58.00% in 5 sand lobes), Bima Sand-10 (13.50 m, Sh of 52.00% in 6 sand lobes), Bima Sand-11 (6.20 m, Sh of 58.00% in 2 sand lobes) and Bima Sand-12 (16.50 m, Sh of 66% in 6 sand lobes). In the Ar-1 well, hydrocarbon occurs in Bima Sand-3 (2.40 m column, Sh of 48% in a sand lobe) and Bima Sand-9 (6.0 m, Sh of 58% in a sand lobe). Ye-1 well only intersected 0.5 m hydrocarbon in Bima Sand-1 with 78% saturation. Although Bima Formation has variable saturation of hydrocarbon, mainly gas in Maiduguri, and Baga/Lake sub-basins of the research area, its highly thin serrated sand beds, coupled with very low effective porosity and permeability in part, would pose a significant exploitation challenge. The sediments were deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, resulting in a very thinly laminated or serrated alternation of sand and shale beds lithofacies.
Keywords: Bima, Chad Basin, fluvio-lacustrine, lithofacies, serrated sandProcedia PDF Downloads 98
312 Ecological Effects of Oil Spill on Water and Sediment from Two Riverine Communities in Warri
Authors: Doris Fovwe Ogeleka, L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo, F. E. Okieimen
Abstract:The ecological effects of oil spill in the environment were studied in Warri riverine areas of Ubeji and Jeddo, Delta State. In the two communities, water and sediment samples were analysed for organics (polyaromatic hydrocarbon; total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc, iron and chromium). The American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods were employed for the laboratory test. The results indicated that after a long period of oil spill (above one year), there were still significant concentrations (p<0.05) of organics indicating hydrocarbon pollution. Mean concentrations recorded for TPH in Ubeji and Jeddo waters were 23.60 ± 1.18 mg/L and 29.96 ± 0.14 mg/L respectively while total PAHs was 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/L and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg/L. Mean concentrations of TPH in the sediment was 48.83 ± 1.49 ppm and 1093 ± 74 ppm in the above order while total PAHs was 0.012 ± 0.002 ppm and 0.026 ± 0.004 ppm. Low concentrations were recorded for most of the heavy metals in the water and sediment. The observed concentrations of hydrocarbons in the study areas should provide the impetus for regulatory surveillance of oil discharged intentionally/unintentionally into the Warri riverine waters and sediment since hydrocarbon released into the environment sorb to the sediment particles where they cause harm to organisms in the sediment and overlying waters.
Keywords: crude oil, PAHs, TPH, oil spillage, water, sedimentProcedia PDF Downloads 227
311 Comparative Analysis of the Computer Methods' Usage for Calculation of Hydrocarbon Reserves in the Baltic Sea
Authors: Pavel Shcherban, Vlad Golovanov
Abstract:Nowadays, the depletion of hydrocarbon deposits on the land of the Kaliningrad region leads to active geological exploration and development of oil and natural gas reserves in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. LLC 'Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft' implements a comprehensive program for the development of the region's shelf in 2014-2023. Due to heterogeneity of reservoir rocks in various open fields, as well as with ambiguous conclusions on the contours of deposits, additional geological prospecting and refinement of the recoverable oil reserves are carried out. The key element is use of an effective technique of computer stock modeling at the first stage of processing of the received data. The following step uses information for the cluster analysis, which makes it possible to optimize the field development approaches. The article analyzes the effectiveness of various methods for reserves' calculation and computer modelling methods of the offshore hydrocarbon fields. Cluster analysis allows to measure influence of the obtained data on the development of a technical and economic model for mining deposits. The relationship between the accuracy of the calculation of recoverable reserves and the need of modernization of existing mining infrastructure, as well as the optimization of the scheme of opening and development of oil deposits, is observed.
Keywords: cluster analysis, computer modelling of deposits, correction of the feasibility study, offshore hydrocarbon fieldsProcedia PDF Downloads 106
310 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts
Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam
Abstract:The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.
Keywords: microkinetic modelling, NOx, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reductionProcedia PDF Downloads 324
309 Potential of Ozonation and Phytoremediation to Reduce Hydrocarbon Levels Remaining after the Pilot Scale Microbial Based Bioremediation (Land-Farming) of a Heavily Polluted Soil
Authors: Hakima Althalb
Abstract:Petroleum contamination of sandy soils is a severe environmental problem in Libya, but relatively little work has been carried out to optimize the bioremediation of such heavily contaminated soil, particularly at a pilot scale. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential for the microbial-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil obtained from an oil refinery in Libya and to assess the potential of both ozonation and phytoremediation (both applied after initial bioremediation) to reduce residual hydrocarbon levels. Plots containing 500 kg soil (triplicates) (contaminated soil diluted with clean soil 50% volume) were set up, (designated as Land Treatment Units; LTUs) containing five different nutrient levels and mixtures (Urea + NPK (nitrogen; phosphor; potassium) mixtures) to obtain C:N:P ratios 100:10:1, and monitored for 90 days. Hydrocarbon levels, microbial numbers, and toxicity (EC50 using luminescent microbial based tests) were assessed. Hydrocarbon levels in non-diluted and diluted soil ranged from 20 733-22 366 mg/kg and from 16 000-17 000 mg/kg respectively. Although all the land treatment units revealed a significant hydrocarbon reduction over time, the highest reduction in hydrocarbon levels obtained was around 60%. For example, 63% hydrocarbon removal was observed using a mixture of urea and NPK with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1). Soil toxicity (as assessed using luminescence based toxicity assays) reduced in line with the reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons observed. However, as relatively high residual TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) levels (ranging from 6033-14166mg/kg) were still present after initial bioremediation two ‘post-treatments’ (phytoremediation and ozonation) were attempted to remove residual hydrocarbons remaining. Five locally grown (agriculturally important) plant species were tested. The germination of all plants examined was strongly inhibited (80-100%) and seedlings failed to grow well in the contaminated soil, indicating that the previously bioremediated soils were still toxic to the plants. Subsequent ozonation followed by another bioremediation of soil was more successful than phytoremediation. But even the most promising successful treatment in this study (ozonation for 6 hours at 25ppm followed by bioremediation) still only removed approximately 31% of the residual hydrocarbons. Overall, this work showed that the bioremediation of such highly contaminated soils is difficult and that a combination of treatments would be required to achieve successful remediation. Even after initial dilution and bioremediation the soils remained toxic to plant growth and were therefore not suitable for phytoremediation.
Keywords: bioremediation, petroleum hydrocarbons, ozone, phytoremediationProcedia PDF Downloads 98
308 Basin Professor, Petroleum Geology Assessor in Indonesia Basin
Authors: Arditya Nugraha, Herry Gunawan, Agung P. Widodo
Abstract:The various possible strategies to find hydrocarbon are explored within a wide ranging of efforts. It started to identify petroleum concept in the basin. The main objectives of this paper are to integrate and develop information, knowledge, and evaluation from Indonesia’s sedimentary basins system in terms of their suitability for exploration activity and estimate the hydrocarbon potential available. The system which compiled data information and knowledge and comprised exploration and production data of all basins in Indonesia called as Basin Professor which stands for Basin Professional and Processor. Basin Professor is a website application using Geography Information System which consists of all information about basin montage, basin summary, petroleum system, stratigraphy, development play, risk factor, exploration history, working area, regional cross section, well correlation, prospect & lead inventory and infrastructure spatial. From 82 identified sedimentary basins, North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatera, East Java, Kutai, and Tarakan basins are respectively positioned of the Indonesia’ s mature basin and the most productive basin. The Eastern of Indonesia also have many hydrocarbon potential and discovered several fields in Papua and East Abadi. Basin Professor compiled the well data in all of the basin in Indonesia from mature basin to frontier basin. Well known geological data, subsurface mapping, prospect and lead, resources and established infrastructures are the main factors make these basins have higher suitability beside another potential basin. The hydrocarbon potential resulted from this paper based on the degree of geological data, petroleum, and economic evaluation. Basin Professor has provided by a calculator tool in lead and prospect for estimate the hydrocarbon reserves, recoverable in place and geological risk. Furthermore, the calculator also defines the preliminary economic evaluation such as investment, POT IRR and infrastructures in each basin. From this Basin Professor, petroleum companies are able to estimate that Indonesia has a huge potential of hydrocarbon oil and gas reservoirs and still interesting for hydrocarbon exploration and production activity.
Keywords: basin summary, petroleum system, resources, economic evaluationProcedia PDF Downloads 223
307 Reactivity of Clay Minerals of the Hydrocarbon Reservoir Rocks and the Effect of Zeolites on Operation and Production Costs That the Oil Industry in the World Assumes
Authors: Carlos Alberto Ríos Reyes
Abstract:Traditionally, clays have been considered as one of the main problems in the flow of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, there is not known the significance of zeolites formed from the reactivity of clays and their effect not only on the costs of operations carried out by the oil industry in the world but also on production. The present work focused on understanding the interaction between clay minerals with brines and alkaline solutions used in the oil industry. For this, a comparative study was conducted where the reaction of sedimentary rocks under laboratory conditions was examined. Original and treated rocks were examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the changes that these rocks underwent upon contact with fluids of variable chemical composition. As a result, zeolite Linde Type A (LTA), sodalite (SOD), and cancrinite (CAN) can be formed after experimental work, which coincided with the dissolution of kaolinite and smectite. Results reveal that the Oil Industry should invest efforts and focus its gaze to understand at the pore scale the problem that could arise as a consequence of the clay-fluid interaction in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks due to the presence of clays in their porous system, as well as the formation of zeolites, which are better hydrocarbon absorbents. These issues could be generating losses in world production. We conclude that there is a critical situation that may be occurring in the stimulation of hydrocarbon reservoirs, where real solutions are necessary not only for the formulation of more efficient and effective injection fluids but also to contribute to the improvement of production and avoid considerable losses in operating costs.
Keywords: clay minerals, zeolites, rock-fluid interaction, experimental work, reactivityProcedia PDF Downloads 13
306 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field
Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari
Abstract:Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversionProcedia PDF Downloads 224
305 The Cellular Internalization Mechanisms of Cationic Niosomes/DNA Complex in HeLa Cells
Authors: Orapan Paecharoenchai, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat, Theerasak Rojanarata, Auayporn Apirakaramwong, Praneet Opanasopit
Abstract:Cationic niosomes formulated with Span20, cholesterol and novel synthesized spermine-cationic lipids (2-hydrocarbon tail and 4- hydrocarbon tail) in a molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:1 can mediate high gene transfection in vitro. However, the uptake mechanisms of these systems are not well clarified. In the present study, effect of endocytic inhibitors on the transfection efficiency of niosomes/DNA complexes was determined on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using the inhibitors of macropinocytosis (wortmannin), clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-β-cyclodextrin), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (chlorpromazine), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (genistein and filipin), cytosolic transfer (ammonium chloride) and microtubules polymerization (nocodazole). The transfection of niosomes with 2-hydrocarbon tail lipid was blocked by nocodazole, genistein, ammonium chloride and filipin, respectively, whereas, the transfection of niosomes with 4-hydrocarbon tail lipid was blocked by nocodazole, genistein, ammonium chloride, methyl-β-cyclodextrin and filipin, respectively. It can be concluded that these niosomes/DNA complexes were internalized predominantly by endocytosis via clathrin and caveolae-independent pathway.
Keywords: cellular internalization, cationic niosomes, gene carriers, spermine-cationic lipidsProcedia PDF Downloads 399
304 Potential Hydrocarbon Degraders Present in Oil from WWII Wrecks in the Pacific
Authors: Awei Bainivalu, Joachim Larsen, Logesh Panneerselvan, Toby Mills, Brett Neilan, Megharaj Mallavarapu
Abstract:World War II (WWII) shipwrecks harbour up to 20 million tonnes of oil. More than 3000 wrecks are in the Pacific Ocean; 300 are oil tankers. Compared to other oil removal methods, bioremediation is environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Oil's microbial community and hydrocarbon properties from the Pacific WWII wrecks were identified. Dominant phyla are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Native marine bacteria oil-degraders were isolated for bioremediation. Petroleum degradation data from the bacterial consortium will be analyzed over the next three months.
Keywords: oil bioremediation, marine bacteria, WWII shipwrecks, pacificProcedia PDF Downloads 65
303 Efficient of Technology Remediation Soil That Contaminated by Petroleum Based on Heat without Combustion
Authors: Gavin Hutama Farandiarta, Hegi Adi Prabowo, Istiara Rizqillah Hanifah, Millati Hanifah Saprudin, Raden Iqrafia Ashna
Abstract:The increase of the petroleum’s consumption rate encourages industries to optimize and increase the activity in processing crude oil into petroleum. However, although the result gives a lot of benefits to humans worldwide, it also gives negative impact to the environment. One of the negative impacts of processing crude oil is the soil will be contaminated by petroleum sewage sludge. This petroleum sewage sludge, contains hydrocarbon compound and it can be calculated by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH).Petroleum sludge waste is accounted as hazardous and toxic. The soil contamination caused by the petroleum sludge is very hard to get rid of. However, there is a way to manage the soil that is contaminated by petroleum sludge, which is by using heat (thermal desorption) in the process of remediation. There are several factors that affect the success rate of the remediation with the help of heat which are temperature, time, and air pressure in the desorption column. The remediation process using the help of heat is an alternative in soil recovery from the petroleum pollution which highly effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly that produces uncontaminated soil and the petroleum that can be used again.
Keywords: petroleum sewage sludge, remediation soil, thermal desorption, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)Procedia PDF Downloads 160
302 Remediation of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (O&G E&P) Wastes Using Soil-Poultry Dropping Amendment
Authors: Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong, Victor O. Nwaugo, Ime R. Udotong
Abstract:Oily wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (O&G E&P) activities were remediated for twelve weeks using Soil-Poultry dropping amendment. Culture-dependent microbiological, chemical and enzymatic techniques were employed to assess the efficacy of remediation process. Microbiological activities of the remediated wastes showed increased hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations with increased remediation time; 2.7±0.1 x 105cfu/g to 8.3 ± 0.04 x106cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, 1.7 ± 0.2 x103cfu/g to 6.0 ± 0.01 x 104cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing fungi and 2.2 ± 0.1 x 102cfu/g to 6.7 ± 0.1 x 103cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing actinomycetes. Bacteria associated with the remediated wastes after the remediation period included the genera Bacillus, Psuedomonas, Beijerinckia, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes and Serratia. Fungal isolates included species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium, while the Actinomycetes included species of Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Slight fluctuations in pH values between 6.5± 0.2 and 7.1 ± 0.08 were recorded throughout the process, while total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content decreased from 89, 900 ± 0.03mg/kg to 425 ± 0.1 mg/kg after twelve weeks of remediation. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels decreased with increased remediation time; naphthalene, flourene, pheneanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)flouranthene showed decreased values < 0.01 after twelve weeks of remediation. Enzyme activities revealed increased dehydrogenase and urease activities with increased remediation time and decreased phenol oxidase activity with increased remediation period. There was a positive linear correlation between densities of hydrocarbonoclastic microbes and dehydrogenase activity. On the contrary, phenol oxidase and urease activities showed negative correlation with microbial population. Results of this study confirmed that remediation of oily wastes using soil-poultry dropping amendment can result in eco-friendly O&G E&P wastes. It also indicates that urease and phenol oxidase activities can be reliable indices/tools to monitor PAH levels and rates of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation.
Keywords: dehydrogenase activity, oily wastes, remediation, soil-poultry dropping amendmentProcedia PDF Downloads 258
301 The Implementation of Poisson Impedance Inversion to Improve Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization in Poseidon Field, Browse Basin, Australia
Authors: Riky Tri Hartagung, Mohammad Syamsu Rosid
Abstract:The lithology prediction process, as well as the fluid content is the most important part in the reservoir characterization. One of the methods used in this process is the simultaneous seismic inversion method. In the Posseidon field, Browse Basin, Australia, the parameters generated through simultaneous seismic inversion are not able to characterize the reservoir accurately because of the overlapping impedance values between hydrocarbon sand, water sand, and shale, which causes a high level of ambiguity in the interpretation. The Poisson Impedance inversion provides a solution to this problem by rotating the impedance a few degrees, which is obtained through the coefficient c. Coefficient c is obtained through the Target Correlation Coefficient Analysis (TCCA) by finding the optimum correlation coefficient between Poisson Impedance and the target log, namely gamma ray, effective porosity, and resistivity. Correlation of each of these target logs will produce Lithology Impedance (LI) which is sensitive to lithology sand, Porosity Impedance (ϕI) which is sensitive to porous sand, and Fluid Impedance (FI) which is sensitive to fluid content. The results show that PI gives better results in separating hydrocarbon saturated reservoir zones. Based on the results of the LI-GR crossplot, the ϕI-effective porosity crossplot, and the FI-Sw crossplot with optimum correlations of 0.74, 0.91, and 0.82 respectively, it shows that the lithology of hidrocarbon-saturated porous sand is at the value of LI ≤ 2800 (m/s)(g *cc), ϕI ≤ 5500 (m/s)(g*cc), and FI ≤ 4000 (m/s)(g*cc). The presence of low values of LI, ϕI, and FI correlates accurately with the presence of hydrocarbons in the well. Each value of c is then applied to the seismic data. The results show that the PI inversion gives a good distribution of Hydrocarbon-saturated porous sand lithology. The distribution of hydrocarbon saturated porous sand on the seismic inversion section is seen in the northeast – southwest direction, which is estimated as the direction of gas distribution.
Keywords: reservoir characterization, poisson impedance, browse basin, poseidon fieldProcedia PDF Downloads 54
300 Organic Geochemical Evaluation of the Ecca Group Shale: Implications for Hydrocarbon Potential
Authors: Temitope L. Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava, Christopher Baiyegunhi
Abstract:Shale gas has recently been the exploration focus for future energy resource in South Africa. Specifically, the black shales of the lower Ecca Group in the study area are considered to be one of the most prospective targets for shale gas exploration. Evaluation of this potential resource has been restricted due to the lack of exploration and scarcity of existing drill core data. Thus, only limited previous geochemical data exist for these formations. In this study, outcrop and core samples of the Ecca Group were analysed to assess their total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter type, thermal maturity and hydrocarbon generation potential (SP). The results show that these rocks have TOC ranging from 0.11 to 7.35 wt.%. The SP values vary from 0.09 to 0.53 mg HC/g, suggesting poor hydrocarbon generative potential. The plot of S1 versus TOC shows that the source rocks were characterized by autochthonous hydrocarbons. S2/S3 values range between 0.40 and 7.5, indicating Type- II/III, III, and IV kerogen. With the exception of one sample from the collingham formation which has HI value of 53 mg HC/g TOC, all other samples have HI values of less than 50 mg HC/g TOC, thus suggesting Type-IV kerogen, which is mostly derived from reworked organic matter (mainly dead carbon) with little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. Tmax values range from 318 to 601℃, indicating immature to over-maturity of hydrocarbon. The vitrinite reflectance values range from 2.22 to 3.93%, indicating over-maturity of the kerogen. Binary plots of HI against OI and HI versus Tmax show that the shales are of Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogen, which are capable of generating both natural gas and minor oil at suitable burial depth. Based on the geochemical data, it can be inferred that the source rocks are immature to over-matured variable from localities and have potential of producing wet to dry gas at present-stage. Generally, the Whitehill formation of the Ecca Group is comparable to the Marcellus and Barnett Shales. This further supports the assumption that the Whitehill Formation has a high probability of being a profitable shale gas play, but only when explored in dolerite-free area and away from the Cape Fold Belt.
Keywords: source rock, organic matter type, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon generation potential, Ecca GroupProcedia PDF Downloads 85
299 Establishing Sequence Stratigraphic Framework and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Late Cretaceous Strata: A Case Study from Central Indus Basin, Pakistan
Authors: Bilal Wadood, Suleman Khan, Sajjad Ahmed
Abstract:The Late Cretaceous strata (Mughal Kot Formation) exposed in Central Indus Basin, Pakistan is evaluated for establishing sequence stratigraphic framework and potential of hydrocarbon accumulation. The petrographic studies and SEM analysis were carried out to infer the hydrocarbon potential of the rock unit. The petrographic details disclosed 4 microfacies including Pelagic Mudstone, OrbitoidalWackestone, Quartz Arenite, and Quartz Wacke. The lowermost part of the rock unit consists of OrbitoidalWackestone which shows deposition in the middle shelf environment. The Quartz Arenite and Quartz Wacke suggest deposition on the deep slope settings while the Pelagic Mudstone microfacies point toward deposition in the distal deep marine settings. Based on the facies stacking patterns and cyclicity in the chronostratigraphic context, the strata is divided into two 3rd order cycles. One complete sequence i.e Transgressive system tract (TST), Highstand system tract (HST) and Lowstand system tract (LST) are again replaced by another Transgressive system tract and Highstant system tract with no markers of sequence boundary. The LST sands are sandwiched between TST and HST shales but no potential porosity/permeability values have been determined. Microfacies and SEM studies revealed very fewer chances for hydrocarbon accumulation and overall reservoir potential is characterized as low.
Keywords: cycle, deposition, microfacies, reservoirProcedia PDF Downloads 87
298 Preliminary Analysis for Oil and Gas Geological Characteristics and Exploration Prospects of Doseo Basin in Central Africa
Authors: Haiqiang Song, Huiqing Liu
Abstract:The Doseo basin in Chad, Central Africa is one of the most important oil and gas blocks in the world. However, the low degree of oil and gas exploration and the lack of relevant geological data restrict the understanding and resource evaluation of the basin. To further develop the Doseo basin efficiently, it is urgent to deeply analyze the source rock characteristics and hydrocarbon generation potential of the Doseo basin. Based on seismic and drilling data in recent years, this paper systematically evaluates the geochemical characteristics of source rocks and their generated oils in Doseo Basin, explores the development, distribution, and evolution characteristics of source rocks, and evaluates the exploration potential of Doseo Basin according to the hydrocarbon enrichment law. The results show that the Lower Cretaceous Baliemian and Apudian source rocks in Doseo Basin are well developed, with high organic matter abundance (average TOC≥3%) and good organic matter types (type I~II), which are the main development layers of source rocks, but the organic matter maturity is generally low (Ro of the drilled source rocks is mainly between 0.4%~0.8%). The planar structure also shows that the main hydrocarbon accumulation mode in Doseo sag is the forward tectonic reservoirs such as near source anticlines and faulted noses. Finally, it is estimated that the accumulative resources of the main source rocks in the Doseo Basin are about 4.33× 108T in Apudite and Balim terrace layers. The results of this study will help guide the next step of oil and gas exploration, which is expected to drive the next step of oil and gas development.
Keywords: Doseo basin, lower cretaceous, source rock characteristics, developmental characteristics, hydrocarbon generation potentialProcedia PDF Downloads 43
297 Investigation of Ignition Delay for Low Molecular Hydrocarbon Fuel and Oxygen Mixture behind the Reflected Shock
Authors: K. R. Guna, Aldin Justin Sundararaj, B. C. Pillai, A. N. Subash
Abstract:A systematic study has been made for ignition delay times measurement behind a reflected shock wave for the low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuel in argon simulated gas mixtures. The low molecular hydrocarbon fuel–oxygen was diluted with argon for desired concentration is taken for the study. The suitability of the shock tube for measuring the ignition delay time is demonstrated by measuring the ignition delay for the liquefied petroleum gas for equivalence ratios (ф=0.5 & 1) in the temperature range 1150-1650 K. The pressure range was fixed from 5-15 bar. The ignition delay was measured by recording the ignition-induced pressure jump and emission from CH radical simultaneously. From conducting experiments, it was found that the ignition delay time for liquefied petroleum gas reduces with increase in temperature. The shock tube was calibrated for ethane-oxygen gas mixture and the results obtained from this study is compared with the earlier reported values and found to be comparably well suited for the measurement of ignition delay times. The above work was carried out using the shock tube facility at propulsion and high enthalpy laboratory, Karunya University.
Keywords: ignition delay, LPG, reflected shock, shock waveProcedia PDF Downloads 157
296 Catalytic Deoxygenation of Non-Edible Oil to Renewable Fuel by Using Calcium-Based Nanocatalyst
Authors: Hwei Voon Lee, N. Asikin-Mijana, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, J. C. Juan, N. A. Rahman
Abstract:Cracking–Deoxygenation process is one of the important reaction pathways for the production of bio-fuel with desirable n-C17 hydrocarbon chain via removal of oxygen compounds. Calcium-based catalyst has attracted much attention in deoxygenation process due to its relatively high capacity in removing oxygenated compounds in the form of CO₂ and CO under decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction, respectively. In the present study, deoxygenation of triolein was investigated using Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst derived from low cost natural waste shells. The Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst was prepared via integration techniques between surfactant treatment (anionic and non-ionic) and wet sonochemical effect. Results showed that sonochemically assisted surfactant treatment has successfully enhanced the physicochemical properties of Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst in terms of nanoparticle sizes (∼50 nm), high surface area(∼130 m²g⁻¹), large porosity (∼18.6 nm) and strong basic strength. The presence of superior properties from surfactant treated Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalysts rendered high deoxygenation degree, which is capable of producing high alkane and alkene selectivity in chain length of n-C17(high value of C17/(n-C17+ n-C18)ratio = 0.88). Furthermore, both Ca(OH)₂–EG and Ca(OH)₂–CTAB nanocatalysts showed high reactivity with 47.37% and 44.50%, respectively in total liquid hydrocarbon content of triolein conversion with high H/C and low O/C ratio.
Keywords: clamshell, cracking, decarboxylation-decarbonylation, hydrocarbonProcedia PDF Downloads 113
295 Ionic Liquid Effects on Metal Ion-Based Extractions of Olefin/Paraffin Hydrocarbon
Authors: Ellen M. Lukasik
Abstract:In coordination and support of the Center for Innovative and Strategic Transformation of Alkane Resources (CISTAR) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) at the University of Texas at Austin and under the guidance and direction of Professor Joan Brennecke, this study examined the addition of silver in an ionic liquid used to separate cyclohexane from cyclohexene. We recreated the liquid-liquid separation experimental results from the literature on cyclohexene, cyclohexane, and [allylmim][Tf2N] to verify our method, then evaluated the separation performance of silver - ionic liquid (IL) mixtures by various characterization techniques. To introduce the concepts of this research in high school education, a lesson plan was developed to instruct students on the principles of liquid-liquid separation.
Keywords: ionic liquids, liquid-liquid separation, hydrocarbon, research experience for teachersProcedia PDF Downloads 42