Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: surfactant

207 Simulation Study on Effects of Surfactant Properties on Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Xiaoqian Cheng, Jon Kleppe, Ole Torsaeter


One objective of this work is to analyze the effects of surfactant properties (viscosity, concentration, and adsorption) on surfactant enhanced oil recovery at laboratory scale. The other objective is to obtain the functional relationships between surfactant properties and the ultimate oil recovery and oil recovery rate. A core is cut into two parts from the middle to imitate the matrix with a horizontal fracture. An injector and a producer are at the left and right sides of the fracture separately. The middle slice of the core is used as the model in this paper, whose size is 4cm x 0.1cm x 4.1cm, and the space of the fracture in the middle is 0.1 cm. The original properties of matrix, brine, oil in the base case are from Ekofisk Field. The properties of surfactant are from literature. Eclipse is used as the simulator. The results are followings: 1) The viscosity of surfactant solution has a positive linear relationship with surfactant oil recovery time. And the relationship between viscosity and oil production rate is an inverse function. The viscosity of surfactant solution has no obvious effect on ultimate oil recovery. Since most of the surfactant has no big effect on viscosity of brine, the viscosity of surfactant solution is not a key parameter of surfactant screening for surfactant flooding in fractured reservoirs. 2) The increase of surfactant concentration results a decrease of oil recovery rate and an increase of ultimate oil recovery. However, there are no functions could describe the relationships. Study on economy should be conducted because of the price of surfactant and oil. 3) In the study of surfactant adsorption, assume that the matrix wettability is changed to water-wet when the surfactant adsorption is to the maximum at all cases. And the ratio of surfactant adsorption and surfactant concentration (Cads/Csurf) is used to estimate the functional relationship. The results show that the relationship between ultimate oil recovery and Cads/Csurf is a logarithmic function. The oil production rate has a positive linear relationship with exp(Cads/Csurf). The work here could be used as a reference for the surfactant screening of surfactant enhanced oil recovery from fractured reservoirs. And the functional relationships between surfactant properties and the oil recovery rate and ultimate oil recovery help to improve upscaling methods.

Keywords: fractured reservoirs, surfactant adsorption, surfactant concentration, surfactant EOR, surfactant viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
206 Loss in Efficacy of Viscoelastic Ionic Liquid Surfactants under High Salinity during Surfactant Flooding

Authors: Shilpa K. Nandwani, Mousumi Chakraborty, Smita Gupta


When selecting surfactants for surfactant flooding during enhanced oil recovery, the most important criteria is that the surfactant system should reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil to ultralow values. In the present study, a mixture of ionic liquid surfactant and commercially available binding agent sodium tosylate has been used as a surfactant mixture. Presence of wormlike micelles indicates the possibility of achieving ultralow interfacial tension. Surface tension measurements of the mixed surfactant system have been studied. The emulsion size distribution of the mixed surfactant system at varying salinities has been studied. It has been found that at high salinities the viscoelastic surfactant system loses their efficacy and degenerate. Hence the given system may find application in low salinity reservoirs, providing good mobility to the flood during tertiary oil recovery process.

Keywords: ionic liquis, interfacial tension, Na-tosylate, viscoelastic surfactants

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
205 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal


Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
204 Investigate the Effects of Anionic Surfactant on THF Hydrate

Authors: Salah A. Al-Garyani, Yousef Swesi


Gas hydrates can be hazardous to upstream operations. On the other hand, the high gas storage capacity of hydrate may be utilized for natural gas storage and transport. Research on the promotion of hydrate formation, as related to natural gas storage and transport, has received relatively little attention. The primary objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the effects of ionic surfactants, particularly their molecular structures and concentration, on the formation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, which is often used as a model hydrate former for screening hydrate promoters or inhibitors. The surfactants studied were sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium n-hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). Our results show that, at concentrations below the solubility limit, the induction time decreases with increasing surfactant concentration. At concentrations near or above the solubility, however, the surfactant concentration no longer has any effect on the induction time. These observations suggest that the effect of surfactant on THF hydrate formation is associated with surfactant monomers, not the formation of micelle as previously reported. The lowest induction time (141.25 ± 21 s, n = 4) was observed in a solution containing 7.5 mM SDS. The induction time decreases by a factor of three at concentrations near or above the solubility, compared to that without surfactant.

Keywords: tetrahydrofuran, hydrate, surfactant, induction time, monomers, micelle

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203 Spectrofluorometric Studies on the Interactions of Bovine Serum Albumin with Dimeric Cationic Surfactants

Authors: Srishti Sinha, Deepti Tikariha, Kallol K. Ghosh


Over the past few decades protein-surfactant interactions have been a subject of extensive studies as they are of great importance in wide variety of industries, biological, pharmaceutical and cosmetic systems. Protein-surfactant interactions have been explored the effect of surfactants on structure of protein in the form of solubilization and denaturing or renaturing of protein. Globular proteins are frequently used as functional ingredients in healthcare and pharmaceutical products, due to their ability to catalyze biochemical reactions, to be adsorbed on the surface of some substance and to bind other moieties and form molecular aggregates. One of the most widely used globular protein is bovine serum albumin (BSA), since it has a well-known primary structure and been associated with the binding of many different categories of molecules, such as dyes, drugs and toxic chemicals. Protein−surfactant interactions are usually dependent on the surfactant features. Most of the research has been focused on single-chain surfactants. More recently, the binding between proteins and dimeric surfactants has been discussed. In present study interactions of one dimeric surfactant Butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide) (16-4-16, 2Br-) and the corresponding single-chain surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been investigated by surface tension and spectrofluoremetric methods. It has been found that the bindings of all gemini surfactant to BSA were cooperatively driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The gemini surfactant carrying more charges and hydrophobic tails, showed stronger interactions with BSA than the single-chain surfactant.

Keywords: bovine serum albumin, gemini surfactants, hydrophobic interactions, protein surfactant interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
202 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR

Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi


There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.

Keywords: bio-surfactant, bacteria, interfacial tension, sand column

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201 Comparative Studies on Spontaneous Imbibition of Surfactant/Alkaline Solution in Carbonate Rocks

Authors: M. Asgari, N. Heydari, N. Shojai Kaveh, S. N. Ashrafizadeh


Chemical flooding methods are having importance in enhanced oil recovery to recover the trapped oil after conventional recovery, as conventional oil resources become scarce. The surfactant/alkaline process consists of injecting alkali and synthetic surfactant. The addition of surfactant to injected water reduces oil/water IFT and/or alters wettability. The alkali generates soap in situ by reaction between the alkali and naphthenic acids in the crude oil. Oil recovery in fractured reservoirs mostly depends on spontaneous imbibition (SI) of brine into matrix blocks. Thus far, few efforts have been made toward understanding the relative influence of capillary and gravity forces on the fluid flow. This paper studies the controlling mechanisms of spontaneous imbibition process in chalk formations by consideration of type and concentration of surfactants, CMC, pH and alkaline reagent concentration. Wetting properties of carbonate rock have been investigated by means of contact-angle measurements. Interfacial-tension measurements were conducted using spinning drop method. Ten imbibition experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure and various temperatures from 30°C to 50°C. All experiments were conducted above the CMC of each surfactant. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of ultimate oil recovery and reveal that wettability alteration achieved by nonionic surfactant, which led to imbibition of brine sample containing the nonionic surfactant, while IFT value was not in range of ultra low. The displacement of oil was initially dominated by capillary forces. However, for cationic surfactant, gravity forces was the dominant force for oil production by surfactant solution to overcome the negative capillary pressure.

Keywords: alkaline, capillary, gravity, imbibition, surfactant, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
200 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee


Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
199 Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant

Authors: Nizar Bouguerra, Ahmed Khabou, Sébastien Poncet, Saïd Elkoun


The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

Keywords: nanofluid, thermal conductivity, pH, transient hot wire, surfactant, Al2O3, stability, dispersion, preparation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
198 Detailed Analysis of Mechanism of Crude Oil and Surfactant Emulsion

Authors: Riddhiman Sherlekar, Umang Paladia, Rachit Desai, Yash Patel


A number of surfactants which exhibit ultra-low interfacial tension and an excellent microemulsion phase behavior with crude oils of low to medium gravity are not sufficiently soluble at optimum salinity to produce stable aqueous solutions. Such solutions often show phase separation after a few days at reservoir temperature, which does not suffice the purpose and the time is short when compared to the residence time in a reservoir for a surfactant flood. The addition of polymer often exacerbates the problem although the poor stability of the surfactant at high salinity remains a pivotal issue. Surfactants such as SDS, Ctab with large hydrophobes produce lowest IFT, but are often not sufficiently water soluble at desired salinity. Hydrophilic co-solvents and/or co-surfactants are needed to make the surfactant-polymer solution stable at the desired salinity. This study focuses on contrasting the effect of addition of a co-solvent in stability of a surfactant –oil emulsion. The idea is to use a co-surfactant to increase stability of an emulsion. Stability of the emulsion is enhanced because of creation of micro-emulsion which is verified both visually and with the help of particle size analyzer at varying concentration of salinity, surfactant and co-surfactant. A lab-experimental method description is provided and the method is described in detail to permit readers to emulate all results. The stability of the oil-water emulsion is visualized with respect to time, temperature, salinity of the brine and concentration of the surfactant. Nonionic surfactant TX-100 when used as a co-surfactant increases the stability of the oil-water emulsion. The stability of the prepared emulsion is checked by observing the particle size distribution. For stable emulsion in volume% vs particle size curve, the peak should be obtained for particle size of 5-50 nm while for the unstable emulsion a bigger sized particles are observed. The UV-Visible spectroscopy is also used to visualize the fraction of oil that plays important role in the formation of micelles in stable emulsion. This is important as the study will help us to decide applicability of the surfactant based EOR method for a reservoir that contains a specific type of crude. The use of nonionic surfactant as a co-surfactant would also increase the efficiency of surfactant EOR. With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that EOR technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. Taking this into consideration, the work focuses on the optimization of the secondary recovery(Water flooding) with the help of surfactant and/or co-surfactants by creating desired conditions in the reservoir.

Keywords: co-surfactant, enhanced oil recovery, micro-emulsion, surfactant flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
197 Optimization of Sodium Lauryl Surfactant Concentration for Nanoparticle Production

Authors: Oluwatoyin Joseph Gbadeyan, Sarp Adali, Bright Glen, Bruce Sithole


Sodium lauryl surfactant concentration optimization, for nanoparticle production, provided the platform for advanced research studies. Different concentrations (0.05 %, 0.1 %, and 0.2 %) of sodium lauryl surfactant was added to snail shells powder during milling processes for producing CaCO3 at smaller particle size. Epoxy nanocomposites prepared at filler content 2 wt.% synthesized with different volumes of sodium lauryl surfactant were fabricated using a conventional resin casting method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, and hardness of prepared nanocomposites was investigated to determine the effect of sodium lauryl surfactant concentration on nanocomposite properties. It was observed that the loading of the synthesized nano-calcium carbonate improved the mechanical properties of neat epoxy at lower concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %. Meaningfully, loading of achatina fulica snail shell nanoparticles manufactures, with small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, increased the neat epoxy tensile strength by 26%, stiffness by 55%, and hardness by 38%. Homogeneous dispersion facilitated, by the addition of sodium lauryl surfactant during milling processes, improved mechanical properties. Research evidence suggests that nano-CaCO3, synthesized from achatina fulica snail shell, possesses suitable reinforcement properties that can be used for nanocomposite fabrication. The evidence showed that adding small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, improved dispersion of nanoparticles in polymetrix material that provided mechanical properties improvement.

Keywords: sodium lauryl surfactant, mechanical properties , achatina fulica snail shel, calcium carbonate nanopowder

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196 Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents

Authors: D. Erdenechimeg, T. Bujinlkham, N. Erdenepurev


The anti-corrosion performance of fatty acid coated mild steel samples is studied. Samples of structural steel coated with collector reagents deposited from surfactant in ethanol solution and overcoated with an epoxy barrier paint. A quantitative corrosion rate was determined by linear polarization resistance method using biopotentiostat/galvanostat 400. Coating morphology was determined by scanning electronic microscopy. A test for hydrophobic surface of steel by surfactant was done. From the samples, the main component or high content iron was determined by chemical method and other metal contents were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Prior to measuring the corrosion rate, mechanical and chemical treatments were performed to prepare the test specimens. Overcoating the metal samples with epoxy barrier paint after exposing them with surfactant the corrosion rate can be inhibited by 34-35 µm/year.

Keywords: corrosion, linear polarization resistance, coating, surfactant

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195 Removal of Diesel by Soil Washing Technologies Using a Non-Ionic Surfactant

Authors: Carolina Guatemala, Josefina Barrera


A large number of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons and the limitation of the current bioremediation methods continue being the drawback for an efficient recuperation of these under safe conditions. In this regard, soil washing by degradable surfactants is an alternative option knowing the capacity of surfactants to desorb oily organic compounds. The aim of this study was the establishment of the washing conditions of a soil polluted with diesel, using a nonionic surfactant. A soil polluted with diesel was used. This was collected near to a polluted railway station zone. The soil was dried at room temperature and sieved to a mesh size 10 for its physicochemical and biological characterization. Washing of the polluted soil was performed with surfactant solutions in a 1:5 ratio (5g of soil per 25 mL of the surfactant solution). This was carried out at 28±1 °C and 150 rpm for 72 hours. The factors tested were the Tween 80 surfactant concentration (1, 2, 5 and 10%) and the treatment time. Residual diesel concentration was determined every 24 h. The soil was of a sandy loam texture with a low concentration of organic matter (3.68%) and conductivity (0.016 dS.m- 1). The soil had a pH of 7.63 which was slightly alkaline and a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon content (TPH) of 11,600 ± 1058.38 mg/kg. The high TPH content could explain the low microbial count of 1.1105 determined as UFC per gram of dried soil. Within the range of the surfactant concentration tested for washing the polluted soil under study, TPH removal increased proportionally with the surfactant concentration. 5080.8 ± 422.2 ppm (43.8 ± 3.64 %) was the maximal concentration of TPH removed after 72 h of contact with surfactant pollution at 10%. Despite the high percentage of hydrocarbons removed, it is assumed that a higher concentration of these could be removed if the washing process is extended or is carried out by stages. Soil washing through the use of surfactants as a desorbing agent was found to be a viable and effective technology for the rapid recovery of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons.

Keywords: diesel, hydrocarbons, soil washing, tween 80

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194 Effect of Addition of Surfactant to the Surface Hydrophilicity and Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Nano TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Eden G. Mariquit, Winarto Kurniawan, Masahiro Miyauchi, Hirofumi Hinode


This research studied the effect of adding surfactant to the titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol-gel solution that was used to immobilize TiO2 on glass substrates by dip coating technique using TiO2 sol-gel solution mixed with different types of surfactants. After dipping into the TiO2 sol, the films were calcined and produced pure anatase crystal phase. The thickness of the thin film was varied by repeating the dip and calcine cycle. The prepared films were characterized using FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and XRD, and its photocatalytic performances were tested on degradation of an organic dye, methylene blue. Aside from its phocatalytic performance, the photo-induced hydrophilicity of thin TiO2 films surface was also studied. Characterization results showed that the addition of surfactant gave rise to characteristic patterns on the surface of the TiO2 thin film which also affects the photocatalytic activity. The addition of CTAB to the TiO2 dipping solution had a negative effect because the calcination temperature was not high enough to burn all the surfactants off. As for the surface wettability, the addition of surfactant also affected the induced surface hydrophilicity of the TiO2 films when irradiated under UV light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, surface hydrophilicity, TiO2 thin films, surfactant

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193 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Nano-Structured Metal Hexacyanoferrates Using Sapindus mukorossi, a Natural Surfactant

Authors: Uma Shanker, Vidhisha Jassal


A novel green route was used to synthesize few metal hexacyanoferrates (FeHCF, NiHCF, CoHCF and CuHCF) nanoparticles using Sapindus mukorossias a natural surfactant and water as a solvent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo gravimetric techniques. Trasmission electron microscopic images showed that synthesized MHCF nanoparticles exhibited cubic and spherical shapes with exceptionally small sizes ranging from 3nm - 186 nm.

Keywords: metal hexacyanoferrates, natural surfactant, Sapindus mukorossias, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
192 Inhibiting Effects of Zwitterionic Surfactant on the Erosion-Corrosion of API X52 Steel in Oil Sands Slurry

Authors: M. A. Deyab


The effect of zwitterionic surfactant (ZS) on erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands slurry was studied using Tafel polarization and anodic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of API X52 steel was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZS inhibited the erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands' slurry, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ZS concentration but decreased with increasing temperature. Polarization curves indicate that ZS act as a mixed type of inhibitor. Inhibition efficiencies of ZS in the dynamic condition are not as effective as that obtained in the static condition.

Keywords: corrosion, surfactant, oil sands slurry, erosion-corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
191 Colloidal Gas Aphron Generated by a Cationic Surfactant as an Alternative Technique to Recovery Natural Colorants from Fermented Broth

Authors: V. C. Santos-Ebinuma, J. F. B. Pereira, M. F. S. Teixeira, A. Pessoa Jr., P. Jauregi


There is worldwide interest in process development for colorants production from natural sources. Microorganisms provide an alternative source of natural colorants which can be produced by cultivation technology and extracted from fermented broth. The aim of the present work was to study the recovery of red colorants from fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 using the technique of Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA); CGA are surfactant-stabilized microbubbles generated by intense stirring of a surfactant solution. CGA were generated by the cationic, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Firstly, experiments were carried out at different surfactant/fermented broth volumetric ratios (VCGA/VFB, VRATIO) varying between 3 and 18 at pH 6.9. Secondly, the experiments were carried out at VRATIO of 6 and 12 in different pH, namely, 6.9, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0. The first results of recovery showed that an increase in the VRATIO from 3 to 6 and 12 promoted an increase as recovery as partition coefficient. However, at VRATIO of 18 the lowest partition coefficient was obtained. The best results were achieved at VRATIO of 6 and 12, namely recovery, Re, around 60% and partition coefficient, K, of 2.5 and 3.0 to 6 and 12 VRATIO, respectively. The second set of experiments showed that the pH 9.0 promoted the best results at VRATIO of 12 as follow: Re=70%, K=5.39, proteins and sugar selectivity (SePROT, 3.75 and SeSUGAR, 7.20, respectively). These results indicate that with CTAB the recovery is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions. In conclusion, the results above show that CGA employing a cationic surfactant is a promissory technique and it can be used as the first step of purification to recovery red colorants from fermented broth.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, colloidal gas aphrons, recovery, natural colorants

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190 Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lub Oil Using Sursurfactant as Additive

Authors: Izza Hidaya, Korichi Mourad


Solvent extraction is an affective method for reduction of aromatic content of lube oil. Frequently with phenol, furfural, NMP(N-methyl pyrrolidone). The solvent power and selectivity can be further increased by using surfactant as additive which facilitate phase separation and to increase raffinate yield. The aromatics in lube oil were extracted at different temperatures (ranging from 333.15 to 343.15K) and different concentration of surfactant (ranging from 0.01 to 0.1% wt).The extraction temperature and the amount of sulfate lauryl éther de sodium In phenoll were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values. The amounts of aromatic, paraffinic and naphthenic compounds were determined using ASTM standards by measuring refractive index (RI), viscosity, molecular weight and sulfur content. It was found that using 0,01%wt. surfactant at 343.15K yields the optimum extraction conditions.

Keywords: extraction, lubricating oil, aromatics, hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
189 Surfactant-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Residual Oil from Palm-Pressed Mesocarp Fibre

Authors: Rabitah Zakaria, Chan M. Luan, Nor Hakimah Ramly


The extraction of vegetable oil using aqueous extraction process assisted by ionic extended surfactant has been investigated as an alternative to hexane extraction. However, the ionic extended surfactant has not been commercialised and its safety with respect to food processing is uncertain. Hence, food-grade non-ionic surfactants (Tween 20, Span 20, and Span 80) were proposed for the extraction of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp fibre. Palm-pressed mesocarp fibre contains a significant amount of residual oil ( 5-10 wt %) and its recovery is beneficial as the oil contains much higher content of vitamin E, carotenoids, and sterols compared to crude palm oil. In this study, the formulation of food-grade surfactants using a combination of high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) surfactants and low HLB surfactants to produce micro-emulsion with very low interfacial tension (IFT) was investigated. The suitable surfactant formulation was used in the oil extraction process and the efficiency of the extraction was correlated with the IFT, droplet size and viscosity. It was found that a ternary surfactant mixture with a HLB value of 15 (82% Tween 20, 12% Span 20 and 6% Span 80) was able to produce micro-emulsion with very low IFT compared to other HLB combinations. Results suggested that the IFT and droplet size highly affect the oil recovery efficiency. Finally, optimization of the operating parameters shows that the highest extraction efficiency of 78% was achieved at 1:31 solid to liquid ratio, 2 wt % surfactant solution, temperature of 50˚C, and 50 minutes contact time.

Keywords: food-grade surfactants, aqueous extraction of residual oil, palm-pressed mesocarp fibre, interfacial tension

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
188 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang


Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: cell viability, microemulsion, MTT, nanoemulsion, surfactants, ultrasonication

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
187 Simple Ecofriendly Cyclodextrine-Surfactant Modified UHPLC Method for Quantification of Multivitamins in Pharmaceutical and Food Samples

Authors: Hassan M. Albishri, Abdullah Almalawi, Deia Abd El-Hady


A simple and ecofriendly cyclodextrine-surfactant modified UHPLC (CDS-UPLC) method for rapid and sensitive simultaneous determination of multi water-soluble vitamins such as ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride and thiamine hydrochloride in commercial pharmaceuticals and milk samples have been firstly developed. Several chromatographic effective parameters have been changed in a systematic way. Adequate results have been achieved by a mixture of β-cyclodextrine (β-CD) and cationic surfactant under acidic conditions as an eco-friendly isocratic mobile phase at 0.02 mL/min flow rate. The proposed CDS- UHPLC method has been validated for the quantitative determination of multivitamins within 8 min in food and pharmaceutical samples. The method showed excellent linearity for analytes in a wide range of 10-1000 ng/µL. The repeatability and reproducibility of data were about 2.14 and 4.69 RSD%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of analytes ranged between 0.86 and 5.6 ng/µL with a range of 81.8 -115.8% recoveries in tablets and milk samples. The current first CDS- UHPLC method could have vast applications for the precise analysis of multivitamins in complicated matrices.

Keywords: ecofriendly, cyclodextrine-surfactant, multivitamins, UHPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
186 Influence of Surfactant on Supercooling Degree of Aqueous Titania Nanofluids in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hoda Aslani, Mohammad Moghiman, Mohammad Aslani


Considering the demand to reduce global warming potential and importance of solidification in various applications, there is an increasing interest in energy storage systems to find the efficient phase change materials. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study and comparison on the potential of titania nanofluids with and without surfactant for cooling energy storage systems. A designed cooling generation device based on compression refrigeration cycle is used to explore nanofluids solidification characteristics. In this work, titania nanoparticles of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 wt.% are dispersed in deionized water as base fluid. Measurement of phase change parameters of nanofluids illustrates that the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant to titania nanofluids advances the onset nucleation time and leads to lower solidification time. Also, the experimental results show that only adding 0.02 wt.% titania nanoparticles, especially in the case of nanofluids with a surfactant, can evidently reduce the supercooling degree by nearly 70%. Hence, it is concluded that there is a great energy saving potential in the energy storage systems using titania nanofluid with PVP.

Keywords: cooling energy storage, nanofluid, PVP, solidification, titania

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185 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Different Stabilizers and Study of Their Size and Properties

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Ramezan zadeh 1 , Majid Seifi 2 , Hoda Hekmat ara 2 1Biomedical Engineering Department, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Physics Department, Guilan University , P.O. Box 41335-1914, Rasht, Iran.


Magnetic nano particles of ferric chloride were synthesised using a co-precipitation technique. For the optimal results, ferric chloride at room temperature was added to different surfactant with different ratio of metal ions/surfactant. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrum to show the presence of nanoparticles, structure and morphology. Magnetic measurements were also carried out on samples using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. To show the effect of surfactant on size distribution and crystalline structure of produced nanoparticles, surfactants with various charge such as anionic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), cationic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and neutral TritonX-100 was employed. By changing the surfactant and ratio of metal ions/surfactant the size and crystalline structure of these nanoparticles were controlled. We also show that using anionic stabilizer leads to smallest size and narrowest size distribution and the most crystalline (polycrystalline) structure. In developing our production technique, many parameters were varied. Efforts at reproducing good yields indicated which of the experimental parameters were the most critical and how carefully they had to be controlled. The conditions reported here were the best that we encountered but the range of possible parameter choice is so large that these probably only represent a local optimum. The samples for our chemical process were prepared by adding 0.675 gr ferric chloride (FeCl3, 6H2O) to three different surfactant in water solution. The solution was sonicated for about 30 min until a transparent solution was achieved. Then 0.5 gr sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a reduction agent was poured to the reaction drop by drop which resulted to participate reddish brown Fe2O3 nanoparticles. After washing with ethanol the obtained powder was calcinated in 600°C for 2h. Here, the sample 1 contained CTAB as a surfactant with ratio of metal ions/surfactant 1/2, sample 2 with CTAB and ratio 1/1, sample 3 with SDS and ratio 1/2, sample 4 SDS 1/1, sample 5 is triton-X-100 with 1/2 and sample 6 triton-X-100 with 1/1.

Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, stabilizer, co-precipitation, surfactant

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184 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk


Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, surfactant, light scattering, release, injection, ultrasound, stability

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183 Effects of Matrix Properties on Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Xiaoqian Cheng, Jon Kleppe, Ole Torsæter


The properties of rocks have effects on efficiency of surfactant. One objective of this study is to analyze the effects of rock properties (permeability, porosity, initial water saturation) on surfactant spontaneous imbibition at laboratory scale. The other objective is to evaluate existing upscaling methods and establish a modified upscaling method. A core is put in a container that is full of surfactant solution. Assume there is no space between the bottom of the core and the container. The core is modelled as a cuboid matrix with a length of 3.5 cm, a width of 3.5 cm, and a height of 5 cm. The initial matrix, brine and oil properties are set as the properties of Ekofisk Field. The simulation results of matrix permeability show that the oil recovery rate has a strong positive linear relationship with matrix permeability. Higher oil recovery is obtained from the matrix with higher permeability. One existing upscaling method is verified by this model. The study on matrix porosity shows that the relationship between oil recovery rate and matrix porosity is a negative power function. However, the relationship between ultimate oil recovery and matrix porosity is a positive power function. The initial water saturation of matrix has negative linear relationships with ultimate oil recovery and enhanced oil recovery. However, the relationship between oil recovery and initial water saturation is more complicated with the imbibition time because of the transition of dominating force from capillary force to gravity force. Modified upscaling methods are established. The work here could be used as a reference for the surfactant application in fractured reservoirs. And the description of the relationships between properties of matrix and the oil recovery rate and ultimate oil recovery helps to improve upscaling methods.

Keywords: initial water saturation, permeability, porosity, surfactant EOR

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182 Effect of Wheat Germ Agglutinin- and Lactoferrin-Grafted Catanionic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles on Targeting Delivery of Etoposide to Glioblastoma Multiforme

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, I-Hsin Wang


Catanionic solid lipid nanoparticles (CASLNs) with surface wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and lactoferrin (Lf) were formulated for entrapping and releasing etoposide (ETP), crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and inhibiting the growth of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Microemulsified ETP-CASLNs were modified with WGA and Lf for permeating a cultured monolayer of human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) regulated by human astrocytes and for treating malignant U87MG cells. Experimental evidence revealed that an increase in the concentration of catanionic surfactant from 5 μM to 7.5 μM reduced the particle size. When the concentration of catanionic surfactant increased from 7.5 μM to 12.5 μM, the particle size increased, yielding a minimal diameter of WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs at 7.5 μM of catanionic surfactant. An increase in the weight percentage of BW from 25% to 75% enlarged WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs. In addition, an increase in the concentration of catanionic surfactant from 5 to 15 μM increased the absolute value of zeta potential of WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs. It was intriguing that the increment of the charge as a function of the concentration of catanionic surfactant was approximately linear. WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs revealed an integral structure with smooth particle contour, displayed a lighter exterior layer of catanionic surfactant, WGA, and Lf and showed a rigid interior region of solid lipids. A variation in the concentration of catanionic surfactant between 5 μM and 15 μM yielded a maximal encapsulation efficiency of ETP ata 7.5 μM of catanionic surfactant. An increase in the concentration of Lf/WGA decreased the grafting efficiency of Lf/WGA. Also, an increase in the weight percentage of ETP decreased its encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, the release rate of ETP from WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs reduced with increasing concentration of catanionic surfactant, and WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs at 12.5 μM of catanionic surfactant exhibited a feature of sustained release. The order in the viability of HBMECs was ETP-CASLNs ≅ Lf-ETP-CASLNs ≅ WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs > ETP. The variation in the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of propidium iodide (PI) was negligible when the concentration of Lf increased. Furthermore, an increase in the concentration of WGA from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/mL insignificantly altered the TEER and permeability of PI. When the concentration of Lf increased from 2.5 to 7.5 μg/mL and the concentration of WGA increased from 2.5 to 5 μg/mL, the enhancement in the permeability of ETP was minor. However, 10 μg/mL of Lf promoted the permeability of ETP using Lf-ETP-CASLNs, and 5 and 10 μg/mL of WGA could considerably improve the permeability of ETP using WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs. The order in the efficacy of inhibiting U87MG cells was WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs > Lf-ETP-CASLNs > ETP-CASLNs > ETP. As a result, WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs reduced the TEER, enhanced the permeability of PI, induced a minor cytotoxicity to HBMECs, increased the permeability of ETP across the BBB, and improved the antiproliferative efficacy of U87MG cells. The grafting of WGA and Lf is crucial to control the medicinal property of ETP-CASLNs and WGA-Lf-ETP-CASLNs can be promising colloidal carriers in GBM management.

Keywords: catanionic solid lipid nanoparticle, etoposide, glioblastoma multiforme, lactoferrin, wheat germ agglutinin

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181 Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on in vitro Release of Ketorolactromethamine

Authors: Ajay Aggarwal, Kamal Saroha, Sanju Nanda


Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Entrapment efficiency was found to be higher in case of niosome prepared with span60 than niosome prepared with tween. The amount of release was found to be in order of Span20>Tween60>Tween20>Span60. As the concentration of surfactant is increased in vitro release was increased due to high entrapment. The stability study of optimized batch revealed that particle size was increased after 3months on increasing the temperature. On the other hand entrapment efficiency was decreased on increasing the temperature.

Keywords: niosomes, vesicles, span, tween, in vitro release

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180 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anticancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein


Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, syn-thesis of nano-composites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nano tubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work Sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures.Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diag-nosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), TEM, SEM, XRD

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179 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anti Cancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein


Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, synthesis of nanocomposites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nanotubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro-emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work, sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures. Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), TEM, SEM, anti cancer activity, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
178 Airborne Pollutants and Lung Surfactant: Biophysical Impacts of Surface Oxidation Reactions

Authors: Sahana Selladurai, Christine DeWolf


Lung surfactant comprises a lipid-protein film that coats the alveolar surface and serves to prevent alveolar collapse upon repeated breathing cycles. Exposure of lung surfactant to high concentrations of airborne pollutants, for example tropospheric ozone in smog, can chemically modify the lipid and protein components. These chemical changes can impact the film functionality by decreasing the film’s collapse pressure (minimum surface tension attainable), altering it is mechanical and flow properties and modifying lipid reservoir formation essential for re-spreading of the film during the inhalation process. In this study, we use Langmuir monolayers spread at the air-water interface as model membranes where the compression and expansion of the film mimics the breathing cycle. The impact of ozone exposure on model lung surfactant films is measured using a Langmuir film balance, Brewster angle microscopy and a pendant drop tensiometer as a function of film and sub-phase composition. The oxidized films are analyzed using mass spectrometry where lipid and protein oxidation products are observed. Oxidation is shown to reduce surface activity, alter line tension (and film morphology) and in some cases visibly reduce the viscoelastic properties of the film when compared to controls. These reductions in functionality of the films are highly dependent on film and sub-phase composition, where for example, the effect of oxidation is more pronounced when using a physiologically relevant buffer as opposed to water as the sub-phase. These findings can lead to a better understanding on the impact of continuous exposure to high levels of ozone on the mechanical process of breathing, as well as understanding the roles of certain lung surfactant components in this process.

Keywords: lung surfactant, oxidation, ozone, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 209