Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 340

Search results for: nickel

340 Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level During Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Mudafara S. Bengleil, Juma M. Orfi, Iman Abdelgader


Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration values (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliance used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nickel, orthodontic treatment, saliva, toxicity

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339 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao


Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
338 Hydrometallurgical Production of Nickel Ores from Field Bugetkol

Authors: A. T. Zhakiyenova, E. E. Zhatkanbaev, Zh. K. Zhatkanbaeva


Nickel plays an important role in mechanical engineering and creation of military equipment; practically all steel are alloyed by nickel and other metals for receiving more durable, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant steel and cast iron. There are many ways of processing of nickel in the world. Generally, it is igneous metallurgy methods. In this article, the review of majority existing ways of technologies of processing silicate nickel - cobalt ores is considered. Leaching of ores of a field Bugetkol is investigated by solution of sulfuric acid. We defined a specific consumption of sulfuric acid in relation to the mass of ore and to the mass of metal.

Keywords: cobalt, degree of extraction, hydrometallurgy, igneous metallurgy, leaching, matte, nickel

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
337 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
336 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Milled Nickel Powder

Authors: O. M. Lemine


The effect of milling parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel powder was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results did not reveal any phase change of nickel during the milling. The average crystallite size decreases with a prolongation of milling times, whereas the lattice parameters increase. The hysteresis loop reveals the intrinsic magnetic behaviour. It was observed an increase in the magnetization which can be correlated to the volume expansion showed by XRD results.

Keywords: nickel powders, nanocrystallines, XRD, VSM

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335 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.

Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan


Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.

Keywords: phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov., EDTA, nickel, laterite

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
334 Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu


In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.

Keywords: titanium, composite, nickel, hot pressing

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333 Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications

Authors: J. D. Marinaccio, I. Mabbett, C. Glover, D. Worsley


Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.

Keywords: batteries, energy, iron, nickel, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
332 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh


In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

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331 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur


The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel

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330 Calculation of Electronic Structures of Nickel in Interaction with Hydrogen by Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) Method

Authors: Choukri Lekbir, Mira Mokhtari


Hydrogen-Materials interaction and mechanisms can be modeled at nano scale by quantum methods. In this work, the effect of hydrogen on the electronic properties of a cluster material model «nickel» has been studied by using of density functional theoretical (DFT) method. Two types of clusters are optimized: Nickel and hydrogen-nickel system. In the case of nickel clusters (n = 1-6) without presence of hydrogen, three types of electronic structures (neutral, cationic and anionic), have been optimized according to three basis sets calculations (B3LYP/LANL2DZ, PW91PW91/DGDZVP2, PBE/DGDZVP2). The comparison of binding energies and bond lengths of the three structures of nickel clusters (neutral, cationic and anionic) obtained by those basis sets, shows that the results of neutral and anionic nickel clusters are in good agreement with the experimental results. In the case of neutral and anionic nickel clusters, comparing energies and bond lengths obtained by the three bases, shows that the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2 is most suitable to experimental results. In the case of anionic nickel clusters (n = 1-6) with presence of hydrogen, the optimization of the hydrogen-nickel (anionic) structures by using of the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2, shows that the binding energies and bond lengths increase compared to those obtained in the case of anionic nickel clusters without the presence of hydrogen, that reveals the armor effect exerted by hydrogen on the electronic structure of nickel, which due to the storing of hydrogen energy within nickel clusters structures. The comparison between the bond lengths for both clusters shows the expansion effect of clusters geometry which due to hydrogen presence.

Keywords: binding energies, bond lengths, density functional theoretical, geometry optimization, hydrogen energy, nickel cluster

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
329 The Effects of pH on the Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films

Authors: T. Taşköprü, M. Zor, E. Turan


The advantages of nickel oxide as an electrochromic material are its good contrast of transmittance and its suitable use as a secondary electrochromic film with WO3 for electrochromic devices. Electrochromic nickel oxide film was prepared by using a simple and inexpensive chemical deposition bath (CBD) technique onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel nitrate solution. The films were ace centered cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (2 0 0) direction. The electrochromic (EC) properties of the films were studied as a function of pH (8, 9, 10 and 11) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (0.3 M KOH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The EC cell was formed with the following configuration; FTO/nickel oxide film/0.3 M KOH/Pt The potential was cycled from 0.1 to 0.6V at diffferent potential sweep rates in the range 10- 50 mV/s. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism, changing colour from transparent to black.CV results of a nickel oxide film showed well-resolved anodic current peak at potential; 45 mV and cathodic peak at potential 28 mV. The structural, morphological, and optical changes in NiO film following the CV were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis- NIR spectrophotometry. No change was observed in XRD, besides surface morphology undergoes change due to the electrical discharge. The change in tansmittance between the bleached and colored state is 68% for the film deposited with pH=11 precursor.

Keywords: nickel oxide, XRD, SEM, cyclic voltammetry

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328 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Yong-Su Jo, Seung-Min Yang, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: nanoparticle, hydrazine reduction, continuous process, microemulsion method

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327 Impact of Welding Wire Nickel Plating Process Parameters on Ni Layer Thickness

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski


The article presents part of research on the development of nickel plated welding wire production technology, whose application will enable the elimination of the flaws of currently manufactured welding wires. The nickel plated welding wire will be distinguished by high quality, because the Ni layer which is deposited electrochemically onto it from acid baths is characterized by very good adhesion to the steel wire surface, while the ductile nickel well deforms plastically in the drawing process and the adhesion of the Ni layer increases in the drawing process due to the occurring process of diffusion between the Ni and the steel. The Ni layer obtained in the proposed technology, despite a smaller thickness than when the wire is coated with copper, is continuous and tight, thus ensuring high corrosion resistance, as well as unsusceptible to scaling, which should provide a product that meets requirements imposed by the market. The product will also reduce, to some extent, the amount of copper brought in to steel through recycling, while the wire coating nickel introduced to the weld in the welding process is expected, to a degree, to favorably influence its mechanical properties. The paper describes the tests of the process of nickel plating of f1.96 mm-diameter wires using various nickel plating baths with different process parameters.

Keywords: steel wire, properties, welding process, Ni layer

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326 Synergistic Extraction Study of Nickel (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat


The synergistic solvent extraction of nickel ion from 0.33 mol dm^-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is NiL2 and NiL2(HL). In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm^-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.00125 and 0.0025 mol dm^-3 TOPO in chloroform. From a synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation NiL2(TOPO) and NiL2(HL)(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of nickel (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

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325 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Pal, R. Singh, S. Sivakumar, D. Kunzru


AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: nanoparticles, reverse micelles, nickel, tungsten

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324 Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations on Nickel Electrodeposition from Industrial Sulfate Electrolyte in Presence of Ca(II), Mg(II), Na(I) Ions

Authors: Udit Mohanty, Mari Lundstrom


Electrochemical investigation by cyclic voltammetry was conducted to explore the polarization behavior of reactions occurring in nickel electrowinning in presence of cationic impurities such as Ca2+ (0-100 mg/L), Na+ (1-10 g/L) and Mg2+ (10-100 mg/L). A comparative study was devised between industrial and synthetic electrolytes to observe the shift in the nucleation overpotentials of nickel deposition, dissolution and hydrogen evolution reactions at the cathode and anode respectively. Significant polarization of cathodic reactions were observed with concentrations of Na ≥ 8g /L and Ca ≤ 40 mg /L in the synthetic electrolytes. Nevertheless, a progressive increase in the concentration of Ca, Mg and Na in the industrial electrolyte demonstrated a depolarization behavior in the cathodic reactions related to nickel deposition and/or hydrogen evolution. Synergistic effect of Ca with Mg and Na in both the industrial and synthetic electrolytes induced a notable depolarization effect, also reflected in the peak currents.

Keywords: cationic impurities, cyclic voltammetry, electrowinning, nickel, polarization

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323 Influence of Counterface and Environmental Conditions on the Lubricity of Multilayer Graphene Coatings Produced on Nickel by Chemical Vapour Deposition

Authors: Iram Zahra


Friction and wear properties of multilayer graphene coatings (MLG) on nickel substrate were investigated at the macroscale, and different failure mechanisms working at the interface of nickel-graphene coatings were evaluated. Multilayer graphene coatings were produced on a nickel substrate using the atmospheric chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Wear tests were performed on the pin-on-disk tribometer apparatus under dry air conditions, and using the saltwater solution, distilled water, and mineral oil lubricants and counterparts used in these wear tests were fabricated of stainless steel, chromium, and silicon nitride. The wear test parameters such as rotational speed, wear track diameter, temperature, relative humidity, and load were 60 rpm, 6 mm, 22˚C, 45%, and 2N, respectively. To analyse the friction and wear behaviour, coefficient of friction (COF) vs time curves were plotted, and the sliding surfaces of the samples and counterparts were examined using the optical microscope. Results indicated that graphene-coated nickel in mineral oil lubrication and dry conditions gave the minimum average value of COP (0.05) and wear track width ( ̴151 µm) against the three different types of counterparts. In contrast, uncoated nickel samples indicated a maximum wear track width ( ̴411 µm) and COF (0.5). Thorough investigation and analysis concluded that graphene-coated samples have two times lower COF and three times lower wear than the bare nickel samples. Furthermore, mechanical failures were significantly lower in the case of graphene-coated nickel. The overall findings suggested that multilayer graphene coatings have drastically decreased wear and friction on nickel substrate at the macroscale under various lubricating conditions and against different counterparts.

Keywords: friction, lubricity, multilayer graphene, sliding, wear

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322 Heating Behavior of Ni-Embedded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Adhesive Film by Induction Heating

Authors: DuckHwan Bae, YongSung Kwon, Min Young Shon, SanTaek Oh, GuNi Kim


The heating behavior of nanometer and micrometer sized Nickel particle-imbedded thermoplastic polyurethane adhesive (TPU) under induction heating is examined in present study. The effects of particle size and content, TPU film thickness on heating behaviors were examined. The correlation between heating behavior and magnetic properties of Nickel particles were also studied. From the results, heat generation increased with increase of Nickel content and film thickness. However, in terms of particle sizes, heat generation of Nickel-imbedded TPU film were in order of 70nm>1µm>20 µm>70 µm and this results can explain by increasing ration of eddy heating to hysteresis heating with increase of particle size.

Keywords: induction heating, thermoplastic polyurethane, nickel, composite, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, curie temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
321 Preparation and Characterization of a Nickel-Based Catalyst Supported by Silica Promoted by Cerium for the Methane Steam Reforming Reaction

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi


Natural gas currently represents a raw material of choice for the manufacture of a wide range of chemical products via synthesis gas, among the routes of transformation of methane into synthesis gas The reaction of the oxidation of methane by gas vapor 'water. This work focuses on the study of the effect of cerieum on the nickel-based catalyst supported by silica for the methane vapor reforming reaction, with a variation of certain parameters of the reaction. The reaction temperature, the H₂O / CH₄ ratio and the flow rate of the reaction mixture (CH₄-H₂O). Two catalysts were prepared by impregnation of Degussa silica with a solution of nickel nitrates and a solution of cerium nitrates [Ni (NO₃) 2 6H₂O and Ce (NO₃) 3 6H₂O] so as to obtain the 1.5% nickel concentrations. For both catalysts and plus 1% cerium for the second catalyst. These Catalysts have been characterized by physical and chemical analysis techniques: BET technique, Atomic Absorption, IR Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These characterizations indicated that the nitrates had impregnated the silica. And that the NiO and Ce₂O3 phases are present and Ni°(after reaction). The BET surface of the silica decreases without being affected. The catalytic tests carried out on the two catalysts for the steam reforming reactions show that the addition of cerium to the nickel improves the catalytic performances of the nickel. And that these performances also depend on the parameters of the reaction, namely the temperature, the rate of the reaction mixture, and the ratio (H₂O / CH₄).

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, steam reforming, Methane, Nickel, Cerium, synthesis gas, hydrogen

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320 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit


Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
319 Oxalate Method for Assessing the Electrochemical Surface Area for Ni-Based Nanoelectrodes Used in Formaldehyde Sensing Applications

Authors: S. Trafela, X. Xua, K. Zuzek Rozmana


In this study, we used an accurate and precise method to measure the electrochemically active surface areas (Aecsa) of nickel electrodes. Calculated Aecsa is really important for the evaluation of an electro-catalyst’s activity in electrochemical reaction of different organic compounds. The method involves the electrochemical formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH in the presence of adsorbed oxalate in alkaline media. The studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry with polycrystalline nickel as a reference material and electrodeposited nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films. From cyclic voltammograms, the charge (Q) values for the formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH surface oxides were calculated under various conditions. At sufficiently fast potential scan rates (200 mV s⁻¹), the adsorbed oxalate limits the growth of the surface hydroxides to a monolayer. Although the Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH oxidation peak overlaps with the oxygen evolution reaction, in the reverse scan, the NiOOH/ Ni(OH)₂ reduction peak is well-separated from other electrochemical processes and can be easily integrated. The values of these integrals were used to correlate experimentally measured charge density with an electrochemically active surface layer. The Aecsa of the nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were calculated to be Aecsa-NiNWs = 4.2066 ± 0.0472 cm², Aecsa-homNi = 1.7175 ± 0.0503 cm² and Aecsa-hetNi = 2.1862 ± 0.0154 cm². These valuable results were expanded and used in electrochemical studies of formaldehyde oxidation. As mentioned nickel nanowires, heterogeneous and homogeneous nickel films were used as simple and efficient sensor for formaldehyde detection. For this purpose, electrodeposited nickel electrodes were modified in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ solution of KOH in order to expect electrochemical activity towards formaldehyde. The investigation of the electrochemical behavior of formaldehyde oxidation in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ NaOH solution at the surface of modified nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were carried out by means of electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric methods. From investigations of effect of different formaldehyde concentrations (from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L⁻¹) on electrochemical signal - current we provided catalysis mechanism of formaldehyde oxidation, detection limit and sensitivity of nickel electrodes. The results indicated that nickel electrodes participate directly in the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde. In the overall reaction, formaldehyde in alkaline aqueous solution exists predominantly in form of CH₂(OH)O⁻, which is oxidized to CH₂(O)O⁻. Taking into account the determined (Aecsa) values we have been able to calculate the sensitivities: 7 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for nickel nanowires, 3.5 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film and 2 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film. The detection limit was 0.2 mM for nickel nanowires, 0.5 mM for porous Ni film and 0.8 mM for homogeneous Ni film. All of these results make nickel electrodes capable for further applications.

Keywords: electrochemically active surface areas, nickel electrodes, formaldehyde, electrocatalytic oxidation

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318 Consolidation of Carbonyl Nickel Powders by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu, Ismail Daoud


In the current study, carbonyl nickel powders were sintered by uniaxial hot pressing technique. Loose starting powders were poured directly into a graphite die with a 15.4 mm inner diameter. Two graphite punches with an outer diameter of 15 mm were inserted into the die; then the powders were sintered at different sintering temperatures, holding times and pressure conditions. The sintered samples were polished and examined by optical microscopy. Hardness and bending behavior of the sintered samples were investigated in order to determine the mechanical properties of the sintered nickel samples. To carried out the friction properties of the produced samples wear tests were studied using a pin on disc tribometer. Load and distance were selected as wear test parameters. The fracture surface of the samples after bending test was also carried out by using scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: nickel powder, sintering, hot press, mechanical properties

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317 Development of Method for Recovery of Nickel from Aqueous Solution Using 2-Hydroxy-5-Nonyl- Acetophenone Oxime Impregnated on Activated Charcoal

Authors: A. O. Adebayo, G. A. Idowu, F. Odegbemi


Investigations on the recovery of nickel from aqueous solution using 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl- acetophenone oxime (LIX-84I) impregnated on activated charcoal was carried out. The LIX-84I was impregnated onto the pores of dried activated charcoal by dry method and optimum conditions for different equilibrium parameters (pH, adsorbent dosage, extractant concentration, agitation time and temperature) were determined using a simulated solution of nickel. The kinetics and adsorption isotherm studies were also evaluated. It was observed that the efficiency of recovery with LIX-84I impregnated on charcoal was dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution as there was little or no recovery at pH below 4. However, as the pH was raised, percentage recovery increases and peaked at pH 5.0. The recovery was found to increase with temperature up to 60ºC. Also it was observed that nickel adsorbed onto the loaded charcoal best at a lower concentration (0.1M) of the extractant when compared with higher concentrations. Similarly, a moderately low dosage (1 g) of the adsorbent showed better recovery than larger dosages. These optimum conditions were used to recover nickel from the leachate of Ni-MH batteries dissolved with sulphuric acid, and a 99.6% recovery was attained. Adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium data fitted best to Temkin model, with a negative value of constant, b (-1.017 J/mol) and a high correlation coefficient, R² of 0.9913. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order model. Thermodynamic parameter values (∆G⁰, ∆H⁰, and ∆S⁰) showed that the adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. The impregnated charcoal appreciably recovered nickel using a relatively smaller volume of extractant than what is required in solvent extraction. Desorption studies showed that the loaded charcoal is reusable for three times, and so might be economical for nickel recovery from waste battery.

Keywords: charcoal, impregnated, LIX-84I, nickel, recovery

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316 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Mahendran Samykano, Ram Mohan, Shyam Aravamudhan


The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: anodic alumina oxide, electrodeposition, nanowires, nickel

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315 Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

Authors: Fereshteh Chekin, Sepideh Sadeghi


Nickel nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of applications in catalysis, medical diagnostics and magnetic applications. In this work, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized NiO-NPs were characterized by a variety of means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles with high crystalline can be obtained using this simple method. The grain size measured by TEM was 16 in presence of SDS, which agrees well with the XRD data. SDS plays an important role in the formation of the NiO nanoparticles. Moreover, the NiO nanoparticles have been used as a solid phase catalyst for the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate at room temperatures. The decomposition process has been monitored by UV–vis analysis. The present study showed that nanoparticles are not poisoned after their repeated use in decomposition of hydrazine.

Keywords: nickel oxide nanoparticles, sodium dodecyl sulphate, synthesis, stabilizer

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314 Synthesis of NiNW/ Cellulose Nano Hybrid via Liquid-Phase Reduction

Authors: Siti Rahmah Shamsuri, Eiichiro Matsubara, Shohei Shiomi


The 1D nanomaterial is far surpassed the 0D nanomaterial. It does not just offer most of the benefit of the 0D nanomaterial such as the large surface area, a great number of active site and an efficient interfacial charge transfer but also can assemble into free-standing and flexible electrode due to their high aspect ratio. Thus, it is essential to develop a simple and ease synthesis of this 1D nanomaterial for the practical application. Here, nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid has been successfully fabricated via a simple liquid-phase method with the assist of the magnetic field. A finer nickel nanowire was heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of the cellulose fiber, which demonstrated the effect of the hydroxyl group on the cellulose structure. The result of the nickel nanowire size was found to vary from 66-114 nm. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of the nickel nanowire/ cellulose hybrid formation is also shown in this paper.

Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, liquid-phase reduction, metal nanowire, nano hybrid material

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313 Stoner Impurity Model in Nickel Hydride

Authors: Andrea Leon, J. M. Florez, P. Vargas


The effect of hydrogen adsorption on the magnetic properties of fcc Ni has been calculated using the linear-muffin-tin-orbital formalism and using the local-density approximation for the exchange y correlation. The calculations for the ground state show that the sequential addition of hydrogen atoms is found to monotonically reduce the total magnetic moment of the Ni fcc structure, as a result of changes in the exchange-splitting parameter and in the Fermi energy. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization reduction as the Hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a Stoner impurity model to describe the influence of H impurity on the magnetic properties of Nickel.

Keywords: electronic structure, magnetic properties, Nickel hydride, stoner model

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312 Analytical Study of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) Extraction with Salicylidene O-, M-, and P-Toluidine in Chloroform

Authors: Sana Almi, Djamel Barkat


The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) from aqueous sulfate solutions were investigated with the analytical methods of slope analysis using salicylidene aniline and the three isomeric o-, m- and p-salicylidene toluidine diluted with chloroform at 25°C. By a statistical analysis of the extraction data, it was concluded that the extracted species are CoL2 with CoL2(HL) and NiL2 (HL denotes HSA, HSOT, HSMT, and HSPT). The extraction efficiency of Co(II) was higher than Ni(II). This tendency is confirmed from numerical extraction constants for each metal cations. The best extraction was according to the following order: HSMT > HSPT > HSOT > HSA for Co2+ and Ni2+.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), cobalt(II), salicylidene aniline, o-, m-, and p-salicylidene toluidine

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311 Electroremediation of Saturated and Unsaturated Nickel-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Waddah Abdullah, Saleh Al-Sarem


Electrokinetic remediation was undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar charged contaminants (such as heavy metals) and non-polar organic contaminants. It can be efficiently used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. This study presented and discussed the results of electrokinetic remediation processes to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Two types of electrokinetics cells were used: an open cell and an advanced cylindrical cell. Two types of soils were used for this investigation; the Azraq green clay which has very low permeability taken from the eastern part of Jordan (city of Azraq) and a sandy soil having, relatively, very high permeability. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel, and the sandy soil was spiked with 1500 ppm of nickel. Fully saturated and partially saturated clayey soils were used for the clean-up process. Clayey soils were tested under a direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA to study the effect of the electrical current on the remediation process. Chelating agent (Na-EDTA), disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetatic acid, was used in both types of soils to enhance the electroremediation process. The effect of carbonates presence in the contaminated soils, also, was investigated by use of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by use of buffer solutions. The results of the investigation showed that for the fully saturated clayey soil spiked with nickel had an average removal efficiency of 64%, and the average removal efficiency was 46% for the unsaturated clayey soil. For the sandy soil, the average removal efficiency of Nickel was 90%. Test results showed that presence of carbonates in the remediated soils retarded the clean-up process of nickel-contaminated soils (removal efficiency was reduced from 90% to 60%). EDTA enhanced decontamination of nickel contaminated clayey and sandy soils with carbonates was studied. The average removal efficiency increased from 60% (prior to using EDTA) to more than 90% after using EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, EDTA, electroremediation, nickel removal efficiency

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