Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: rhamnolipid

6 Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi


Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

Keywords: hydrophobic antibiotics, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin

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5 Statistical Optimization and Production of Rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa PAO1 Using Prickly Pear Peel as a Carbon Source

Authors: Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud, Heba I. Elkhouly, Nagwa M. Sidkey


Production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has attracted a growing interest during the last few decades due to its high productivity compared with other microorganisms. In the current work, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was statistically modeled using Taguchi orthogonal array, numerically optimized and validated. Prickly Pear Peel (Opuntia ficus-indica) has been used as a carbon source for production of rhamnolipid. Finally, the optimum conditions for rhamnolipid production were applied in 5L working volume bioreactors at different aerations, agitation and controlled pH for maximum rhamnolipid production. In addition, kinetic studies of rhamnolipids production have been reported. At the end of the batch bioreactor optimization process, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 has reached the worldwide levels and can be applied for its industrial production.

Keywords: rhamnolipids, pseudomonas aeruginosa, statistical optimization, tagushi, opuntia ficus-indica

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4 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman


Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, bioremediation, rhamnolipid, surfactants

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3 Production of Rhamnolipids from Different Resources and Estimating the Kinetic Parameters for Bioreactor Design

Authors: Olfat A. Mohamed


Rhamnolipids biosurfactants have distinct properties given them importance in many industrial applications, especially their great new future applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These applications have encouraged the search for diverse and renewable resources to control the cost of production. The experimental results were then applied to find a suitable mathematical model for obtaining the design criteria of the batch bioreactor. This research aims to produce Rhamnolipids from different oily wastewater sources such as petroleum crude oil (PO) and vegetable oil (VO) by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Different concentrations of the PO and the VO are added to the media broth separately are in arrangement (0.5 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 % v/v) and (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%v/v). The effect of the initial concentration of oil residues and the addition of glycerol and palmitic acid was investigated as an inducer in the production of rhamnolipid and the surface tension of the broth. It was found that 2% of the waste (PO) and 6% of the waste (VO) was the best initial substrate concentration for the production of rhamnolipids (2.71, 5.01 g rhamnolipid/l) as arrangement. Addition of glycerol (10-20% v glycerol/v PO) to the 2% PO fermentation broth led to increase the rhamnolipid production (about 1.8-2 times fold). However, the addition of palmitic acid (5 and 10 g/l) to fermentation broth contained 6% VO rarely enhanced the production rate. The experimental data for 2% initially (PO) was used to estimate the various kinetic parameters. The following results were obtained, maximum rate or velocity of reaction (Vmax) = 0.06417 g/, yield of cell weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Yx/s = 0.324 g Cx/g Cs) maximum specific growth rate (μmax = 0.05791 hr⁻¹), yield of rhamnolipid weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Yp/s)=0.2571gCp/g Cs), maintenance coefficient (Ms =0.002419), Michaelis-Menten constant, (Km=6.1237 gmol/l), endogenous decay coefficient (Kd=0.002375 hr⁻¹). Predictive parameters and advanced mathematical models were applied to evaluate the time of the batch bioreactor. The results were as follows: 123.37, 129 and 139.3 hours in respect of microbial biomass, substrate and product concentration, respectively compared with experimental batch time of 120 hours in all cases. The expected mathematical models are compatible with the laboratory results and can, therefore, be considered as tools for expressing the actual system.

Keywords: batch bioreactor design, glycerol, kinetic parameters, petroleum crude oil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rhamnolipids biosurfactants, vegetable oil

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2 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka


Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon contamination, bioremediation, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid

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1 Feasibility of Washing/Extraction Treatment for the Remediation of Deep-Sea Mining Trailings

Authors: Kyoungrean Kim


Importance of deep-sea mineral resources is dramatically increasing due to the depletion of land mineral resources corresponding to increasing human’s economic activities. Korea has acquired exclusive exploration licenses at four areas which are the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean (2002), Tonga (2008), Fiji (2011) and Indian Ocean (2014). The preparation for commercial mining of Nautilus minerals (Canada) and Lockheed martin minerals (USA) is expected by 2020. The London Protocol 1996 (LP) under International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Seabed Authority (ISA) will set environmental guidelines for deep-sea mining until 2020, to protect marine environment. In this research, the applicability of washing/extraction treatment for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings was mainly evaluated in order to present preliminary data to develop practical remediation technology in near future. Polymetallic nodule samples were collected at the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean, then stored at room temperature. Samples were pulverized by using jaw crusher and ball mill then, classified into 3 particle sizes (> 63 µm, 63-20 µm, < 20 µm) by using vibratory sieve shakers (Analysette 3 Pro, Fritsch, Germany) with 63 µm and 20 µm sieve. Only the particle size 63-20 µm was used as the samples for investigation considering the lower limit of ore dressing process which is tens to 100 µm. Rhamnolipid and sodium alginate as biosurfactant and aluminum sulfate which are mainly used as flocculant were used as environmentally friendly additives. Samples were adjusted to 2% liquid with deionized water then mixed with various concentrations of additives. The mixture was stirred with a magnetic bar during specific reaction times and then the liquid phase was separated by a centrifugal separator (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) under 4,000 rpm for 1 h. The separated liquid was filtered with a syringe and acrylic-based filter (0.45 µm). The extracted heavy metals in the filtered liquid were then determined using a UV-Vis spectrometer (DR-5000, Hach, USA) and a heat block (DBR 200, Hach, USA) followed by US EPA methods (8506, 8009, 10217 and 10220). Polymetallic nodule was mainly composed of manganese (27%), iron (8%), nickel (1.4%), cupper (1.3 %), cobalt (1.3%) and molybdenum (0.04%). Based on remediation standards of various countries, Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) were selected as primary target materials. Throughout this research, the use of rhamnolipid was shown to be an effective approach for removing heavy metals in samples originated from manganese nodules. Sodium alginate might also be one of the effective additives for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings such as polymetallic nodules. Compare to the use of rhamnolipid and sodium alginate, aluminum sulfate was more effective additive at short reaction time within 4 h. Based on these results, sequencing particle separation, selective extraction/washing, advanced filtration of liquid phase, water treatment without dewatering and solidification/stabilization may be considered as candidate technologies for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings.

Keywords: deep-sea mining tailings, heavy metals, remediation, extraction, additives

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