Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3965

Search results for: equivalence ratio

3965 Dependence of Autoignition Delay Period on Equivalence Ratio for i-Octane, Primary Reference Fuel

Authors: Sunil Verma


In today’s world non-renewable sources are depleting quickly, so there is a need to produce efficient and unconventional engines to minimize the use of fuel. Also, there are many fatal accidents happening every year during extraction, distillation, transportation and storage of fuel. Reason for explosions of gaseous fuel is unwanted autoignition. Autoignition characterstics of fuel are mandatory to study to build efficient engines and to avoid accidents. This report is concerned with study of autoignition delay characteristics of iso-octane by using rapid compression machine. The paper clearly explains the dependence of ignition delay characteristics on variation of equivalence ratios from lean to rich mixtures. The equivalence ratio is varied from 0.3 to 1.2.

Keywords: autoignition, iso-octane, combustion, rapid compression machine, equivalence ratio, ignition delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
3964 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel


Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3963 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon


This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3962 Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes

Authors: Sewon Kim, Minjun Kwon, Changyeop Lee


This study is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air are optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.

Keywords: petroleum cokes, low NOx, combustion, equivalence ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
3961 Tracing the Concept of Equivalence in Translation Theories from the Linguistics Oriented Era to Present

Authors: Fatma Ülkü Kavruk


The comparison of the old and new approaches reveals that the concept of equivalence has been interpreted and categorized in different ways by different scholars throughout the history. The aim of this study is to trace the concept of equivalence in translation theories from the linguistics-oriented era to present, referring to various translation scholars and to provide a critical evaluation of the nature and applicability of the concept of equivalence in today’s world of translation studies. Within the study, various interpretations of equivalence proposed by international scholars in translation studies are to be presented. In order to find out the reflections of these scholars’ approaches to the Turkish scholars’ research, the interpretations of equivalence by various Turkish scholars are to be examined. At the end of the paper, the applicability of the concept of equivalence in real life is to be discussed in light of these approaches.

Keywords: translation studies, equivalence, translation theories, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
3960 Temperature Field Measurement of Premixed Landfill Gas Laminar Flame in a Cylindrical Slot Burner Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Bahareh Najafian Ashrafi, Hossein Zeidabadinejad, Mehdi Ashjaee


The temperature field is a key factor of flame heat transfer rate and therefore should be measured accurately. In this study, the Mach-Zehnder Interferometry method is applied to measure the temperature field of premixed air/landfill gas (LFG60:60% CH4+40% CO2) laminar flame. The three-dimensional flame of cylindrical slot burner can assume to be two-dimensional due to the high aspect ratio (L/W=10) of the rectangular slot. So, the method converts two-dimensional flame to closed isothermal curves called fringes and the outer fringes temperature is measured by thermocouples. The experiments are carried out for Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios ranging from 100 to 400 and 1.0 to 1.4, respectively. Results show that by increasing the equivalence ratio or Reynolds number, the flame height increases. The maximum flame temperature decreases by increasing the equivalence ratio but does not change considerably by changing the Reynolds number.

Keywords: landfill gas, Mach-Zehender interferometry, premix flame, slot burner, temperature filed

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3959 A Historical Analysis of The Concept of Equivalence from Different Theoretical Perspectives in Translation Studies

Authors: Amenador Kate Benedicta, Wang Zhiwei


Since the later parts of the 20th century, the notion of equivalence continues to be a central and critical concept in the development of translation theory. After decades of arguments over word-for-word and free translations methods, scholars attempting to develop more systematic and efficient translation theories began to focus on fundamental translation concepts such as equivalence. Although the concept of equivalence has piqued the interest of many scholars, its definition, scope, and applicability have sparked contentious arguments within the discipline. As a result, several distinct theories and explanations on the concept of equivalence have been put forward over the last half-century. Thus, this study explores and discusses the evolution of the critical concept of equivalence in translation studies through a bibliometric method of investigation of manual and digital books and articles by analyzing different scholars' key contributions and limitations on equivalence from various theoretical perspectives. While analyzing them, emphasis is placed on the innovations that each theory has brought to the comprehension of equivalence. In order to achieve the aim of the study, the article began by discussing the contributions of linguistically motivated theories to the notion of equivalence in translation, followed by functionalist-oriented contributions, before moving on to more recent advancements in translation studies on the concept. Because equivalence is such a broad notion, it is impossible to discuss each researcher in depth. As a result, the most well-known names and their equivalent theories are compared and contrasted in this research. The study emphasizes the developmental progression in our comprehension of the equivalence concept and equivalent effect. It concluded that the various theoretical perspective's contributions to the notion of equivalence rather complement and make up for the limitations of each other. The study also highlighted how troublesome the equivalent concept might become in terms of identifying the nature of translation and how central and unavoidable the concept is in every translation action, despite its limitations. The significance of the study lies in its synthesis of the different contributions and limitations of the various theories offered by scholars on the notion of equivalence, lending literature to both student and scholars in the field, and providing insight on future theoretical development

Keywords: equivalence, functionalist translation theories, linguistic translation approaches, translation theories, Skopos

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3958 Investigating the Acquisition of English Emotion Terms by Moroccan EFL Learners

Authors: Khalid El Asri


Culture influences lexicalization of salient concepts in a society. Hence, languages often have different degrees of equivalence regarding lexical items of different fields. The present study focuses on the field of emotions in English and Moroccan Arabic. Findings of a comparative study that involved fifty English emotions revealed that Moroccan Arabic has equivalence of some English emotion terms, partial equivalence of some emotion terms, and no equivalence for some other terms. It is hypothesized then that emotion terms that have near equivalence in Moroccan Arabic will be easier to acquire for EFL learners, while partially equivalent terms will be difficult to acquire, and those that have no equivalence will be even more difficult to acquire. In order to test these hypotheses, the participants (104 advanced Moroccan EFL learners and 104 native speakers of English) were given two tests: the first is a receptive one in which the participants were asked to choose, among four emotion terms, the term that is appropriate to fill in the blanks for a given situation indicating certain kind of feelings. The second test is a productive one in which the participants were asked to give the emotion term that best described the feelings of the people in the situations given. The results showed that conceptually equivalent terms do not pose any problems for Moroccan EFL learners since they can link the concept to an already existing linguistic category; whereas the results concerning the acquisition of partially equivalent terms indicated that this type of emotion terms were difficult for Moroccan EFL learners to acquire, because they need to restructure the boundaries of the target linguistic categories by expanding them when the term includes other range of meanings that are not subsumed in the L1 term. Surprisingly however, the results concerning the case of non-equivalence revealed that Moroccan EFL learners could internalize the target L2 concepts that have no equivalence in their L1. Thus, it is the category of emotion terms that have partial equivalence in the learners’ L1 that pose problems for them.

Keywords: acquisition, culture, emotion terms, lexical equivalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
3957 Autoignition Delay Characterstic of Hydrocarbon (n-Pentane) from Lean to Rich Mixtures

Authors: Sunil Verma


This report is concerned with study of autoignition delay characterstics of n-pentane. Experiments are done for different equivalents ratio on Rapid compression machine. Dependence of autoignition delay period is clearly explained from lean to rich mixtures. Equivalence ratio is varied from 0.33 to 0.6.

Keywords: combustion, autoignition, ignition delay, rapid compression machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
3956 Analysis of Reduced Mechanisms for Premixed Combustion of Methane/Hydrogen/Propane/Air Flames in Geometrically Modified Combustor and Its Effects on Flame Properties

Authors: E. Salem


Combustion has been used for a long time as a means of energy extraction. However, in recent years, there has been a further increase in air pollution, through pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, acid etc. In order to solve this problem, there is a need to reduce carbon and nitrogen oxides through learn burning modifying combustors and fuel dilution. A numerical investigation has been done to investigate the effectiveness of several reduced mechanisms in terms of computational time and accuracy, for the combustion of the hydrocarbons/air or diluted with hydrogen in a micro combustor. The simulations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 19.1. To validate the results “PREMIX and CHEMKIN” codes were used to calculate 1D premixed flame based on the temperature, composition of burned and unburned gas mixtures. Numerical calculations were carried for several hydrocarbons by changing the equivalence ratios and adding small amounts of hydrogen into the fuel blends then analyzing the flammable limit, the reduction in NOx and CO emissions, then comparing it to experimental data. By solving the conservations equations, several global reduced mechanisms (2-9-12) were obtained. These reduced mechanisms were simulated on a 2D cylindrical tube with dimensions of 40 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter. The mesh of the model included a proper fine quad mesh, within the first 7 cm of the tube and around the walls. By developing a proper boundary layer, several simulations were performed on hydrocarbon/air blends to visualize the flame characteristics than were compared with experimental data. Once the results were within acceptable range, the geometry of the combustor was modified through changing the length, diameter, adding hydrogen by volume, and changing the equivalence ratios from lean to rich in the fuel blends, the results on flame temperature, shape, velocity and concentrations of radicals and emissions were observed. It was determined that the reduced mechanisms provided results within an acceptable range. The variation of the inlet velocity and geometry of the tube lead to an increase of the temperature and CO2 emissions, highest temperatures were obtained in lean conditions (0.5-0.9) equivalence ratio. Addition of hydrogen blends into combustor fuel blends resulted in; reduction in CO and NOx emissions, expansion of the flammable limit, under the condition of having same laminar flow, and varying equivalence ratio with hydrogen additions. The production of NO is reduced because the combustion happens in a leaner state and helps in solving environmental problems.

Keywords: combustor, equivalence-ratio, hydrogenation, premixed flames

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3955 Ultra-Low NOx Combustion Technology of Liquid Fuel Burner

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A new concept of in-furnace partial oxidation combustion is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that liquid fuel is prevaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, injection distance and fuel distribution ratio on the NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed burner showed very low NOx emission level, about 15 ppm when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3954 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
3953 Basis Theorem of Equivalence of Explicit-Type Iterations for the Class of Multivalued Phi-Quasi-Contrative Maps in Modular Function Spaces

Authors: Hudson Akewe


We prove that the convergence of explicit Mann, explicit Ishikawa, explicit Noor, explicit SP, explicit multistep and explicit multistep-SP fixed point iterative procedures are equivalent for the classes of multi-valued phi-contraction, phi-Zamfirescu and phi-quasi-contractive mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. Our results complement equivalence results on normed and metric spaces in the literature as they elegantly cut out the triangle inequality.

Keywords: multistep iterative procedures, multivalued mappings, equivalence results, fixed point

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3952 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology is successfully applied to industrial furnace, and showed extremely low NOx emission levels.

Keywords: low NOx, combustion, burner, fuel rich

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
3951 The Influence of Hydrogen Addition to Natural Gas Networks on Gas Appliances

Authors: Yitong Xie, Chaokui Qin, Zhiguang Chen, Shuangqian Guo


Injecting hydrogen, a competitive carbon-free energy carrier, into existing natural gas networks has become a promising step toward alleviating global warming. Considering the differences in properties of hydrogen and natural gas, there is very little evidence showing how many degrees of hydrogen admixture can be accepted and how to adjust appliances to adapt to gas constituents' variation. The lack of this type of analysis provides more uncertainty in injecting hydrogen into networks because of the short the basis of burner design and adjustment. First, the properties of methane and hydrogen were compared for a comprehensive analysis of the impact of hydrogen addition to methane. As the main determinant of flame stability, the burning velocity was adopted for hydrogen addition analysis. Burning velocities for hydrogen-enriched natural gas with different hydrogen percentages and equivalence ratios were calculated by the software CHEMKIN. Interchangeability methods, including single index methods, multi indices methods, and diagram methods, were adopted to determine the limit of hydrogen percentage. Cooktops and water heaters were experimentally tested in the laboratory. Flame structures of different hydrogen percentages and equivalence ratios were observed and photographed. Besides, the change in heat efficiency, burner temperature, emission by hydrogen percentage, and equivalence ratio was studied. The experiment methodologies and results in this paper provide an important basis for the introduction of hydrogen into gas pipelines and the adjustment of gas appliances.

Keywords: hydrogen, methane, combustion, appliances, interchangeability

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3950 Nano Generalized Topology

Authors: M. Y. Bakeir


Rough set theory is a recent approach for reasoning about data. It has achieved a large amount of applications in various real-life fields. The main idea of rough sets corresponds to the lower and upper set approximations. These two approximations are exactly the interior and the closure of the set with respect to a certain topology on a collection U of imprecise data acquired from any real-life field. The base of the topology is formed by equivalence classes of an equivalence relation E defined on U using the available information about data. The theory of generalized topology was studied by Cs´asz´ar. It is well known that generalized topology in the sense of Cs´asz´ar is a generalization of the topology on a set. On the other hand, many important collections of sets related with the topology on a set form a generalized topology. The notion of Nano topology was introduced by Lellis Thivagar, which was defined in terms of approximations and boundary region of a subset of an universe using an equivalence relation on it. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new generalized topology in terms of rough set called nano generalized topology

Keywords: rough sets, topological space, generalized topology, nano topology

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
3949 High-Speed LIF-OH Imaging of H2-Air Turbulent Premixed Flames

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Harbi


This paper presents a comparative study of effects of the repeated solid obstacles on the propagation of H2-Air premixed flames. Pressure, speed of the flame front as well as structure of reaction zones are studied for hydrogen. Two equivalence ratios are examined for different configurations of three baffle plates and two obstacles with a square cross-section having blockage ratios of either 0.24 or 0.5. Hydrogen fuel mixtures with two equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8 are studied and this is limited by the excessive overpressures. The results show that the peak pressure and its rate of change can be increased by increasing the blockage ratio or by decreasing the space between successive baffles. As illustrated by the high speed images of LIF-OH, the degree of wrinkling and contortion in the flame front increase as the blockages increase. The images also show how the flame front relaminarises with increasing distances between obstacles, which accounts for the pressure decrease with increasing separation. It is also found that more than one obstacle is needed to achieve a turbulent flame structure with intense corrugations.

Keywords: premixed propagating flames, flame-obstacle interaction, turbulent premixed flames, overpressure, transient flames

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3948 Instability of H2-O2-CO2 Premixed Flames on Flat Burner

Authors: Kaewpradap Amornrat, Endo Takahiro, Kadowaki Satoshi


The combustion of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) mixtures was investigated to consider the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) as the greenhouse emission. Normally, the flame speed of combustion H2-O2 mixtures are very fast thus it is necessary to control the limit of mixtures with CO2 addition as H2-O2-CO2 combustion. The limit of hydrogen was set and replaced by CO2 with O2:CO2 ratio as 1:3.76, 1:4 and 1:5 for this study. In this study, the combustion of H2-O2 -CO2 on flat burner at equivalence ratio =0.5 was investigated for 10, 15 and 20 L/min of flow rate mixtures. When the ratio of CO2 increases, the power spectral density is lower, the size of attractor and cellular flame become larger because the decrease of hydrogen replaced by CO2 affects the diffusive-thermal instability. Moreover, the flow rate mixtures increases, the power spectral density increases, the size of reconstructed attractor and cell size become smaller due to decreasing of instability. The results show that the variation of CO2 and mixture flow rate affects the instability of cellular premixed flames on flat burner.

Keywords: instability, H2-O2-CO2 combustion, flat burner, diffusive-thermal instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
3947 Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Laminar Methane/Air Co-Flow Flames Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Mehdi Ashjaee, Shahrokh Zandieh Vakili


In this paper, partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame was established on an axisymmetric coannular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame features and to develop a nonintrusive method for temperature measurement of methane/air partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry method. Different equivalence ratios and Reynolds numbers are considered. Flame generic visible appearance was also investigated and its various structures were studied. Three distinguished flame regimes were seen based on its appearance. A double flame structure can be seen for the equivalence ratio in the range of 1<Φ<2.1. By adding air to the mixture up to Φ=4 the flame has the characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. Finally for 4<Φ<∞ the flame mainly becomes non-premixed like and the luminous sooting region on its tip is the obvious feature of this type of flames. The Mach-Zehnder method is used to obtain temperature field of a transparent fluid by means of index of refraction. Temperature obtained from optical techniques was compared with that of obtained from thermocouples in order to validate the results. Good agreement was observed for these two methods.

Keywords: flame structure, Mach-Zehnder interferometry, partially premixed flame, temperature field

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3946 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez


This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers, textile design, designs

Procedia PDF Downloads 624
3945 Contrastive Linguistics as a Way to Improve Translation Equivalence in Interlingual Lexicography: The Case of Verbs

Authors: R. A. S. Zacarias


Interlingual is one of the most complex, and engaging one among the several perspectives in lexicography. This is because it involves contacts and contrasts between two or more languages. Considering the fact that translation equivalence goes beyond a mere fixed relation of correspondence, understanding the differences and similarities between linguistic categories by pairs of languages is the basis for effective translations. One of the theoretical approaches that have proved useful in finding improved solutions for enhance translation equivalents for bilingual dictionaries is contrastive linguistics. This paper presents an applied qualitative research based on exploratory and descriptive approaches. This is achieved through an error analysis of students’ errors as well as by a contrastive analysis of Portuguese and English verb systems.

Keywords: bilingual lexicography, contrastive linguistics, translation equivalent, Portuguese-English

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3944 Einstein’s General Equation of the Gravitational Field

Authors: A. Benzian


The generalization of relativistic theory of gravity based essentially on the principle of equivalence stipulates that for all bodies, the grave mass is equal to the inert mass which leads us to believe that gravitation is not a property of the bodies themselves, but of space, and the conclusion that the gravitational field must curved space-time what allows the abandonment of Minkowski space (because Minkowski space-time being nonetheless null curvature) to adopt Riemannian geometry as a mathematical framework in order to determine the curvature. Therefore the work presented in this paper begins with the evolution of the concept of gravity then tensor field which manifests by Riemannian geometry to formulate the general equation of the gravitational field.

Keywords: inertia, principle of equivalence, tensors, Riemannian geometry

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3943 Islam and Democracy

Authors: Nasrollah Sekhavaty


This topic has many points, one of which could be "the relationship between Islam and democracy". In this paper we discuss the relationship between them. The logic has taught us that there is only one relationship between an object and itself. But if we have two things, there is one of the four relations between them; contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality & peculiarity or generality & peculiarity in some respect. To clarify the relationship between Islam and democracy, at first we must examine the meaning of Islam and Democracy. Islam is a religion which has ideas about politics and governance. The politics in Islam includes both individual and social affairs, to achieve worldly and heavenly blessings. With this assumption, Islam and democracy are not the same, or contrast, nor the absolute generality & peculiarity; but, the relationship between these two concepts is the generality & peculiarity in some respect. Conclusion: If one considers democracy as content, it does not accumulate with Islam which is content. But if democracy means a structure and style of governing, then its content could be Islam.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality, generality & peculiarity

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3942 The Influence of Feedgas Ratio on the Ethene Hydroformylation using Rh-Co Bimetallic Catalyst Supported by Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: Jianli Chang, Yusheng Zhang, Yali Yao, Diane Hildebrandt, Xinying Liu


The influence of feed-gas ratio on the ethene hydroformylation over an Rh-Co bimetallic catalyst supported by reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been investigated in a tubular fixed bed reactor. Argon was used as balance gas when the feed-gas ratio was changed, which can keep the partial pressure of the other two kinds of gas constant while the ratio of one component in feed-gas was changed. First, the effect of single-component gas ratio on the performance of ethene hydroformylation was studied one by one (H₂, C₂H₄ and CO). Then an optimized ratio was found to obtain a high selectivity to C₃ oxygenates. The results showed that: (1) 0.5%Rh-20%Co/RGO is a promising heterogeneous catalyst for ethene hydroformylation. (2) H₂ and CO have a more significant influence than C₂H₄ on selectivity to oxygenates. (3) A lower H₂ ratio and a higher CO ratio in feed-gas can lead to a higher selectivity to oxygenates. (4) The highest selectivity to oxygenates, 61.70%, was obtained at the feed-gas ratio CO: C₂H₄: H₂ = 4: 2: 1.

Keywords: ethene hydroformylation, reduced graphene oxide, rhodium cobalt bimetallic catalyst, the effect of feed-gas ratio

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3941 The Relationship between the Speed of Light and Cosmic Background Potential

Authors: Youping Dai, Xinping Dai, Xiaoyun Li


In this paper, the effect of Cosmic Background Gravitational Potential (CBGP) was discussed. It is helpful to reveal the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to understand the origin of inertia. The derivation is similar to the classic approach adopted by Landau in the book 'Classical Theory of Fields'.The main differences are that we used CBGP = Lambda^2 instead of c^2, and used CBGP energy E = m*Lambda^2 instead of kinetic energy E = (1/2)m*v^2 as initial assumptions (where Lambda has the same units for measuring velocity). It showed that Lorentz transformation, rest energy and Newtonian mechanics are all affected by $CBGP$, and the square of the speed of light is equal to CBGP too. Finally, the top value of cosmic mass density and cosmic radius were discussed.

Keywords: the origin of inertia, Mach's principle, equivalence principle, cosmic background potential

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3940 The Simple Two-Step Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Transferring Process for High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

Authors: Shaoxi Wang, Pouya Rezai


High aspect ratio is the necessary parts of complex microstructures. Some methods available to achieve high aspect ratio requires expensive materials or complex process; others is difficult to research simple high aspect ratio structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with [email protected] surface solution. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effective.

Keywords: high aspect ratio, microstructure, PDMS, Brij

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
3939 Enhanced Methane Production from Waste Paper through Anaerobic Co-Digestion with Macroalgae

Authors: Cristina Rodriguez, Abed Alaswad, Zaki El-Hassan, Abdul G. Olabi


This study investigates the effect on methane production from the waste paper when co-digested with macroalgal biomass as a source of nitrogen. Both feedstocks were previously mechanically pretreated in order to reduce their particle size. Methane potential assays were carried out at laboratory scale in batch mode for 28 days. The study was planned according to two factors: the feedstock to inoculum (F/I) ratio and the waste paper to macroalgae (WP/MA) ratio. The F/I ratios checked were 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 and the WP/MA ratios were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. The highest methane yield (608 ml/g of volatile solids (VS)) was achieved at an F/I ratio of 0.2 and a WP/MA ratio of 50:50. The methane yield at a ratio WP/MA of 50:50 is higher than for single compound, while for ratios WP/MA of 25:75 and 75:25 the methane yield decreases compared to biomass mono-digestion. This behavior is observed for the three levels of F/I ratio being more noticeable at F/I ratio of 0.3. A synergistic effect was found for the WP/MA ratio of 50:50 and all F/I ratios and for WP/MA=50:50 and F/I=0.2. A maximum increase of methane yield of 49.58% was found for a co-digestion ratio of 50:50 and an F/I ratio of 0.4. It was concluded that methane production from waste paper improves significantly when co-digested with macroalgae biomass. The methane yields from co-digestion were also found higher that from macroalgae mono-digestion.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, biogas, macroalgae, waste paper

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3938 Bio-Equivalence of Doxycycline in Two Preparations in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub


The present study was designed to investigate the bio-equivalence of doxycycline in Dolistin® and Colidox® at a dose rate of 10 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight in 48 clinically normal broiler chickens. After oral administration, plasma levels of doxycycline peaked after 2 hours post-dosing without significant differences between the two products and it could be detected therapeutically and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most micro-organisms sensitive to doxycycline for 12 hours. The disposition kinetics of doxycycline in the two products following oral administration revealed that the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax.) were 22.65 and 21.80 µg/ml and attained at (Tmax.) 2.10 and 2.20 hours, respectively. Doxycycline in both of the products was eliminated with half- lives (t0.5α) equal to 7.70 and 6.93 hours, respectively. The mean systemic bio availabilities of doxycycline in both of the products after oral administration in chickens were 80.60 and 79.70%, respectively. It was concluded that doxycycline in the form of Dolistin® and Colidox® needs a dose equivalent to 20 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight a day is better to keep the plasma concentration higher than the MIC.

Keywords: tetracyclines, doxycycline, bioavailability, broilers, chickens

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3937 Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties

Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying


SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Brønsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 °C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.

Keywords: crystallization, MTO, Si/Al ratio, SSZ-13

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3936 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia


Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.

Keywords: vegetables, sodium, potassium, blood pressure, diet, foods

Procedia PDF Downloads 363