Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 566

Search results for: polymers

566 Synthesis of Telechelic Polymers for Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Paula C Arroyo, Norma A Sánchez, Mikhail Tlenkopatchev


The continuous growth in population has resulted in an increment in road construction. The road construction requires more lasting and resistant pavements. Among the different applications of polymers, the reinforcement of pavements throw the modification of asphalt has demonstrated to be an area of special interest for new polymers. The modified asphalt should exhibit a considerable good performance, good elastic properties and an increment in the performance grade (PG). Some of the current polymers used in asphalt are styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-(glycidyl methacrylate) and ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA. The goal of this study was to synthesize low molecular weight (2,000 – 150,000 D) telechelic polymers to be applied at low concentrations in asphalt in order to modify its rheological properties and make it more resistant and durable. The telechelic polymers were obtained from different molar relationships between tensioned and functionalized olefins by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and cross metathesis (CR). The synthesis was carried out under inert conditions with Grubbs second generation catalyst. The reaction efficiency was superior to 96% and telechelic polymers were characterized. The telechelic polymers were used to modify asphalt and the rheological properties of the modified asphalt were evaluated finding that at low concentrations (1%) the PG increased in one or two degrees.

Keywords: asphalt polymers, metathesis polymers, telechelic polymers, modified asphalt

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565 Rheological Properties of PP/EVA Blends

Authors: Othman Y. Alothman


The study aims to investigate the effects of blend ratio, VA content and temperature on the rheological properties of PPEVA blends. The results show that all pure polymers and their blends show typical shear thinning behaviour. All neat polymers exhibit power-low type flow behaviour, with the viscosity order as EVA328 > EVA206 > PP in almost all frequency ranges. As temperature increases, the viscosity of all polymers decreases as expected, and the viscosity becomes more sensitive to the addition of EVA. Two different regions can be observed on the flow curve of some of the polymers and their blends, which is thought to be due to slip-stick transition or melt fracture.

Keywords: polypropylene, ethylene vinyl acetate, blends, rheological properties

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564 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan


Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
563 The Application of Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery: Recent Trends

Authors: Reza M. Rudd, Ali Saeedi, Colin Wood


In this article, the latest advancements made in the applications of polymers in the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies are investigated. For this purpose, different classes of polymers are reviewed and the latest progresses made in making them suitable for application under harsh reservoir conditions are discussed. The main reservoir conditions whose effects are taken into account include the temperature, rock mineralogy and brine salinity and composition. For profile modification and blocking the thief zones, polymers are used in the form of nanocomposite hydrogels. Polymers are also used as thickeners during CO2 flooding. Also, they are used in enhanced gas recovery, to inhibit the mixing of injection gas with the in-situ natural gas. This review covers the main types of polymers, their functions and the challenges in their applications, some of which are mentioned above. Included in this review are also the latest progresses made in the development of new polymeric surfactants used for surfactant flooding.

Keywords: EOR, EGR, polymer flooding, profile modification, mobility control, nanocomposite hydrogels, CO2 flooding, polymeric surfactants

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562 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev


This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of heat-shrinkable products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: elastic deformation, heating, shape-memory polymers, stress-strain behavior, viscoelastic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
561 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili


Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers-gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching-by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zonal stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zonal stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device

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560 Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An Analysis

Authors: Anis A. Ansari, Syed Javed Arif


From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.

Keywords: polymer recovery, electronic waste, petroleum, thermoplastics

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559 Dissociation of Hydrophobic Interactions in Whey Protein Polymers: Molecular Characterization Using Dilute Solution Viscometry

Authors: Ahmed S. Eissa


Whey represents about 85-95% of the milk volume and about 55% of milk nutrients. Whey proteins are of special importance in formulated foods due to their rich nutritional and functional benefits. Whey proteins form large polymers upon heating to a temperature greater than the denaturation temperature. Hydrophobic interactions play an important role in building whey protein polymers. In this study, dissociation of hydrophobic interactions of whey protein polymers was done by adding Sodium Dodecyl Sulphonate (SDS). At low SDS concentrations, protein polymers were dissociated to smaller chains, as revealed by dilution solution viscometry (DSV). Interestingly, at higher SDS concentrations, polymer molecules got larger in size. Intrinsic viscosity was increased to many folds when raising the SDS concentration from 0.5% to 2%. Complex molecular arrangement leads to the formation of larger macromolecules, due to micelle formation. The study opens a venue for manipulating and enhancing whey protein functional properties by manipulating the hydrophobic interactions.

Keywords: whey proteins, hydrophobic interactions, SDS

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
558 Study on the Effect of Coupling Fluid Compressible-Deformable Wall on the Flow of Molten Polymers

Authors: Mohamed Driouich, Kamal Gueraoui, Mohamed Sammouda


The main objective of this work is to establish a numerical code for studying the flow of molten polymers in deformable pipes. Using an iterative numerical method based on finite differences, we determine the profiles of the fluid velocity, the temperature and the apparent viscosity of the fluid. The numerical code presented can also be applied to other industrial applications.

Keywords: numerical code, molten polymers, deformable pipes, finite differences

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557 Bio-polymer Materials for Sustainable Consumer and Medical Applications

Authors: Sonny Yip Hong Choy


With the ubiquity of 3D printing technology in the last decade, a wide array of material choices are available for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology. Exploration into creating printable bio-polymers has also seen progress recently in attempts to further the sustainability agenda and circular economy. By tackling waste and pollution via recycling and reusing, food by-products resulting from mass food production may see opportunities for renewed value and alternate applications through 3D printing. To date, many pure polymers, blends, as well as composites have been developed specifically for FDM printing contexts to heighten the physical performance of final printed products. This review article covers general information on various FDM printed polymers and composites while exploring experiments designed to create printable biopolymers made from reused food by-products. The biopolymer-based composites preparation is described in detail, while their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. In addition, this article shares knowledge and highlights experimentation that aims to achieve acceptable 3D-printed biopolymer composite properties that may address the functional requirements of different application contexts. Furthermore, the article describes a brief overview of the potential applications of such bio-polymers and the future scope in this field.

Keywords: food by-products, bio-polymers, FDM, 3d printing

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556 Preparation of Metal Containing Epoxy Polymer and Investigation of Their Properties as Fluorescent Probe

Authors: Ertuğ Yıldırım, Dile Kara, Salih Zeki Yıldız


Metal containing polymers (MCPs) are macro molecules usually containing metal-ligand coordination units and are a multidisciplinary research field mainly based at the interface between coordination chemistry and polymer science. The progress of this area has also been reinforced by the growth of several other closely related disciplines including macro molecular engineering, crystal engineering, organic synthesis, supra molecular chemistry and colloidal and material science. Schiff base ligands are very effective in constructing supra molecular architectures such as coordination polymers, double helical and triple helical complexes. In addition, Schiff base derivatives incorporating a fluorescent moiety are appealing tools for optical sensing of metal ions. MCPs are well-known systems in which the combinations of local parameters are possible by means of fluoro metric techniques. Generally, without incorporation of the fluorescent groups with polymers is unspecific, and it is not useful to analyze their fluorescent properties. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare a new type epoxy polymers with fluorescent groups in terms of metal sensing prop and the other photo chemical applications. In the present study metal containing polymers were prepared via poly functional monomeric Schiff base metal chelate complexes in the presence of dis functional monomers such as diglycidyl ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA). The synthesized complexes and polymers were characterized by FTIR, UV-VIS and mass spectroscopies. The preparations of epoxy polymers have been carried out at 185 °C. The prepared composites having sharp and narrow excitation/emission properties are expected to be applicable in various systems such as heat-resistant polymers and photo voltaic devices. The prepared composite is also ideal for various applications, easily prepared, safe, and maintain good fluorescence properties.

Keywords: Schiff base ligands, crystal engineering, fluorescence properties, Metal Containing Polymers (MCPs)

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555 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{4-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]-Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine with Deep HOMO Level for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Jiwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh


Photovoltaics, which have many advantages in cost, easy processing, and light-weight, have attracted attention. We synthesized pyrimidine-based conjugated polymers with 2-{4-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (pPTP) which have an ability of powerful electron withdrawing and introduced into the PSCs. By Stille polymerization, we designed the conjugated polymers, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI. The HOMO energy levels of four polymers (pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI) were at -5.61 ~ -5.89 eV, their LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy levels were at -3.95 ~ -4.09 eV. The device including pPTPBDT-12 and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.67 V, a J_sc of 1.33 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.25, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.23%. The device including pPTPBDT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 2.56 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.56%. The device including pPTPBDTT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 3.61 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.29, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.74%. The device including pPTPTTI and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.83 V, a J_sc of 4.41 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.31, giving a power conversion efficiency of 1.13%. Therefore, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH, and pPTPTTI were synthesized by Stille polymerization. And We find one of the best efficiency for these polymers, called pPTPTTI. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers especially like pPTPTTI have a great promise to act as the donor of the active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, pyrimidine-based polymers, photovoltaics, conjugated polymer

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554 New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Maxence Fache, Bernard Boutevin


Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.

Keywords: lignin, vanillin, epoxy, amine, carbonate

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553 Predicting the Lifetime of Weathered Polyolefins by Relating Mechanics to Microstructure

Authors: Marta Chiapasco, Alexandra Porter, Finn Giuliani


Designing polymers with a specific microstructure can affect how the polymer degrades once released in the environment. Not only the amount but also the distribution of different phases determines a polymers’ degradability. The following research investigates the use of a combination of spectroscopy analysis and thermal analysis to study changes of polymers’ amorphous and crystalline phases during degradation, comparing different microstructures of polypropylene and polyethylene. The use of nanoindentation helps study how degradation proceeds across a material by looking at changes in phases, while bulk tensile test describes when the material fails. The first results demonstrate that different microstructures have different degrading rates, with homopolymer having a linear and faster degradation compared to copolymers. The goal is to create materials that degrade at faster rates without releasing microplastics into the environment.

Keywords: degradation, microstructure, nanoindentation, Raman spectroscopy

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552 Rational Design and Synthesis of 2D/3D Conjugated Porous Polymers via Facile and 'Greener' Direct Arylation Polycondensation

Authors: Hassan Bohra, Mingfeng Wang


Conjugated porous polymers (CPPs) are amorphous, insoluble and highly robust organic semiconductors that have been largely synthesized by traditional transition-metal catalyzed reactions. The distinguishing feature of CPP materials is that they combine microporosity and high surface areas with extended conjugation, making them ideal for versatile applications such as separation, catalysis and energy storage. By applying a modular approach to synthesis, chemical and electronic properties of CPPs can be tailored for specific applications making these materials economical alternatives to inorganic semiconductors. Direct arylation - an environmentally benign alternative to traditional polymerization reactions – is one such reaction that extensively over the last decade for the synthesis of linear p-conjugated polymers. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new series of robust conjugated porous polymers synthesized by facile direct arylation polymerization of thiophene-flanked acceptor building blocks with multi-brominated aryls with different geometries. We observed that the porosities and morphologies of the polymers are determined by the chemical structure of the aryl bromide used. Moreover, good control of the optical bandgap in the range 2.53 - 1.3 eV could be obtained by using different building blocks. Structure-property relationships demonstrated in this study suggest that direct arylation polymerization is an attractive synthetic tool for the rational design of porous organic materials with tunable photo-physical properties for applications in photocatalysis, energy storage and conversion.

Keywords: direct arylation, conjugated porous polymers, triazine, photocatalysis

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551 Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands

Authors: P. Mirahmadpour, M. H. Banitaba, D. Nematollahi


The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylate, coordination polymer, copper, 2, 2’-thiodiacetic acid

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550 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal


The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

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549 Regenerated Cotton/Feather Keratin Composite Materials Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Rasike De Silva, Xungai Wang, Nolene Byrne


We report on the blending of cotton and duck feather towards developing a new textile fibre. The cotton and duck feather were blended together by dissolving both components in an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are designer solvents consisting entirely of ions with a melting point below 100˚C. Ionic liquids can be designed to have numerous and varied properties which include the ability to dissolve bio polymers. The dissolution of bio polymers such as cotton or wool generally requires very harsh acid or alkaline conditions and high temperatures. The ionic liquids which can dissolve bio polymers can be considered environmentally benign since they have negligible vapor pressure and can be recycled and reused. We have selected the cellulose dissolving and recyclable ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) as the dissolving and blending solvent for the cotton and duck feather materials. We have casted films and wet spun fibres at varying cotton and duck feather compositions and characterized the material properties of these. We find that the addition of duck feather enhances the elasticity of regenerated cotton. The strain% at breakage of the regenerated film was increased from 4.2% to 11.63% with a 10% duck feather loading, while the corresponding stress at breakage reduced from 54.89 MPa to 47.16 MPa.

Keywords: textile materials, bio polymers, ionic liquids, duck feather

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548 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan


The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

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547 Electrochemical Deposition of Pb and PbO2 on Polymer Composites Electrodes

Authors: A. Merzouki, N. Haddaoui


Polymers have a large reputation as electric insulators. These materials are characterized by weak weight, reduced price and a large domain of physical and chemical properties. They conquered new application domains that were until a recent past the exclusivity of metals. In this work, we used some composite materials (polymers/conductive fillers), as electrodes and we try to cover them with metallic lead layers in order to use them as courant collector grids in lead-acid battery plates.

Keywords: electrodeposition, polymer composites, carbon black, acetylene black

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546 Predictions for the Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity in Polymers Subjected to Model Flows by Combination of the eXtended Pom-Pom Model and the Stress-Thermal Rule

Authors: David Nieto Simavilla, Wilco M. H. Verbeeten


The viscoelastic behavior of polymeric flows under isothermal conditions has been extensively researched. However, most of the processing of polymeric materials occurs under non-isothermal conditions and understanding the linkage between the thermo-physical properties and the process state variables remains a challenge. Furthermore, the cost and energy required to manufacture, recycle and dispose polymers is strongly affected by the thermo-physical properties and their dependence on state variables such as temperature and stress. Experiments show that thermal conductivity in flowing polymers is anisotropic (i.e. direction dependent). This phenomenon has been previously omitted in the study and simulation of industrially relevant flows. Our work combines experimental evidence of a universal relationship between thermal conductivity and stress tensors (i.e. the stress-thermal rule) with differential constitutive equations for the viscoelastic behavior of polymers to provide predictions for the anisotropy in thermal conductivity in uniaxial, planar, equibiaxial and shear flow in commercial polymers. A particular focus is placed on the eXtended Pom-Pom model which is able to capture the non-linear behavior in both shear and elongation flows. The predictions provided by this approach are amenable to implementation in finite elements packages, since viscoelastic and thermal behavior can be described by a single equation. Our results include predictions for flow-induced anisotropy in thermal conductivity for low and high density polyethylene as well as confirmation of our method through comparison with a number of thermoplastic systems for which measurements of anisotropy in thermal conductivity are available. Remarkably, this approach allows for universal predictions of anisotropy in thermal conductivity that can be used in simulations of complex flows in which only the most fundamental rheological behavior of the material has been previously characterized (i.e. there is no need for additional adjusting parameters other than those in the constitutive model). Accounting for polymers anisotropy in thermal conductivity in industrially relevant flows benefits the optimization of manufacturing processes as well as the mechanical and thermal performance of finalized plastic products during use.

Keywords: anisotropy, differential constitutive models, flow simulations in polymers, thermal conductivity

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545 Formulation and Evaluation of TDDS for Sustained Release Ondansetron HCL Patches

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma


The skin can be used as the site for drug administration for continuous transdermal drug infusion into the systemic circulation. For the continuous diffusion/penetration of the drugs through the intact skin surface membrane-moderated systems, matrix dispersion type systems, adhesive diffusion controlled systems and micro reservoir systems have been developed. Various penetration enhancers are used for the drug diffusion through skin. In matrix dispersion type systems, the drug is dispersed in the solvent along with the polymers and solvent allowed to evaporate forming a homogeneous drug-polymer matrix. Matrix type systems were developed in the present study. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system comprising of ondansetron-HCl with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric combinations using solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was studied by infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed no physical-chemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. The patches were further subjected to various physical evaluations along with the in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin. On the basis of results obtained form the in vitro study and physical evaluation, the patches containing hydrophilic polymers i.e. polyvinyl alcohol and poly vinyl pyrrolidone with oleic acid as the penetration enhancer(5%) were considered as suitable for large scale manufacturing with a backing layer and a suitable adhesive membrane.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, penetration enhancers, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, ondansetron HCl

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544 Microstructure Study of NanoCrystalline Cellulose Obtained from Cotton Linter

Authors: Farid Amidi-Fazli


Problems and disadvantages of using conventional plastics are more apparent in recent years and have attracted researchers' attention. Polymers from natural resources or bio polymers represent a suitable replacement to overcome to the disadvantages of plastics. But due to the some flaws of bio polymers, using suitable filler almost seems necessary. Nanocrystalline cellulose with low cost and availability can be applied as appropriate filler. In this study nanocrystalline cellulose was produced from cotton Linter and was characterized. The cotton Linter was hydrolyzed in sulfuric acid then neutralized by the two different concentrations of NaOH. The resulted suspension was treated by ultrasound waves. Process efficiency was determined as 90%. The final product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The obtained diagram of XRD experiment confirmed that the produced material was nanocrystalline cellulose. Also percentage of crystallinity was calculated as 84% in the obtained material as well as the size of crystals. It can be said that the applied method is a rapid and easy method for the production of nanocrystalline cellulose.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, crystallinity, XRD, cotton linter

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543 Effect of UV Radiation to Change the Properties of the Composite PA+GF

Authors: Lenka Markovičová, Viera Zatkalíková, Tomasz Garbacz


The development of composite materials and the related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Some composites also exhibit great resistance to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and wear. Polymers are widely used indoors and outdoors, therefore they are exposed to a chemical environment which may include atmospheric oxygen, acidic fumes, acidic rain, moisture heat and thermal shock, ultra-violet light, high energy radiation, etc. Different polymers are affected differently by these factors even though the amorphous polymers are more sensitive. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, micro-organisms and other atmospheric factors.

Keywords: composites with glass fibers, mechanical properties, polyamides, UV degradation

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542 Proecological Antioxidants for Stabilisation of Polymeric Composites

Authors: A. Masek, M. Zaborski


Electrochemical oxidation of dodecyl gallate (lauryl gallate), the main monomer flavanol found in green tea, was investigated on platinum electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse (DPV) methods. The rate constant, electron transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients were determined for dodecyl gallate electrochemical oxidation. The oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps related to the hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring of dodecyl gallate. Confirmed antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate verified its use in polymers as an environment-friendly stabiliser to improve the resistance to aging of the elastomeric materials. Based on the energy change of the deformation, cross-linking density and time of the oxygen induction with the TG method, we confirmed the high antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate in polymers. Moreover, the research on biodegradation confirmed the environment-friendly influence of the antioxidant by increasing the susceptibility of the elastomeric materials to disintegration by mildew mushrooms.

Keywords: polymers, flavonoids, stabilization, ageing

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541 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{3-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine as Electron-Deficient Unit for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Juwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh


Recently, the development of photovoltaics is rapidly accelerating as one of green energy sources. So we designed pyrimidine-based polymers with 2-{3-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (mPTP), as active layer substances for polymer solar cells. Polymers with push-pull types, mPTPBDT-12, mPTPBDT-EH, mPTPBDTT-EH and mPTPTTI, are comprised of electron pushing unit using benzo[1,2-b;3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT) or 4,8-bis(5-thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDTT) or 6-(2-thienyl)-4H-thieno[3,2-b]indole(TTI) and electron pulling unit using mPTP. The device including mPTPTTI-12 indicated a VOC of 0.67 V, a JSC of 2.16 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.43%. The device including mPTPBDT-EH indicated a VOC of 0.56 V, a JSC of 2.64 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.30, giving a PCE of 0.44%. The device including mPTPBDTT-EH indicated a VOC of 0.44 V, a JSC of 2.45 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.29, giving a PCE of 0.31%. The device including mPTPTTI indicated a VOC of 0.72 V, a JSC of 4.95 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.32, giving a PCE of 1.15%. Therefore, mPTPBDT-12, mPTPBDT-EH, mPTPBDTT-EH and mPTPTTI were fabricated by Stille polymerization. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers have a great promise to act as donor of active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, photovoltaics, thiazolopyridine, conjugated polymer

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540 Preparation of Hyperbranched Polymers for Application in Light Emitting Diodes

Authors: Amal Aljohani, Ahmed Iraqi


Emitting materials with thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) properties as the third generation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention as a modern class of highly efficient emitters because such properties enable the harvesting of both singlet and triplet excitons in EL applications without the doping with complexes of scarce noble metals such as platinum and iridium. Improved molecular design of TADF molecules and applied materials exhibiting internal electroluminescence (EL) with quantum efficiencies of nearly 100% has been achieved being. A2B3 hyperbranched polymers based on new derivatives containing silane core units serving as host materials for thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) guest molecules have been designed and synthesized through several steps, including the synthesis of tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)silane, bis(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)bis(4-bromophenyl)silane,bis(4-(9H-carbazol-9 yl)phenyl)bis(4-methoxyphenyl)silane and bis(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)bis(4hydroxyphenyl)silane. This monomer has been used successfully used along with 1,1,1-tri-(p-tosyloxymethyl)-propane to prepare A2B3 hyperbranched polymers via step-growth polymerization. The characterization and the properties of these new host polymers will be presented and discussed in this contribution.

Keywords: carbazole, organic light emitting diodes, thermally activated delayed fluorescence, donor-acceptor, host and guest interaction

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539 Advanced Textiles for Soldier Clothes Based on Coordination Polymers

Authors: Hossam E. Emam


The functional textiles development history in the military field could be ascribed as a uniquely interesting research topic. Soldiers are like a high-performance athletes, where monitoring their physical and physiological capabilities is a vital requirement. Functional clothes represent a “second skin” that has a close, “intimate” relationship with the human body. For the application of textiles in military purposes, which is normally required in difficult weather and environmental conditions, several functions are required. The requirements for designing functional military textiles for soldier's protection can be categorized into three categories; i) battle field (protection from chemical warfare agents, flames, and thermal radiation), ii) environmental (water proof, air permeable, UV-protection, antibacterial), iii) physiological (minimize heat stress, low weight, insulative, durability). All of these requirements are important, but the means to fulfill these requirements are not simple and straight forward. Additionally, the combination of more than one function is reported to be very expensive and requires many complicated steps, and the final product is found to be low durability. Not only do all of these requirements are overlapping, but they are also contradicting each other at various levels. Thus, we plan to produce multi-functional textiles (e.g., anti-microbial, UV-protection, fire retardant, photoluminescent) to be applied in military clothes. The current project aims to use quite a simple and applicable technique through the modification of textiles with different coordination polymers and functionalized coordination polymers.

Keywords: functional textiles, military clothes, coordination polymers, antimicrobial, fire retardant, photolumenscent

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538 Investigations on Ceramic Injection Molding-Like Process for Zirconia Filled with a Partially Bio-Based Polymer

Authors: Marwa Abid, Mohamed Boudifa, Sebastien Charlon, Delphine Auzene, Stephane Buet, Marie-France Lacrampe


Ceramic Injection Molding-like (CIM-like) has become an interesting technique to produce complex, low volume, and customized parts. In this work, a new homemade and environmental-friendly feedstock was produced by zirconia and partially bio-based polymers. The feedstock was processed at low temperatures by common fused filament fabrication (FFF) printers. Then, polymers were removed from the printed part during a debinding step, and the ceramic particles were finally sintered. The thermal debinding step must be carefully performed to avoid the formation of defects such as cracks, blistering, and residues. For this purpose, models describing the thermal degradation of polymers were used to calculate the activation energy and to design the optimal thermal debinding program based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, digital imaging and X-ray tomography were performed to characterize the intern morphology of sintered parts.

Keywords: CIM-like, 3D printing, zirconia, bio-based binders, debinding, water-soluble binder

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537 Effects of Using Super-Absorbent Polymers on Physiological Indexes of Maize

Authors: Shoaei Shahram, Rafiei Felora


To study the effects of using superabsorbent polymers on physiological of maize in deficit Irrigation condition .an experiment carried out in split plot factorial based on completely Randomized Block design (RCBD) with three replication in 2012years. Deficit Irrigation was applied by three different Irrigation amount. Super absorbent polymers in 3 levels were and two veriety of maize allocated in sub plots. there was significant difference between Irrigation levels in all experimental Traits by increasing in deficit irrigation. Results of this research showed water stress significantly decreased relative water content (RWC) LAI,Ash percentage in both hybrids, and increased Cell membrane percentage and SPAD,ADF percent.whereas the application of super absorbent polymer compensated the negative effect of drought stress, especially in high rates of polymer application .These mentioned rates of polymer had the best effect to all of the studied traits. These findings can be suggested that the irrigation intervals of corn could be increased by application of super absorbent polymer.

Keywords: super absorbent, p hysiological, water stress, zea maize

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