Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 6320

Search results for: protein content

6320 Inheritance of Protein Content and Grain Yield in Half Diallel Maize (Zea mays L.) Populations

Authors: Gül Ebru Orhun

Abstract:

A half diallel crossing design was carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons under Çanakkale-Turkey ecological conditions. In this research, 20 F1 maize hybrids obtained by 6x6 half diallel crossing were used. Gene action for protein content and grain yield traits were explored in half set involving six elite inbred lines. According to the results diallel analysis dominance and additive gene variances were determined for protein content. Variance/Co-variance graphs revealed for grain yield and protein content traits. In this study, inheritance of grain yield and protein content demonstrated over-dominance type of gene action.

Keywords: protein, maize, inheritance, gene action

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6319 The Impact of Different Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains on the Protein Content of Peas and Broad Beans

Authors: Alise Senberga, Laila Dubova, Liene Strauta, Ina Alsina, Ieva Erdberga

Abstract:

Legume symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixating bacteria Rhizobim leguminosarum is an important factor used to improve the productivity of legumes, due to the fact that rhizobia can supply plant with the necessary amount of nitrogen. R. leguminosarum strains have shown different activity in fixing nitrogen. Depending on the chosen R. leguminosarum strain, host plant biochemical content can be altered. In this study we focused particularly on the changes in protein content in beans (using two different varieties) and peas (five different varieties) due to the use of several different R. leguminosarum strains (four strains for both beans and peas). Overall, the protein content increase was observed after seed inoculation with R. leguminosarum. Strain and plant cultivar interaction specification was observed. The effect of R. leguminosarum inoculation on the content of protein was dependent on the R. leguminosarum strain used. Plant cultivar also appeared to have a decisive role in protein content formation with the help of R. leguminosaru.

Keywords: legumes, protein content, rhizobia strains, soil

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6318 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina

Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan

Abstract:

A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.

Keywords: Avicennia marina, morphology, oil contamination, protein content

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6317 Protein Isolates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Its Application in Cake

Authors: Mohamed Abdullah Ahmed

Abstract:

In a study of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) preparation, the wet alkaline extraction was carried out. The objectives were to determine the optimal extracting conditions of CPI and apply CPI into a sponge cake recipe to replace egg and make acceptable product. The design used in extraction was a central composite design. The response surface methodology was preferred to graphically express the relationship between extraction time and pH with the output variables of percent yield and protein content of CPI. It was noted that optimal extracting conditions were 60 min and pH 10.5 resulting in 90.07% protein content and 89.15% yield of CPI. The protein isolate (CPI) could be incorporated in cake to 20% without adversely affecting the cake physical properties such as cake hardness and sensory attributes. The higher protein content in cake was corresponding to the amount of CPI added. Therefore, adding CPI can significantly (p<0.05) increase protein content in cake. However, sensory evaluation showed that adding more than 20% of CPI decreased the overall acceptability. The results of this investigation could be used as a basic knowledge of CPI utilization in other food products.

Keywords: chick bean protein isolate, sponge cake, utilization, sponge

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6316 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model, which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contain 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: single cell protein, response surface methodology, yeast, cassava processing waste

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6315 Isolation, Preparation and Biological Properties of Soybean-Flaxseed Protein Co-Precipitates

Authors: Muhammad H. Alu’datt, Inteaz Alli

Abstract:

This study was conducted to prepare and evaluate the biological properties of protein co-precipitates from flaxseed and soybean. Protein was prepared by NaOH extraction through the mixing of soybean flour (Sf) and flaxseed flour (Ff) or mixtures of soybean extract (Se) and flaxseed extract (Fe). The protein co-precipitates were precipitated by isoelectric (IEP) and isoelectric-heating (IEPH) co-precipitation techniques. Effects of extraction and co-precipitation techniques on co-precipitate yield were investigated. Native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE were used to study the molecular characterization. Content and antioxidant activity of extracted free and bound phenolic compounds were evaluated for protein co-precipitates. Removal of free and bound phenolic compounds from protein co-precipitates showed little effects on the electrophoretic behavior of the proteins or the protein subunits of protein co-precipitates. Results showed that he highest protein contents and yield were obtained in for Sf-Ff/IEP co-precipitate with values of 53.28 and 25.58% respectively as compared to protein isolates and other co-precipitates. Results revealed that the Sf-Ff/IEP showed a higher content of bound phenolic compounds (53.49% from total phenolic content) as compared to free phenolic compounds (46.51% from total phenolic content). Antioxidant activities of extracted bound phenolic compounds with and without heat treatment from Sf-Ff/IEHP were higher as compared to free phenolic compounds extracted from other protein co-precipitates (29.68 and 22.84%, respectively).

Keywords: antioxidant, phenol, protein co-precipitate, yield

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6314 Formulation and Nutrition Analysis of Low-Sugar Snack Bars

Authors: S. Kongtun-Janphuk, S. Niwitpong Jr., J. Saengsai

Abstract:

Low-sugar snack bars were formulated with 3 main formulas depending on the main ingredient, which were peanut-green bean-sesame, apple, and prune. The most acceptable formula of each group was obtained by sensory evaluation using a nine-point hedonic scale. The moisture content, total ash, protein, fat and fiber were analyzed by the standard methods of AOAC. The peanut-mung bean-sesame snack bar showed the highest protein content (88.32%) and total fat (0.48%) with the lowest of fiber content (0.01%) while the prune formula showed the lowest protein content (71.91%) and total fat (0.21%) with the highest of fiber content (0.03%). This result indicated that the prune formula could be used as diet food to assist in weight loss program.

Keywords: low-sugar snack bar, diet food, nutrition analysis, food formulation

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6313 Determination of Yield and Some Quality Characteristics of Winter Canola (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) Cultivars

Authors: B. Coşgun, O. Ozturk

Abstract:

Canola is a specific edible type of rapeseed, developed in the 1970s, which contains about 40 percent oil. This research was carried out to determine the yield and some quality characteristics of some winter canola cultivars during the 2010-2011 vegetation period in Central Anatolia of Turkey. In this research; Oase, Dante, Californium, Excalibur, Elvis, ES Hydromel, Licord, Orkan, Vectra, Nelson, Champlain and NK Petrol winter canola varieties were used as material. The field experiment was set up in a “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications on 21 September 2010. In this research; seed yield, oil content, protein content, oil yield and protein yield were examined. As a result of this research; seed yield, oil content, oil yield and protein yield (except protein content) were significant differences between the cultivars. The highest seed yield (6348 kg ha-1) was obtained from the NK Petrol, while the lowest seed yield (3949 kg ha-1) was determined from the Champlain cultivar was obtained. The highest oil content (46.73%) was observed from Oase and the lowest value was obtained from Vectra (41.87%) cultivar. The highest oil yield (2950 kg ha-1) was determined from NK Petrol while the least value (1681 kg ha-1) was determined from Champlain cultivar. The highest protein yield (1539.3 kg ha-1) was obtained from NK Petrol and the lowest protein yield (976.5 kg ha-1) was obtained from Champlain cultivar. The main purpose of the cultivation of oil crops, to increase the yield of oil per unit area. According the result of this research, NK Petrol cultivar which ranks first with regard to both seed yield and oil yield between cultivars as the most suitable winter canola cultivar of local conditions.

Keywords: rapeseed, cultivar, seed yield, crude oil ratio, crude protein ratio, crude oil yield, crude protein yield

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6312 Utilization of Rice and Corn Bran with Dairy By-Product in Tarhana Production

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nihat Akin

Abstract:

Tarhana is a traditional Turkish fermented food. It is widely consumed as soup and includes many different ingredients such as wheat flour, various vegetables, and spices, yoghurt, bakery yeast. It can also be enriched by adding other ingredients. Thus, its nutritional properties can be enhanced. In this study, tarhana was supplemented with two different types of brans (rice bran and corn bran) and WPC (whey protein concentrate powder) to improve its nutritional and functional properties. Some chemical properties of tarhana containing two different brans and their levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) and WPC (0, 5, 10%) were investigated. The results indicated that addition of WPC increased ash content in tarhanas which were fortified with rice and corn bran. The highest antioxidant and phenolic content values were obtained with addition of rice bran in tarhana formulation. Compared to tarhana with corn bran, rice bran addition gave higher oil content values. The cellulose content of tarhana samples was determined between 0.75% and 2.74% and corn bran showed an improving effect on cellulose contents of samples. In terms of protein content, addition of WPC into the tarhana raised protein content for the samples.

Keywords: corn, rice, tarhana, whey

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6311 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

Abstract:

κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: dairy cows, κ-casein, milk productivity, polymorphism

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6310 Body Composition Analysis of Wild Labeo Bata in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Chenab, Multan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Naveed Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Seventy three wild Labeo bata of different body sizes, ranging from 8.20-16.00 cm total length and 7.4-86.19 g body weight, were studied for the analysis of body composition parameters (Water content, ash content, fat content, protein content) in relation to body size and condition factor. Mean percentage is found as for water 77.71 %, ash 3.42 %, fat 2.20 % and protein content 16.65 % in whole wet body weight. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between condition factor and body weight (r = 0.243). Protein contents, organic content and ash (% wet body weight) increase with increasing percent water contents for Labeo bata while these constituents (% dry body weight) and fat contents (% wet and dry body weight) have no influence on percent water. It was observed that variations in the body constituents have no association to body weight or length.

Keywords: Labeo bata, body size, body composition, condition factor

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6309 Associations between Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene on Milk Production, Fat and Protein Content in Friesian Holstein Cattle

Authors: Tety Hartatik, Dian Kurniawati, Adiarto

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene (Leu/Val, L/V) and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein groups (cattle from New Zealand are 19 heads and cattle from Australia are 43 heads). We perform the PCR and RFLP method for analyzing the genotype of the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of GH gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were higher than genotype LV. The number of genotype LL in New Zealand and Australia groups are 84% and 79%, respectively. The number of genotype LV in New Zealand and Australia groups are 16% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups does not show the significant effect. However base on the groups (cows from New Zealand compare with those from Australia) show the significant effect on fat and protein content.

Keywords: Friesian Holstein, fat content, growth hormone gene, milk production, PCR-RLFP, protein content

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6308 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, protein, titanium

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6307 Proximate and Mineral Composition of Chicken Giblets from Vojvodina, Northern Serbia

Authors: M. R. Jokanović, V. M. Tomović, M. T. Jović, S. B. Škaljac, B. V. Šojić, P. M. Ikonić, T. A. Tasić

Abstract:

Proximate (moisture, protein, total fat, total ash) and mineral (K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) composition of chicken giblets (heart, liver and gizzard) were investigated. Phosphorous content, as well as proximate composition, were determined according to recommended ISO methods. The content of all elements, except phosphorus, of the giblets tissues were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), after dry ashing mineralization. Regarding proximate composition heart was the highest in total fat content, and the lowest in protein content. Liver was the highest in protein and total ash content, while gizzard was the highest in moisture and the lowest in total fat content. Regarding mineral composition liver was the highest for K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn, while heart was the highest for Na content. The contents of almost all investigated minerals in analysed giblets tissues of chickens from Vojvodina were similar to values reported in the literature, i.e. in national food composition databases of other countries.

Keywords: chicken giblets, proximate composition, mineral composition, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

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6306 Production and Evaluation of Enriched Aadun (a Local Maize Snack)

Authors: E. Oluwasola, E. Bamidele, E. Ogunbusola

Abstract:

Enriched “aadun” was produced from maize with, supplemented with cray fish and beans. Sodium chloride (Nacl) was also added to the product which acts as preservatives. The produced enriched “aadun” was compared with commercial “aadun” organoleptically the result of the sensory evaluation carried out on the product showed that there is a statistical significant difference between the mouth feel of enriched and commercial “aadun” at 0.05 level of significance (t=5.499, P<0.05) Similarly, the mean difference between enriched and commercial “aadun” in terms of aroma (t=4.403, P<0.05), taste (t=4.592, P<0.05) colour (t=2.788, P<0.05) and general acceptability (t=3.894, P<0.05) is statistically significant at 95% confidence level in each case, therefore, it is clearly revealed that product 321 (Enriched “aadun”) is more acceptable and significant better than product 432 (commercial “aadun”) in all the attributes evaluated. The proximate analysis using standard methods of analysis was carried out which include the moisture content, ash and protein content for both the enriched aadun and commercial aadun the result showed moisture content 9%, ash 6.2%, protein 19.6% and 12.9% moisture content, 4%ash content, 8.75% protein for the commercial and improved aadun respectively.

Keywords: aadun, enriched, maize, supplemented

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6305 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

Abstract:

In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: biochemical composition, light, microalgae, nitrogen limitation, salinity

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6304 Protein Quality of Game Meat Hunted in Latvia

Authors: Vita Strazdina, Aleksandrs Jemeljanovs, Vita Sterna

Abstract:

Not all proteins have the same nutritional value, since protein quality strongly depends on its amino acid composition and digestibility. The meat of game animals could be a high protein source because of its well-balanced essential amino acids composition. Investigations about biochemical composition of game meat such as wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and beaver (Castor fiber) are not very much. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was evaluate protein composition of game meat hunted in Latvia. The biochemical analysis, evaluation of connective tissue and essential amino acids in meat samples were done, the amino acids score were calculate. Results of analysis showed that protein content 20.88-22.05% of all types of meat samples is not different statistically. The content of connective tissue from 1.3% in roe deer till 1.5% in beaver meat allowed classified game animal as high quality meat. The sum of essential amino acids in game meat samples were determined 7.05–8.26g100g-1. Roe deer meat has highest protein content and lowest content of connective tissues among game meat hunted in Latvia. Concluded that amino acid score for limiting amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine is high and shows high biological value of game meat.

Keywords: dietic product, game meat, amino acids, scores

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6303 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

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6302 Re-Engineering of Traditional Indian Wadi into Ready-to-Use High Protein Quality and Fibre Rich Chunk

Authors: Radhika Jain, Sangeeta Goomer

Abstract:

In the present study an attempt has been made to re-engineer traditional wadi into wholesome ready-to-use cereal-pulse-based chunks rich in protein quality and fibre content. Chunks were made using extrusion-dehydration combination. Two formulations i.e., whole green gram dhal with instant oats and washed green gram dhal with whole oats were formulated. These chunks are versatile in nature as they can be easily incorporated in day-to-day home-made preparations such as pulao, potato curry and kadhi. Cereal-pulse ratio was calculated using NDpCal%. Limiting amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and threonine were calculated for maximum amino acid profile in cereal-pulse combination. Time-temperature combination for extrusion at 130oC and dehydration at 65oC for 7 hours and 15 minutes were standardized to obtain maximum protein and fibre content. Proximate analysis such as moisture, fat and ash content were analyzed. Protein content of formulation was 62.10% and 68.50% respectively. Fibre content of formulations was 2.99% and 2.45%, respectively. Using a 5-point hedonic scale, consumer preference trials of 102 consumers were conducted and analyzed. Evaluation of chunks prepared in potato curry, kadi and pulao showed preferences for colour 82%, 87%, 86%, texture and consistency 80%, 81%, 88%, flavour and aroma 74%, 82%, 86%, after taste 70%, 75%, 86% and overall acceptability 77%, 75%, 88% respectively. High temperature inactivates antinutritional compounds such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins, saponins etc. Hence, availability of protein content was increased. Developed products were palatable and easy to prepare.

Keywords: extrusion, NDpCal%, protein quality, wadi

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6301 Protein Extraction by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction followed by Alkaline Extraction from Red Seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum (Spinosum) Used in Carrageenan Production

Authors: Alireza Naseri, Susan L. Holdt, Charlotte Jacobsen

Abstract:

In 2014, the global amount of carrageenan production was 60,000 ton with a value of US$ 626 million. From this number, it can be estimated that the total dried seaweed consumption for this production was at least 300,000 ton/year. The protein content of these types of seaweed is 5 – 25%. If just half of this total amount of protein could be extracted, 18,000 ton/year of a high-value protein product would be obtained. The overall aim of this study was to develop a technology that will ensure further utilization of the seaweed that is used only as raw materials for carrageenan production as single extraction at present. More specifically, proteins should be extracted from the seaweed either before or after extraction of carrageenan with focus on maintaining the quality of carrageenan as a main product. Different mechanical, chemical and enzymatic technologies were evaluated. The optimized process was implemented in lab scale and based on its results; the new experiments were done a pilot and larger scale. In order to calculate the efficiency of the new upstream multi-extraction process, protein content was tested before and after extraction. After this step, the extraction of carrageenan was done and carrageenan content and the effect of extraction on yield were evaluated. The functionality and quality of carrageenan were measured based on rheological parameters. The results showed that by using the new multi-extraction process (submitted patent); it is possible to extract almost 50% of total protein without any negative impact on the carrageenan quality. Moreover, compared to the routine carrageenan extraction process, the new multi-extraction process could increase the yield of carrageenan and the rheological properties such as gel strength in the final carrageenan had a promising improvement. The extracted protein has initially been screened as a plant protein source in typical food applications. Further work will be carried out in order to improve properties such as color, solubility, and taste.

Keywords: carrageenan, extraction, protein, seaweed

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6300 Characterization of Biodiesel Produced from Cow-Tallow

Authors: Nwadike Emmanuel Chinagoron, Achebe Chukwunonso, Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Azaka Onyemazuwa Andrew

Abstract:

In this research work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant was studied using cow tallow as raw material, methanol as the solvent and potassium hydroxide as catalysts. The biodiesel quality was determined by characterization. The tallow used in the production had a molecular weight of 860g. Its oil had a density value of 0.8g/ml, iodine value of 63.45, viscosity at 300C was 9.83pas, acid value was 1.96, free fatty acid (FFA) of 0.98%, saponification value of 82.75mleq/kg, specific gravity of 0.898, flash point of 1100C, cloud point of 950C and Calorific value also called Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 38.365MJ/Kg. The produced biodiesel had a density of 0.82g/ml, iodine value of 126.9, viscosity of 4.32pas at 300C, acid value of 0.561, FFA of 0.2805%, saponification value of 137.45 mleq/kg.Flash point, cloud point and centane number of the biodiesel produced are 1390C, 980C and 57.5 respectively, with fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 10%, 2.8%, 5%, 5%, 20%, and 37.2% respectively. The biodiesel higher heating values (calorific values) when estimated from viscosity, density and flash points were 41.4MJ/Kg, 63.8MJ/Kg, and 34.6MJ/Kg respectively. The biodiesel was blended with conventional diesel. The blend B-10 had values of 1320C and 960C for flash and cloud points, with Calorific value (or HHV) of 34.6 MJ/Kg (when estimated from its Flash point) and fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 5%, 2.1%,10%, 5%, 15%, and 62.9% respectively.

Keywords: biodiesel, characterization, cow-tallow, cetane rating

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6299 Determination of Nutritional Value and Steroidal Saponin of Fenugreek Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

Abstract:

Nutrient rich and high-yielding varieties of fenugreek can be developed by using genotypes which are naturally high in nutrients. Gene banks harbour scanty germplasm collection of Trigonella spp. and a very little background information about its genetic diversity. The extent of genetic diversity in a specific breeding population depends upon the genotype included in it. The present investigation aims at the estimation of macronutrient (phosphorus by spectrophotometer and potassium by flame photometer), micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, protein by Rapid N Cube Analyser and Steroidal Saponins. Twenty-eight genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching were collected from different parts of India, and nutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. Highest potassium content was observed in PFG-35 (1207 mg/100g). PFG-37 and PFG-20 were richest in phosphorus, iron and manganese content among all the genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in PFG-26 (1.19 mg/100g), while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG- 28 (4.43 mg/100g). The highest content of copper was found in PFG-26 (1.97 mg/100g). PFG-39 has the highest protein content (29.60 %). Significant differences were observed in the steroidal saponin among the genotypes. Saponin content ranged from 0.38 g/100g to 1.31 g/100g. Steroidal Saponins content was found the maximum in PFG-36 (1.31 g/100g) followed by PFG-17 (1.28 g/100g). Therefore, the genotypes which are rich in nutrient and oil content can be used for plant biofortification, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

Keywords: genotypes, macronutrients, micronutrient, protein, seeds

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6298 Quality Rabbit Skin Gelatin with Acetic Acid Extract

Authors: Wehandaka Pancapalaga

Abstract:

This study aimed to analyze the water content, yield, fat content, protein content, viscosity, gel strength, pH, melting and organoleptic rabbit skin gelatin with acetic acid extraction levels are different. The materials used in this study were Rex rabbit skin male. Treatments that P1 = the extraction of acetic acid 2% (v / v); P2 = the extraction of acetic acid 3% (v / v); P3 = the extraction of acetic acid 4 % (v / v). P5 = the extraction of acetic acid 5% (v / v). The results showed that the greater the concentration of acetic acid as the extraction of rabbit skin can reduce the water content and fat content of rabbit skin gelatin but increase the protein content, viscosity, pH, gel strength, yield and melting point rabbit skin gelatin. texture, color and smell of gelatin rabbits there were no differences with cow skin gelatin. The results showed that the quality of rabbit skin gelatin accordance Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Conclusion 5% acetic acid extraction produces the best quality gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, skin rabbit, acetic acid extraction, quality

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6297 Potential Use of Cnidoscolus Chayamansa Leaf from Mexico as High-Quality Protein Source

Authors: Diana Karina Baigts Allende, Mariana Gonzalez Diaz, Luis Antonio Chel Guerrero, Mukthar Sandoval Peraza

Abstract:

Poverty and food insecurity are still incident problems in the developing countries, where population´s diet is based on cereals which are lack in protein content. Nevertheless, during last years the use of native plants has been studied as an alternative source of protein in order to improve the nutritional intake. Chaya crop also called Spinach tree, is a prehispanic plant native from Central America and South of Mexico (Mayan culture), which has been especially valued due to its high nutritional content particularly protein and some medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein isolation processing from Chaya leaf harvest in Yucatan, Mexico on its structure quality in order: i) to valorize the Chaya crop and ii) to produce low-cost and high-quality protein. Chaya leaf was extruded, clarified and recovered using: a) acid precipitation by decreasing the pH value until reach the isoelectric point (3.5) and b) thermal coagulation, by heating the protein solution at 80 °C during 30 min. Solubilized protein was re-dissolved in water and spray dried. The presence of Fraction I protein, known as RuBisCO (Rubilose-1,5-biphosfate carboxylase/oxygenase) was confirmed by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) where molecular weight bands of 55 KDa and 12 KDa were observed. The infrared spectrum showed changes in protein structure due to the isolation method. The use of high temperatures (thermal coagulation) highly decreased protein solubility in comparison to isoelectric precipitated protein, the nutritional properties according to amino acid profile was also disturbed, showing minor amounts of overall essential amino acids from 435.9 to 367.8 mg/g. Chaya protein isolate obtained by acid precipitation showed higher protein quality according to essential amino acid score compared to FAO recommendations, which could represent an important sustainable source of protein for human consumption.

Keywords: chaya leaf, nutritional properties, protein isolate, protein structure

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6296 Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour on the Soaking Time of Peeled Grains and Particle Size Treatment

Authors: Sri Satya Antarlina, Elok Zubaidah, Teti Istiana, Harijono

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Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential as a flour for gluten-free food products. Sorghum flour production needs grain soaking treatment. Soaking can reduce the tannin content which is an anti-nutrient, so it can increase the protein digestibility. Fine particle size decreases the yield of flour, so it is necessary to study various particle sizes to increase the yield. This study aims to determine the characteristics of sorghum flour in the treatment of soaking peeled grain and particle size. The material of white sorghum varieties KD-4 from farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Factorial randomized factorial design (two factors), repeated three times, factor I were the time of grain soaking (five levels) that were 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, factor II was the size of the starch particles sifted with a fineness level of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mesh. The method of making sorghum flour is grain peeling, soaking peeled grain, drying using the oven at 60ᵒC, milling, and sieving. Physico-chemical analysis of sorghum flour. The results show that there is an interaction between soaking time of grain with the size of sorghum flour particles. Interaction in yield of flour, L* color (brightness level), whiteness index, paste properties, amylose content, protein content, bulk density, and protein digestibility. The method of making sorghum flour through the soaking of peeled grain and the difference in particle size has an important role in producing the physicochemical properties of the specific flour. Based on the characteristics of sorghum flour produced, it is determined the method of making sorghum flour through sorghum grain soaking for 24 hours, the particle size of flour 80 mesh. The sorghum flour with characteristic were 24.88% yield of flour, 88.60 color L* (brightness level), 69.95 whiteness index, 3615 Cp viscosity, 584.10 g/l of bulk density, 24.27% db protein digestibility, 90.02% db starch content, 23.4% db amylose content, 67.45% db amylopectin content, 0.22% db crude fiber content, 0.037% db tannin content, 5.30% db protein content, ash content 0.18% db, carbohydrate content 92.88 % db, and 1.94% db fat content. The sorghum flour is recommended for cookies products.

Keywords: characteristic, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) flour, grain soaking, particle size, physicochemical properties

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6295 Determination of in Situ Degradation Kinetics of Some Legumes Waste Unused for Human Consumption

Authors: Şevket Evci, Mehmet Akif Karsli

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The aim of this study is to determine nutrient contents, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics and protein fractions of screenings bean (B), chick pea (ChP), red lentil (RL) and green lentil (GL) that is used as residue in grain legume packing industry. For this purpose, four samples of each legumes species-a total of 16 samples, collected from different parts of our country were utilized. Feedstuffs used in the experiment were incubated for 0, 2 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours in the rumen of 3 ruminally cannulated Akkaraman rams as duplicate. The nutrient contents, in situ ruminal dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities and fractions, and escape protein contents were evaluated. The highest OM and CP contents were observed in RL (P<0.05). Chick pea had the highest ether extract (EE) content and EE values were 3.47, 6.72, 2.26, 8.66 % for RL, B, GL and ChP, respectively (P<0.05). Crude fiber (CF), ADF, and NDF contents were the highest in RL and the lowest in ChP. CF values were 24.03, 10.80, 4.09 and 3.57 % for RL, GL, B and ChP (P<0.05). Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content of samples did not differ. Escape protein content was the highest in RL and the lowest in B (P<0.05). After 48 h incubation, the lowest OM and CP degradabilities were observed in RL. While the highest OM degradability was seen in ChP the highest CP degradability was observed in B (P<0.05). The lowest water soluble OM and CP contents were observed in RL whereas the highest potentially degradable OM and CP contents were seen in B and ChP (P<0.05). Both rate of OM and CP degradations (k-1) did not differ among samples (P>0.05). In conclusion, it was noted that feedstuffs (GL, ChP and B) used in the experiment except RL had a greater ruminal degradibilities of both OM and CP and moreover, had a higher escape protein contents, except B. It was thought that these feedstuffs can be substituted with some of common protein sources used in animal nutrition.

Keywords: in situ, nutrient contents, ruminant, subsieve

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6294 Genetic Polymorphism of Milk Protein Gene and Association with Milk Production Traits in Local Latvian Brown Breed Cows

Authors: Daina Jonkus, Solvita Petrovska, Dace Smiltina, Lasma Cielava

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The beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein are milk proteins which are important for milk composition. Cows with beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein gene BB genotypes have highest milk crude protein and fat content. The aim of the study was to determinate the frequencies of milk protein gene polymorphisms in local Latvian Brown (LB) cows breed and analyze the influence of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes to milk productivity traits. 102 cows’ genotypes of milk protein genes were detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and electrophoresis on 3% agarose gel. For beta-lactoglobulin were observed 2 types of alleles A and B and for kappa-casein 3 types: A, B and E. Highest frequency in beta-lactoglobulin gene was observed for B allele – 0.926. Molecular analysis of beta-lactoglobulin gene shows 86.3% of individuals are homozygous by B allele and animals are with genotypes BB and 12.7% of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB. The highest milk yield 4711.7 kg was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes, whereas the highest milk protein content (3.35%) and fat content (4.46 %) was for BB genotypes. Analysis of the kappa-casein locus showed a prevalence of the A allele – 0.750. The genetic variant of B was characterized by a low frequency – 0.240. Moreover, the frequency of E occurred in the LB cows’ population with very low frequency – 0.010. 54.9 % of cows are homozygous with genotypes AA, and only 4.9 % are homozygous with genotypes BB. 32.8 % of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB, and 2.0 % are with AE. The highest milk productivity was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes: milk yield 4620.3 kg, milk protein content 3.39% and fat content 4.53 %. According to the results, in local Latvian brown there are only 2.9% of cows are with BB-BB genotypes, which is related to milk coagulation ability and affected cheese production yield. Acknowledgment: the investigation is supported by VPP 2014-2017 AgroBioRes Project No. 3 LIVESTOCK.

Keywords: beta-lactoglobulin, cows, genotype frequencies, kappa-casein

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6293 Amino Acid Profile, Protein Digestibility, Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrate of Local Varieties (Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila) of Rice Brands from Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Chinma, S. O. Azeez, J. C. Anuonye, O. B. Ocheme, C. M. Yakubu, S. James, E. U. Ohuoba, I. A. Baba

Abstract:

There is growing interest in the use of rice bran protein in food formulation due to its hypoallergenic protein, high nutritional value and health promoting potentials. For the first time, the amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant, and functional properties of protein concentrate from some local varieties of rice bran from Nigeria were studied for possible food applications. Protein concentrates were prepared from rice bran and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that protein content of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 69.24%, 69.97%, 68.73%, and 71.62%, respectively while total essential amino acid were 52.71, 53.03, 51.86, and 55.75g/100g protein, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility of protein concentrate from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. DPPH radical inhibition of protein from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 48.15%, 48.90%, 47.56%, and 53.29%, respectively while ferric reducing ability power were 0.52, 0.55, 0.47 and 0.67mmol TE per gram, respectively. Protein concentrate from Jamila had higher onset (92.57oC) and denaturation temperature (102.13oC), and enthalpy (0.72J/g) than Jeep (91.46oC, 101.76oC, and 0.68J/g, respectively), Kwandala (90.32oC, 100.54oC and 0.57J/g, respectively), and Yardass (88.94oC, 99.45oC, and 0.51J/g, respectively). In vitro digestibility of protein from Kwandala, Yardas, Jeep, and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. Oil absorption capacity of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 3.61, 3.73, 3.40, and 4.23g oil/g sample respectively, while water absorption capacity were 4.19, 4.32, 3.55 and 4.48g water/g sample, respectively. Protein concentrates had low bulk density (0.37-0.43g/ml). Protein concentrate from Jamila rice bran had the highest foam capacity (37.25%), followed by Yardass (34.20%), Kwandala (30.14%) and Jeep (28.90%). Protein concentrates showed low emulsifying and gelling capacities. In conclusion, protein concentrate prepared from these local rice bran varieties could serve as functional ingredients in food formulations and for enriching low protein foods.

Keywords: rice bran protein, amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant and functional properties

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6292 Transition in Protein Profile, Maillard Reaction Products and Lipid Oxidation of Flavored Ultra High Temperature Treated Milk

Authors: Muhammad Ajmal

Abstract:

- Thermal processing and subsequent storage of ultra-heat treated (UHT) milk leads to alteration in protein profile, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation. Concentration of carbohydrates in normal and flavored version of UHT milk is considerably different. Transition in protein profile, Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation in UHT flavored milk was determined for 90 days at ambient conditions and analyzed at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. Protein profile, hydroxymethyl furfural, furosine, Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine, fatty acid profile, free fatty acids, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were determined. After 90 days of storage, fat, protein, total solids contents and pH were significantly less than the initial values determined at 0 day. As compared to protein profile normal UHT milk, more pronounced changes were recorded in different fractions of protein in UHT milk at 45 and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine content of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 3.5, 6.9 and 15.2 µg tyrosine/ml. After 45 days of storage, the decline in αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin were 3.35%, 10.5%, 7.89%, 18.8%, 53.6%, 20.1%, 26.9 and 37.5%. After 90 days of storage, the decline in αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin were 11.2%, 34.8%, 14.3%, 33.9%, 56.9%, 24.8%, 36.5% and 43.1%. Hydroxy methyl furfural content of UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 1.56, 4.18 and 7.61 (µmol/L). Furosine content of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage intervals were 278, 392 and 561 mg/100g protein. Nε-carboxymethyl-l-lysine content of UHT flavored milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage were 67, 135 and 343mg/kg protein. After 90 days of storage of flavored UHT milk, the loss of unsaturated fatty acids 45.7% from the initial values. At 0, 45 and 90 days of storage, free fatty acids of flavored UHT milk were 0.08%, 0.11% and 0.16% (p<0.05). Peroxide value of flavored UHT milk at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 0.22, 0.65 and 2.88 (MeqO²/kg). Sensory analysis of flavored UHT milk after 90 days indicated that appearance, flavor and mouth feel score significantly decreased from the initial values recorded at 0 day. Findings of this investigation evidenced that in flavored UHT milk more pronounced changes take place in protein profile, Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation as compared to normal UHT milk.

Keywords: UHT flavored milk , hydroxymethyl furfural, lipid oxidation, sensory properties

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6291 Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Content of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Ready-to-Eat Snack

Authors: Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe, Oluwatoyin Oluwole

Abstract:

Pigeon pea is one of the minor leguminous plants; though underutilised, it is used traditionally by farmers to alleviate hunger and malnutrition. Pigeon pea is cultivated in Nigeria by subsistence farmers. It is rich in protein and minerals, however, its utilisation as food is only common among the poor and rural populace who cannot afford expensive sources of protein. One of the factors contributing to its limited use is the high antinutrient content which makes it indigestible, especially when eaten by children. The development of value-added products that can reduce the antinutrient content and make the nutrients more bioavailable will increase the utilisation of the crop and contribute to reduction of malnutrition. This research, therefore, determined the effects of different roasting temperatures (130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C) on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient component of a pigeon pea snack. The brown variety of pigeon pea seeds were purchased from a local market- Otto in Lagos, Nigeria. The seeds were cleaned, washed, and soaked in 50 ml of water containing sugar and salt (4:1) for 15 minutes, and thereafter the seeds were roasted at 130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C in an electric oven for 10 minutes. Proximate, minerals, phytate, tannin and alkaloid content analyses were carried out in triplicates following standard procedures. The results of the three replicates were polled and expressed as mean±standard deviation; a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significance Difference (LSD) were carried out. The roasting temperatures significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein, ash, fibre and carbohydrate content of the snack. Ready-to-eat snack prepared by roasting at 150 0C significantly had the highest protein (23.42±0.47%) compared the ones roasted at 130 0C and 140 0C (18.38±1.25% and 20.63±0.45%, respectively). The same trend was observed for the ash content (3.91±0.11 for 150 0C, 2.36±0.15 for 140 0C and 2.26±0.25 for 130 0C), while the fibre and carbohydrate contents were highest at roasting temperature of 130 0C. Iron, zinc, and calcium were not significantly (P<0.5) affected by the different roasting temperatures. Antinutrients decreased with increasing temperature. Phytate levels recorded were 0.02±0.00, 0.06±0.00, and 0.07±0.00 mg/g; tannin levels were 0.50±0.00, 0.57±0.00, and 0.68±0.00 mg/g, while alkaloids levels were 0.51±0.01, 0.78±0.01, and 0.82±0.01 mg/g for 150 0C, 140 0C, and 130 0C, respectively. These results show that roasting at high temperature (150 0C) can be utilised as a processing technique for increasing protein and decreasing antinutrient content of pigeon pea.

Keywords: antinutrients, pigeon pea, protein, roasting, underutilised species

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