Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: vanadium

48 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa


The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic, microstructure, mechanical properties

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47 Magnetic Activated Carbon: Preparation, Characterization, and Application for Vanadium Removal

Authors: Hakimeh Sharififard, Mansooreh Soleimani


In this work, the magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite (Fe-CAC) has been synthesized by anchorage iron hydr(oxide) nanoparticles onto commercial activated carbon (CAC) surface and characterized using BET, XRF, SEM techniques. The influence of various removal parameters such as pH, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium on vanadium removal was evaluated using CAC and Fe-CAC in batch method. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. These equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich model. Results showed that CAC had the vanadium adsorption capacity of 37.87 mg/g, while the Fe-AC was able to adsorb 119.01 mg/g of vanadium. Kinetic data was found to confirm pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both adsorbents.

Keywords: magnetic activated carbon, remove, vanadium, nanocomposite, freundlich

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46 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage


The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.

Keywords: industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindous indica, vanadium

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45 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Taile Y. Leswfi, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer


This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, equilibrium, kinetics, mine water

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44 Hot Corrosion Susceptibility of Uncoated Boiler Tubes during High Vanadium Containing Fuel Oil Operation in Boiler Applications

Authors: Nicole Laws, William L. Roberts, Saumitra Saxena, Krishnamurthy Anand, Sreenivasa Gubba, Ziad Dawood, Aiping Chen


Boiler-fired power plants that operate steam turbines in Saudi Arabia use vanadium-containing fuel oil. In a super- or sub-critical steam cycle, the skin temperature of boiler tube metal can reach close to 600-1000°C depending on the location of the tubes. At high temperatures, corrosion by the sodium-vanadium-oxygen-sulfur eutectic can become a significant risk. The experimental work utilized a state-of-the-art high-temperature, high-pressure burner rig at KAUST, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. To establish corrosion rates of different boiler tubes and materials, SA 213 T12, SA 213 T22, SA 213 T91, and Inconel 600, were used under various corrosive media, including vanadium to sulfur levels and vanadium to sodium ratios. The results obtained from the experiments establish a corrosion rate map for the materials involved and layout an empirical framework to rank the life of boiler tube materials under different operating conditions. Safe windows of operation are proposed for burning liquid fuels under varying vanadium, sodium, and sulfur levels before corrosion rates become a matter of significance under high-temperature conditions

Keywords: boiler tube life, hot corrosion, steam boilers, vanadium in fuel oil

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43 DFT Study of Half Sandwich of Vanadium (IV) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor


A novel new vanadium (IV) complexes incorporating the chelating diamido cyclopentadienyl {ArN(CH2)3NAr)}2-((ηn-Cp)Cp)} (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3)(Cp = C5H5 and n = 1,2,3,4 and 5) have been studied with calculation of the properties of species involved in various of cyclopentadienyl reaction. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP (Becke) (Lee–Yang–Parr) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [V(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of vanadium cyclopentadienyl. In the meantime the complex [V(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl(η1-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) which is showed a low thermal stability in case of the just one carbon of cyclopentadienyl can be insertion with vanadium metal centre. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: vanadium (IV) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

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42 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung


Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

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41 Activated Carbons Prepared from Date Pits for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: M. Belhachemi, M. Monteiro de Castro, M. Casco, A. Sepúlveda-Escribano, F. Rodríguez-Reinoso


In this study, activated carbons were prepared from Algerian date pits using thermal activation with CO2 or steam. The prepared activated carbons were doped by vanadium oxide in order to increase the H2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 K and 273K, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried at 298K in the 0–100 bar pressure range using a volumetric equipment. The results show that the H2 adsorption capacity is influenced by the size and volume of micropores in the activated carbon adsorbent. Furthermore, vanadium doping of activated carbons has a slight positive effect on H2 storage.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, activated carbon, vanadium doping, adsorption

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40 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud


Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

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39 Dimensionally Stable Anode as a Bipolar Plate for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Jaejin Han, Jinsub Choi


Vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a type of redox flow battery which uses vanadium ionic solution as electrolyte. Inside the VRFB, 2.5mm thickness of graphite is generally used as bipolar plate for anti-corrosion of current collector. In this research, thick graphite bipolar plate was substituted by 0.126mm thickness of dimensionally stable anode which was coated with IrO2 on an anodic nanotubular TiO2 substrate. It can provide dimensional advantage over the conventional graphite when the VRFB is used as multi-stack. Ir was coated by using spray coating method in order to enhance electric conductivity. In this study, various electrochemical characterizations were carried out. Cyclic voltammetry data showed activation of Ir in the positive electrode of VRFB. In addition, polarization measurements showed Ir-coated DSA had low overpotential in the positive electrode of VRFB. In cell test results, the DSA-used VRFB showed better efficiency than graphite-used VRFB in voltage and overall efficiency.

Keywords: bipolar plate, DSA (dimensionally stable anode), iridium oxide coating, TiO2 nanotubes, VRFB (vanadium redox flow battery)

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38 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

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37 Microwave Assisted Growth of Varied Phases and Morphologies of Vanadium Oxides Nanostructures: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

Authors: Issam Derkaoui, Mohammed Khenfouch, Bakang M. Mothudi, Malik Maaza, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Transition metal oxides nanoparticles with different morphologies have attracted a lot of attention recently owning to their distinctive geometries, and demonstrated promising electrical properties for various applications. In this paper, we discuss the time and annealing effects on the structural and electrical properties of vanadium oxides nanoparticles (VO-NPs) prepared by microwave method. In this sense, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra (Uv-Vis) and electrical conductivity were investigated. Hence, the annealing state and the time are two crucial parameters for the improvement of the optoelectronic properties. The use of these nanostructures is promising way for the development of technological applications especially for energy storage devices.

Keywords: Vanadium oxide, Microwave, Electrical conductivity, Optoelectronic properties

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36 Preparation and Performance of Polyphenylene Oxide-Based Anion Exchange Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Mi-Jung Park, Min-Hwa Lim, Ho-Young Jung


A polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based anion exchange membrane based on the functionalization of bromomethylated PPO using 1-methylimdazole was fabricated for vanadium redox flow application. The imidazolium-bromomethylated PPO (Im-bPPO) showed lower permeability VO2+ ions (2.9×10⁻¹⁴ m²/sec), compared to Nafion 212 (2.3×10⁻¹² m²/sec) and FAP-450 (7.9×10⁻¹⁴ m²/sec). Even though the Im-bPPO membrane has higher permeability, the energy efficiency of the VRFB with the Im-bPPO membrane was slightly lower than that of Nafion and FAP-450. The Im-bPPO membrane exhibits good voltage efficiency compared to FAP-450 and Nafion 212 because of its better ion conductivity. The Im-bPPo membrane showed up good performance, but a decline in performance at later cycles was observed.

Keywords: anion exchange membranes, vanadium redox flow battery, polyphenylene oxide, energy efficiency (EE)

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35 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: aluminum, fatigue, grain refinement, titanium, titanium+boron, vanadium

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34 Removal of Nickel and Vanadium from Crude Oil by Using Solvent Extraction and Electrochemical Process

Authors: Aliya Kurbanova, Nurlan Akhmetov, Abilmansur Yeshmuratov, Yerzhigit Sugurbekov, Ramiz Zulkharnay, Gulzat Demeuova, Murat Baisariyev, Gulnar Sugurbekova


Last decades crude oils have tended to become more challenge to process due to increasing amounts of sour and heavy crude oils. Some crude oils contain high vanadium and nickel content, for example Pavlodar LLP crude oil, which contains more than 23.09 g/t nickel and 58.59 g/t vanadium. In this study, we used two types of metal removing methods such as solvent extraction and electrochemical. The present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Applying the cyclic voltametric analysis (CVA) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for nickel and 51.2% for vanadium content from crude oil. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits into the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V.

Keywords: demetallization, deasphalting, electrochemical removal, heavy metals, petroleum engineering, solvent extraction

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33 Evaluation of Electrophoretic and Electrospray Deposition Methods for Preparing Graphene and Activated Carbon Modified Nano-Fibre Electrodes for Hydrogen/Vanadium Flow Batteries and Supercapacitors

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Evangelos Kalamaras, Vladimir Yufit, Xinhua Liu, Billy Wu, Nigel Brandon, C. T. John Low


In this work, we perform electrophoretic deposition of activated carbon on a number of substrates to prepare symmetrical coin cells for supercapacitor applications. From several recipes that involve the evaluation of a few solvents such as isopropyl alcohol, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), or acetone to binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and charging agents such as magnesium chloride, we display a working means for achieving supercapacitors that can achieve 100 F/g in a consistent manner. We then adapt this EPD method to deposit reduced graphene oxide on SGL 10AA carbon paper to achieve cathodic materials for testing in a hydrogen/vanadium flow battery. In addition, a self-supported hierarchical carbon nano-fibre is prepared by means of electrospray deposition of an iron phthalocyanine solution onto a temporary substrate followed by carbonisation to remove heteroatoms. This process also induces a degree of nitrogen doping on the carbon nano-fibres (CNFs), which allows its catalytic performance to improve significantly as detailed in other publications. The CNFs are then used as catalysts by attaching them to graphite felt electrodes facing the membrane inside an all-vanadium flow battery (Scribner cell using serpentine flow distribution channels) and efficiencies as high as 60% is noted at high current densities of 150 mA/cm². About 20 charge and discharge cycling show that the CNF catalysts consistently perform better than pristine graphite felt electrodes. Following this, we also test the CNF as an electro-catalyst in the hydrogen/vanadium flow battery (cathodic side as mentioned briefly in the first paragraph) facing the membrane, based upon past studies from our group. Once again, we note consistently good efficiencies of 85% and above for CNF modified graphite felt electrodes in comparison to 60% for pristine felts at low current density of 50 mA/cm² (this reports 20 charge and discharge cycles of the battery). From this preliminary investigation, we conclude that the CNFs may be used as catalysts for other systems such as vanadium/manganese, manganese/manganese and manganese/hydrogen flow batteries in the future. We are generating data for such systems at present, and further publications are expected.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nano-fibres, all-vanadium redox flow battery, hydrogen-vanadium fuel cell, electrocatalysis

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32 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: removal, metal, heavy oil, nickel, vanadium

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31 Vanadium (V) Complexes of a Tripodal Ligand, Their Characterization and Biological Implications

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Bhawna Uprety, Fernando Avecilla, Pedro Adão, J. Costa Pessoa


The reaction of the tripodal tetradentate dibasic ligand 6,6'–(2–(pyridin–2–yl)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L1 I, with [VIVO(acac)2] in CH3CN gives the VVO–complex, [VVO(acac)(L1)] 1. Crystallization of 1 in CH3CN at ~0 ºC, gives dark blue crystals of 1, while at room temperature it affords dark green crystals of [{VVO(L1)}2µ–O] 3. Upon prolonged treatment of 1 in MeOH [VVO(OMe)(MeOH)(L1)] 2 is obtained. All three complexes are analyzed by single–crystal X–ray diffraction, depicting distorted octahedral geometry around vanadium. In the reaction of H2L1 with VIVOSO4 partial hydrolysis of the tripodal ligand results in elimination of the pyridyl fragment of L1 and the formation of H[VVO2(L2)] 4, containing the ONO tridentate ligand 6,6'–azanediylbis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L2 II. Compound 4, which was not fully characterized, undergoes dimerization in acetone yielding the hydroxido–bridged [{VVO(L2)}2µ–(HO)2] 5, having distorted octahedral geometry around each vanadium. In contrast, from a solution of 4 in acetonitrile, the dinuclear compound [{VVO(L2)}2µ–O] 6 is obtained, with trigonal bipyramidal geometry around each vanadium. The methoxido complex 2 is successfully employed as a functional catechol–oxidase mimic in the oxidation of catechol to o–quinone under air. The process is confirmed to follow a Michaelis–Menten type kinetics with respect to catechol, the Vmax and KM values obtained being 7.66×10–6 M min -1 and 0.0557 M, respectively, and the turnover frequency is 0.0541 min–1. Complex 2 is also used as a catalyst precursor for the oxidative bromination of thymol in aqueous medium. The selectivity shows quite interesting trends, namely when not using excess of primary oxidizing agent, H2O2 the para mono–brominated product corresponds to ~93 % of the products and no dibromo derivative is formed.

Keywords: oxidovanadium (V) complexes, tripodal ligand, crystal structure, catechol oxidase mimetic activity

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30 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee


The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: aluminium, grain size, nitrogen, reheating, sizing strain, steel, vanadium

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29 Forgeability Study of Medium Carbon Micro-Alloyed Forging Steel

Authors: M. I. Equbal, R. K. Ohdar, B. Singh, P. Talukdar


Micro-alloyed steel components are used in automotive industry for the necessity to make the manufacturing process cycles shorter when compared to conventional steel by eliminating heat treatment cycles, so an important saving of costs and energy can be reached by reducing the number of operations. Micro-alloying elements like vanadium, niobium or titanium have been added to medium carbon steels to achieve grain refinement with or without precipitation strengthening along with uniform microstructure throughout the matrix. Present study reports the applicability of medium carbon vanadium micro-alloyed steel in hot forging. Forgeability has been determined with respect to different cooling rates, after forging in a hydraulic press at 50% diameter reduction in temperature range of 900-11000C. Final microstructures, hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength have been evaluated. The friction coefficients of different lubricating conditions, viz., graphite in hydraulic oil, graphite in furnace oil, DF 150 (Graphite, Water-Based) die lubricant and dry or without any lubrication were obtained from the ring compression test for the above micro-alloyed steel. Results of ring compression tests indicate that graphite in hydraulic oil lubricant is preferred for free forging and dry lubricant is preferred for die forging operation. Exceptionally good forgeability and high resistance to fracture, especially for faster cooling rate has been observed for fine equiaxed ferrite-pearlite grains, some amount of bainite and fine precipitates of vanadium carbides and carbonitrides. The results indicated that the cooling rate has a remarkable effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties at room temperature.

Keywords: cooling rate, hot forging, micro-alloyed, ring compression

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28 Syntheses in Polyol Medium of Inorganic Oxides with Various Smart Optical Properties

Authors: Shian Guan, Marie Bourdin, Isabelle Trenque, Younes Messaddeq, Thierry Cardinal, Nicolas Penin, Issam Mjejri, Aline Rougier, Etienne Duguet, Stephane Mornet, Manuel Gaudon


At the interface of the studies performed by 3 Ph.D. students: Shian Guan (2017-2020), Marie Bourdin (2016-2019) and Isabelle Trenque (2012-2015), a single synthesis route: polyol-mediated process, was used with success for the preparation of different inorganic oxides. Both of these inorganic oxides were elaborated for their potential application as smart optical compounds. This synthesis route has allowed us to develop nanoparticles of zinc oxide, vanadium oxide or tungsten oxide. This route is with easy implementation, inexpensive and with large-scale production potentialities and leads to materials of high purity. The obtaining by this route of nanometric particles, however perfectly crystalline, has notably led to the possibility of doping these matrix materials with high doping ion concentrations (high solubility limits). Thus, Al3+ or Ga3+ doped-ZnO powder, with high doping rate in comparison with the literature, exhibits remarkable infrared absorption properties thanks to their high free carrier density. Note also that due to the narrow particle size distribution of the as-prepared nanometric doped-ZnO powder, the original correlation between crystallite size and unit-cell parameters have been established. Also, depending on the annealing atmosphere use to treat vanadium precursors, VO2, V2O3 or V2O5 oxides with thermochromic or electrochromic properties can be obtained without any impurity, despite the versatility of the oxidation state of vanadium. This is of more particular interest on vanadium dioxide, a relatively difficult-to-prepare oxide, whose first-order metal-insulator phase transition is widely explored in the literature for its thermochromic behavior (in smart windows with optimal thermal insulation). Finally, the reducing nature of the polyol solvents ensures the production of oxygen-deficient tungsten oxide, thus conferring to the nano-powders exotic colorimetric properties, as well as optimized photochromic and electrochromic behaviors.

Keywords: inorganic oxides, electrochromic, photochromic, thermochromic

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27 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji


Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: HEAs, phases model, aluminium, silicon, tensile strength, model

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26 The Influence of Structural Disorder and Phonon on Metal-To-Insulator Transition of VO₂

Authors: Sang-Wook Han, In-Hui Hwang, Zhenlan Jin, Chang-In Park


We used temperature-dependent X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements to examine the local structural properties around vanadium atoms at the V K edge from VO₂ films. A direct comparison of simultaneously-measured resistance and XAFS from the VO₂ films showed that the thermally-driven structural phase transition (SPT) occurred prior to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) during heating, whereas these changed simultaneously during cooling. XAFS revealed a significant increase in the Debye-Waller factors of the V-O and V-V pairs in the {111} direction of the R-phase VO₂ due to the phonons of the V-V arrays along the direction in a metallic phase. A substantial amount of structural disorder existing on the V-V pairs along the c-axis in both M₁ and R phases indicates the structural instability of V-V arrays in the axis. The anomalous structural disorder observed on all atomic sites at the SPT prevents the migration of the V 3d¹ electrons, resulting in a Mott insulator in the M₂-phase VO₂. The anomalous structural disorder, particularly, at vanadium sites, effectively affects the migration of metallic electrons, resulting in the Mott insulating properties in M₂ phase and a non-congruence of the SPT, MIT, and local density of state. The thermally-induced phonons in the {111} direction assist the delocalization of the V 3d¹ electrons in the R phase VO₂ and the electrons likely migrate via the V-V array in the {111} direction as well as the V-V dimerization along the c-axis. This study clarifies that the tetragonal symmetry is essentially important for the metallic phase in VO₂.

Keywords: metal-insulator transition, XAFS, VO₂, structural-phase transition

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25 Oxidovanadium(IV) and Dioxidovanadium(V) Complexes: Efficient Catalyst for Peroxidase Mimetic Activity and Oxidation

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Bithika Sarkar, Fernando Avecilla


Peroxidase activity is possibly successfully used for different industrial processes in medicine, chemical industry, food processing and agriculture. However, they bear some intrinsic drawback associated with denaturation by proteases, their special storage requisite and cost factor also. Now a day’s artificial enzyme mimics are becoming a research interest because of their significant applications over conventional organic enzymes for ease of their preparation, low price and good stability in activity and overcome the drawbacks of natural enzymes e.g serine proteases. At present, a large number of artificial enzymes have been synthesized by assimilating a catalytic center into a variety of schiff base complexes, ligand-anchoring, supramolecular complexes, hematin, porphyrin, nanoparticles to mimic natural enzymes. Although in recent years a several number of vanadium complexes have been reported by a continuing increase in interest in bioinorganic chemistry. To our best of knowledge, the investigation of artificial enzyme mimics of vanadium complexes is very less explored. Recently, our group has reported synthetic vanadium schiff base complexes capable of mimicking peroxidases. Herein, we have synthesized monoidovanadium(IV) and dioxidovanadium(V) complexes of pyrazoleone derivateis ( extensively studied on account of their broad range of pharmacological appication). All these complexes are characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, UV-Visible, NMR (1H, 13C and 51V), Elemental analysis, thermal studies and single crystal analysis. The peroxidase mimic activity has been studied towards oxidation of pyrogallol to purpurogallin with hydrogen peroxide at pH 7 followed by measuring kinetic parameters. The Michaelis-Menten behavior shows an excellent catalytic activity over its natural counterparts, e.g. V-HPO and HRP. The obtained kinetic parameters (Vmax, Kcat) were also compared with peroxidase and haloperoxidase enzymes making it a promising mimic of peroxidase catalyst. Also, the catalytic activity has been studied towards the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol in presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. Various parameters such as amount of catalyst and oxidant, reaction time, reaction temperature and solvent have been taken into consideration to get maximum oxidative products of 1-phenylethanol.

Keywords: oxovanadium(IV)/dioxidovanadium(V) complexes, NMR spectroscopy, Crystal structure, peroxidase mimic activity towards oxidation of pyrogallol, Oxidation of 1-phenylethanol

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24 Bioleaching of Precious Metals from an Oil-fired Ash Using Organic Acids Produced by Aspergillus niger in Shake Flasks and a Bioreactor

Authors: Payam Rasoulnia, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi


Heavy fuel oil firing power plants produce huge amounts of ashes as solid wastes, which seriously need to be managed and processed. Recycling precious metals of V and Ni from these oil-fired ashes which are considered as secondary sources of metals recovery, not only has a great economic importance for use in industry, but also it is noteworthy from the environmental point of view. Vanadium is an important metal that is mainly used in the steel industry because of its physical properties of hardness, tensile strength, and fatigue resistance. It is also utilized in oxidation catalysts, titanium–aluminum alloys and vanadium redox batteries. In the present study bioleaching of vanadium and nickel from an oil-fired ash sample was conducted using Aspergillus niger fungus. The experiments were carried out using spent-medium bioleaching method in both Erlenmeyer flasks and also bubble column bioreactor, in order to compare them together. In spent-medium bioleaching the solid waste is not in direct contact with the fungus and consequently the fungal growth is not retarded and maximum organic acids are produced. In this method the metals are leached through biogenic produced organic acids present in the medium. In shake flask experiments the fungus was cultured for 15 days, where the maximum production of organic acids was observed, while in bubble column bioreactor experiments a 7 days fermentation period was applied. The amount of produced organic acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results showed that depending on the fermentation period and the scale of experiments, the fungus has different major lixiviants. In flask tests, citric acid was the main produced organic acid by the fungus and the other organic acids including gluconic, oxalic, and malic were excreted in much lower concentrations, while in the bioreactor oxalic acid was the main lixiviant and it was produced considerably. In Erlenmeyer flasks during 15 days fermentation of Aspergillus niger, 8080 ppm citric acid and 1170 ppm oxalic acid was produced, while in bubble column bioreactor over 7 days of fungal growth, 17185 ppm oxalic acid and 1040 ppm citric acid was secreted. The leaching tests using the spent-media obtained from both of fermentation experiments, were performed at the same conditions of leaching duration of 7 days, leaching temperature of 60 °C and pulp density up to 3% (w/v). The results revealed that in Erlenmeyer flask experiments 97% of V and 50% of Ni were extracted while using spent medium produced in bubble column bioreactor, V and Ni recoveries were achieved to 100% and 33%, respectively. These recovery yields indicate that in both scales almost total vanadium can be recovered, while nickel recovery was lower. With help of the bioreactor spent-medium nickel recovery yield was lower than that of obtained from the flask experiments, which it could be due to precipitation of some values of Ni in presence of high levels of oxalic acid existing in its spent medium.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, bubble column bioreactor, oil-fired ash, spent-medium bioleaching

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23 Opto-Thermal Frequency Modulation of Phase Change Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

Authors: Syed A. Bukhari, Ankur Goswmai, Dale Hume, Thomas Thundat


Here we demonstrate mechanical detection of photo-induced Insulator to metal transition (MIT) in ultra-thin vanadium dioxide (VO₂) micro strings by using < 100 µW of optical power. Highly focused laser beam heated the string locally resulting in through plane and along axial heat diffusion. Localized temperature increase can cause temperature rise > 60 ºC. The heated region of VO₂ can transform from insulating (monoclinic) to conducting (rutile) phase leading to lattice compressions and stiffness increase in the resonator. The mechanical frequency of the resonator can be tuned by changing optical power and wavelength. The first mode resonance frequency was tuned in three different ways. A decrease in frequency below a critical optical power, a large increase between 50-120 µW followed by a large decrease in frequency for optical powers greater than 120 µW. The dynamic mechanical response was studied as a function of incident optical power and gas pressure. The resonance frequency and amplitude of vibration were found to be decreased with increasing laser power from 25-38 µW and increased by1-2 % when the laser power was further increased to 52 µW. The transition in films was induced and detected by a single pump and probe source and by employing external optical sources of different wavelengths. This trend in dynamic parameters of the strings can be co-related with reversible Insulator to metal transition in VO₂ films which creates change in density of the material and hence the overall stiffness of the strings leading to changes in string dynamics. The increase in frequency at a particular optical power manifests a transition to a more ordered metallic phase which tensile stress onto the string. The decrease in frequency at higher optical powers can be correlated with poor phonon thermal conductivity of VO₂ in conducting phase. Poor thermal conductivity of VO₂ can force in-plane penetration of heat causing the underneath SiN supporting VO₂ which can result as a decrease in resonance frequency. This noninvasive, non-contact laser-based excitation and detection of Insulator to metal transition using micro strings resonators at room temperature and with laser power in few µWs is important for low power electronics, and optical switching applications.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, vanadium dioxide, MEMS, frequency tuning

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22 Gate Voltage Controlled Humidity Sensing Using MOSFET of VO2 Particles

Authors: A. A. Akande, B. P. Dhonge, B. W. Mwakikunga, A. G. J. Machatine


This article presents gate-voltage controlled humidity sensing performance of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles prepared from NH4VO3 precursor using microwave irradiation technique. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and Raman analyses reveal the formation of VO2 (B) with V2O5 and an amorphous phase. The BET surface area is found to be 67.67 m2/g. The humidity sensing measurements using the patented lateral-gate MOSFET configuration was carried out. The results show the optimum response at 5 V up to 8 V of gate voltages for 10 to 80% of relative humidity. The dose-response equation reveals the enhanced resilience of the gated VO2 sensor which may saturate above 272% humidity. The response and recovery times are remarkably much faster (about 60 s) than in non-gated VO2 sensors which normally show response and recovery times of the order of 5 minutes (300 s).

Keywords: VO2, VO2(B), MOSFET, gate voltage, humidity sensor

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21 Selective Extraction Separation of Vanadium and Chromium in the Leaching/Aqueous Solution with Trioctylamine

Authors: Xiaohua Jing


Efficient extraction for separation of V and Cr in the leaching/aqueous solution is essential to the reuse of V and Cr in the V-Cr slag. Trioctylamine, a common tertiary amine extractant, with some good characters (e.g., weak base, insoluble in water and good stability) different from N1923, was investigated in this paper. The separation factor of Cr and V can be reached to 230.71 when initial pH of the aqueous solution is 0.5, so trioctylamine can be used for extracting Cr from the leaching/aqueous solution contained V and Cr. The highest extraction percentages of Cr and V were 98.73% and 90.22% when the initial pH values were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively. Via FT-IR spectra of loaded organic phase and trioctylamine, the hydrogen bond association mechanism of extracting V and Cr was investigated, which was the same with the way of extracting the two metals with primary amine N1923.

Keywords: selective extraction, trioctylamine, V and Cr, separation factor, hydrogen bond association

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20 Optimization of the Conditions of Oligomerization and Polymerization Processes of Selected Olefins with the Use of Complex Compounds of Transition Metal Ions

Authors: Joanna Drzeżdżon, Marzena Białek


Polyolefins are a group of materials used today in all areas of life. They are used in food, domestic and other industries. In particular, polyethylene and polypropylene have found application in the production of packaging materials, pipes, containers, car parts, as well as elements of medical equipment, e.g., syringes. Optimization of the polymerization and oligomerization processes of selected olefins is a very important stage before the technological implementation of polyolefin production. The purpose of the studies is to determine the conditions for ethylene polymerization as well as 3-buten-2-ol and 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol oligomerization with the use of oxovanadium(IV) dipicolinate complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands. Additionally, the studies aim to determine the catalytic activities of the dipicolinate oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands in the studied polymerization and oligomerization processes.

Keywords: polymerization, oligomerization, dipicolinate, vanadium, ethylene, 3-buten-2-ol

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19 Hot Corrosion Behavior of Calcium Zirconate Modified YSZ Coatings

Authors: Naveed Ejaz, Liaqat Ali, Amer Nusair


Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) serve as thermal barriers against the high temperature of the hot regions of the aircraft turbine engines keeping the surface of the turbine blades, vanes and combustion chamber at comparatively lower temperature. The life of these coatings depends on many in-service environmental factors. Among these factors, the behavior of the bond coat as well as the top coat at high temperature aggravated by the corrosive environments having S, V, Na and Cl plays a key role. The incorporation of the 5-15% CaZrO3 in YSZ coatings was studied after hot corrosion in vanadium oxide environment. It was observed that the reactivity of the V gradually switched from Y to Ca making CaV2O4 instead of YVO4; the percentage of CaV2O4 increased with the increase of CaZrO3 in YSZ. It eventually prevented leaching out of the Y from YSZ leaving the YSZ without any harmful phase change. The thermal insulation was found to be improved in case of CaZrO3 incorporated YSZ coatings as compared to only YSZ coating.

Keywords: hot corrosion, thermal barrier coatings, yttria stabilized zirconia, calcium zirconate

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