Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1881

Search results for: solvent extraction

1881 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi

Abstract:

Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
1880 First Approach on Lycopene Extraction Using Limonene

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat

Abstract:

Lycopene extraction with petroleum derivatives as solvents has caused safety, health, and environmental concerns everywhere. Thus, finding a safe alternative solvent will have a strong and positive impact on environments and general health of the world population. d-limonene from the orange peel was extracted through a steam distillation procedure followed by a deterpenation process and combining this achievement by using it as a solvent for extracting lycopene from tomato fruit as a substitute of dichloromethane. Lycopene content of fresh tomatoes was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after extraction. Yields obtained for both extractions showed that yields of d-limonene’s extracts were almost equivalent to those obtained using dichloromethane. The proposed approach using a green solvent to perform extraction is useful and can be considered as a nice alternative to conventional petroleum solvent where toxicity for both operator and environment is reduced.

Keywords: alternative solvent, d-limonene, extraction, lycopene

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1879 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing

Abstract:

A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1878 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Ahmed Boucherit, Hussein Khalaf, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí

Abstract:

Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: extraction, molybdenum, microwave, solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
1877 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat

Abstract:

There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1876 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore

Authors: I. A. Ibrahim, T. A. Elbarbary, N. Abdelaty, A. T. Kandil, H. K. Farhan

Abstract:

The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.

Keywords: ilmenite ore, leaching, titanium solvent extraction, Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1875 Analytical Study of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) Extraction with Salicylidene O-, M-, and P-Toluidine in Chloroform

Authors: Sana Almi, Djamel Barkat

Abstract:

The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) and nickel (II) from aqueous sulfate solutions were investigated with the analytical methods of slope analysis using salicylidene aniline and the three isomeric o-, m- and p-salicylidene toluidine diluted with chloroform at 25°C. By a statistical analysis of the extraction data, it was concluded that the extracted species are CoL2 with CoL2(HL) and NiL2 (HL denotes HSA, HSOT, HSMT, and HSPT). The extraction efficiency of Co(II) was higher than Ni(II). This tendency is confirmed from numerical extraction constants for each metal cations. The best extraction was according to the following order: HSMT > HSPT > HSOT > HSA for Co2+ and Ni2+.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), cobalt(II), salicylidene aniline, o-, m-, and p-salicylidene toluidine

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
1874 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid

Abstract:

Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
1873 The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Ketren, J. Wannapeera, Z. Heishun, A. Ryuichi, K. Toshiteru, M. Kouichi, O. Hideaki

Abstract:

Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching  (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.

Keywords: biomass waste, degradative solvent extraction, mechanism, upgrading

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1872 The Solvent Extraction of Uranium, Plutonium and Thorium from Aqueous Solution by 1-Hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid

Authors: M. Bouhoun Ali, A. Y. Badjah Hadj Ahmed, M. Attou, A. Elias, M. A. Didi

Abstract:

In this paper, the solvent extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and thorium(IV) from aqueous solutions using 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HHDPA) in treated kerosene has been investigated. The HHDPA was previously synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects contact time, initial pH, initial metal concentration, aqueous/organic phase ratio, extractant concentration and temperature on the extraction process have been studied. An empirical modelling was performed by using a 25 full factorial design, and regression equation for extraction metals was determined from the data. The conventional log-log analysis of the extraction data reveals that ratios of extractant to extracted U(VI), Pu(IV) and Th(IV) are 1:1, 1:2 and 1:2, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the extraction process was exothermic heat and spontaneous. The obtained optimal parameters were applied to real effluents containing uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and thorium(IV) ions.

Keywords: solvent extraction, uranium, plutonium, thorium, 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1-1-diphosphonic acid, aqueous solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1871 Extraction of Natural Colorant from the Flowers of Flame of Forest Using Ultrasound

Authors: Sunny Arora, Meghal A. Desai

Abstract:

An impetus towards green consumerism and implementation of sustainable techniques, consumption of natural products and utilization of environment friendly techniques have gained accelerated acceptance. Butein, a natural colorant, has many medicinal properties apart from its use in dyeing industries. Extraction of butein from the flowers of flame of forest was carried out using ultrasonication bath. Solid loading (2-6 g), extraction time (30-50 min), volume of solvent (30-50 mL) and types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and water) have been studied to maximize the yield of butein using the Taguchi method. The highest yield of butein 4.67% (w/w) was obtained using 4 g of plant material, 40 min of extraction time and 30 mL volume of methanol as a solvent. The present method provided a greater reduction in extraction time compared to the conventional method of extraction. Hence, the outcome of the present investigation could further be utilized to develop the method at a higher scale.

Keywords: butein, flowers of Flame of the Forest, Taguchi method, ultrasonic bath

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
1870 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: cymbopogon martini, essential oil, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPTLC, SC-CO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
1869 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
1868 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Dehak Karima, Chabrouk Farid, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1867 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
1866 Synergistic Extraction Study of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat

Abstract:

The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm-3 TOPO in chloroform. From an synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1865 Synergistic Extraction of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Methyl Isobutyl Cétone in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, C. Bensmail, S. Almi, D. Barkat

Abstract:

The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm^-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of methyl isobutyl cétone (MIBK) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of MIBK, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm^-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm^-3 MIBK in chloroform. From a synergistic extraction-equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(MIBK). The MIBK-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and MIBK is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, MIBK, synergism

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1864 Magnetic Solvent Extraction Using Nanoparticles Coated by Oleic Acid

Authors: Natália C. C. Lobato, Ângela M. Ferreira, Marcelo B. Mansur

Abstract:

In solvent extraction operations, large sedimentation areas in the mixer-settler are required when the disengagement of the aqueous and the organic phases is slow and/or difficult. The use of a magnetic organic liquid (also known as ferrofluid), consisting of magnetite nanoparticles coated by oleic acid dispersed in the organic diluent, has proven successful to speed up phase disengagement. The method, however, has never been used industrially; therefore, the aim of this study is to raise its main limitations. Tests were carried out using a ferrofluid containing 30 g/l of magnetite dissolved in commercial aliphatic kerosene Exxsol D80. The efficiency of cobalt extraction ([Co] = 1 g/l) with 10% v/v Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) at changing pH of the aqueous phase (2 to 7) was found unaffected in the conditions studied. However, the chemical resistance of the ferrofluid in contact with deionized water at changing acidity (from 10-7 to 2 mol/l) revealed that the nanoparticles are not resistant when contacted to aqueous solutions with a pH ≤ 2. Such result represents a serious limitation to the applicability of the method mainly to hydrometallurgical systems because solvent extraction operations are normally done in acid conditions, therefore more effective strategies to coat the particles are required.

Keywords: magnetic solvent extraction, oleic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, cyanex 272

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1863 Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lub Oil Using Sursurfactant as Additive

Authors: Izza Hidaya, Korichi Mourad

Abstract:

Solvent extraction is an affective method for reduction of aromatic content of lube oil. Frequently with phenol, furfural, NMP(N-methyl pyrrolidone). The solvent power and selectivity can be further increased by using surfactant as additive which facilitate phase separation and to increase raffinate yield. The aromatics in lube oil were extracted at different temperatures (ranging from 333.15 to 343.15K) and different concentration of surfactant (ranging from 0.01 to 0.1% wt).The extraction temperature and the amount of sulfate lauryl éther de sodium In phenoll were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values. The amounts of aromatic, paraffinic and naphthenic compounds were determined using ASTM standards by measuring refractive index (RI), viscosity, molecular weight and sulfur content. It was found that using 0,01%wt. surfactant at 343.15K yields the optimum extraction conditions.

Keywords: extraction, lubricating oil, aromatics, hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
1862 Synergistic Extraction Study of Nickel (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat

Abstract:

The synergistic solvent extraction of nickel ion from 0.33 mol dm^-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is NiL2 and NiL2(HL). In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm^-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.00125 and 0.0025 mol dm^-3 TOPO in chloroform. From a synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation NiL2(TOPO) and NiL2(HL)(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of nickel (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, nickel(II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
1861 Oil Extraction from Sunflower Seed Using Green Solvent 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Isoamyl Alcohol

Authors: Sergio S. De Jesus, Aline Santana, Rubens Maciel Filho

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to choose and determine a green solvent system with similar extraction efficiencies as the traditional Bligh and Dyer method. Sunflower seed oil was extracted using Bligh and Dyer method with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl using alcohol ratios of 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 1:2; 3:1. At the same time comparative experiments was performed with chloroform and methanol ratios of 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 1:2; 3:1. Comparison study was done using 5 replicates (n=5). Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft, USA) to determine means and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference test for comparison between treatments (α = 0.05). The results showed that using classic method with methanol and chloroform presented the extraction oil yield with the values of 31-44% (w/w) and values of 36-45% (w/w) using green solvents for extractions. Among the two extraction methods, 2 methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl alcohol ratio 2:1 provided the best results (45% w/w), while the classic method using chloroform and methanol with ratio of 3:1 presented a extraction oil yield of 44% (w/w). It was concluded that the proposed extraction method using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl alcohol in this work allowed the same efficiency level as chloroform and methanol.

Keywords: extraction, green solvent, lipids, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
1860 Optimizing Microwave Assisted Extraction of Anti-Diabetic Plant Tinospora cordifolia Used in Ayush System for Estimation of Berberine Using Taguchi L-9 Orthogonal Design

Authors: Saurabh Satija, Munish Garg

Abstract:

Present work reports an efficient extraction method using microwaves based solvent–sample duo-heating mechanism, for the extraction of an important anti-diabetic plant Tinospora cordifolia from AYUSH system for estimation of berberine content. The process is based on simultaneous heating of sample matrix and extracting solvent under microwave energy. Methanol was used as the extracting solvent, which has excellent berberine solubilizing power and warms up under microwave attributable to its great dispersal factor. Extraction conditions like time of irradition, microwave power, solute-solvent ratio and temperature were optimized using Taguchi design and berberine was quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography. The ranked optimized parameters were microwave power (rank 1), irradiation time (rank 2) and temperature (rank 3). This kind of extraction mechanism under dual heating provided choice of extraction parameters for better precision and higher yield with significant reduction in extraction time under optimum extraction conditions. This developed extraction protocol will lead to extract higher amounts of berberine which is a major anti-diabetic moiety in Tinospora cordifolia which can lead to development of cheaper formulations of the plant Tinospora cordifolia and can help in rapid prevention of diabetes in the world.

Keywords: berberine, microwave, optimization, Taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1859 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami

Abstract:

A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1858 Optimization of DLLME Extraction Parameters for Pesticides Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Ezgi Altiparmak, Emine Yilmaz, Filiz Dadaser-Celik, Nuray Ates

Abstract:

Pesticides have been used widely all over the world for centuries to increase agricultural production and to combat harmful pests. Pesticides used for agriculture, household, and public health sectors eventually reach water bodies, posing a risk to human health and the environment even in micro concentrations. Each country legally sets its own maximum allowable limits to regulate pesticides residues. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor pesticide residues in water resources, especially if they are used for drinking water purposes. With the technological developments, nowadays, sensitive analytical instruments employing complex analysis methods such as GC/MS and LC/MS have been used to analyze pesticides. Pesticide residues must be concentrated by different extraction methods before HPLC analysis to be able to detect them in micro levels with high precision and low detection limits. The aim of this study is to develop an analytical method for the analysis of metolachlor and acetochlor pesticides by HPLC instrument with dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method. In order to determine optimum conditions for DLLME extraction method, extraction solvent type (chloroform, dichloromethane, and 1,2 dichloroethane), dispersive solvent type (acetonitrile, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol), flowrate (1, 1.2, and 1.5 ml/min), oven temperature (20°C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C), the volume of extraction solvent (300, 350 and 400 µl), and mobile phase mixture (60/40, 70/30 and 80/20 acetonitrile/water in v/v) were comprehensively investigated with Taguchi experimental design. The optimized conditions were obtained as extraction solvent of 1,2-dichloroethane, the dispersive solvent of methanol, extraction solvent volume of 350 µL, the dispersive volume of 1 ml, the flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, the temperature of 40 °C, and mobile phase mixture of 70/30 v/v.

Keywords: analysis, DLLME, HPLC, optimization, pesticides, taguchi experimental design

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
1857 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur

Abstract:

The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
1856 Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium Isolated by Solvent Free Microwave Assisted Extraction and Hydrodistillation Extraction

Authors: Masume Rezaie, Mohammad H. Farjam

Abstract:

Chemical composition of Citrus aurantium was studied by solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) methods. Limonene (76.06% SFME and 67.04% HD), Linalool (4.91% SFME and 10.08% HD) and Linalyl Acetate (8.52% SFME and 5.10% HD) were the major compounds that obtained by SFME and hydrodistillation, respectively.

Keywords: microwave-assisted, GC-MS, essential oils, hydrodistillation, citrus aurantium

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1855 Optimization of Synergism Extraction of Toxic Metals (Lead, Copper) from Chlorides Solutions with Mixture of Cationic and Solvating Extractants

Authors: F. Hassaine-Sadi, S. Chelouaou

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental contamination by toxic metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn ... has become a worldwide crucial problem, particularly in some areas where the population depends on groundwater for drinking daily consumption. Thus, the sources of metal ions come from the metal manufacturing industry, fertilizers, batteries, paints, pigments and so on. Solvent extraction of metal ions has given an important role in the development of metal purification processes such as the synergistic extraction of some divalent cations metals ( M²⁺), the ions metals from various sources. This work consists of a water purification technique that involves the lead and copper systems: Pb²⁺, H₃O+, Cl⁻ and Cu²⁺, H₃O⁺, Cl⁻ for diluted solutions by a mixture of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or Tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in kerosene. The study of the fundamental parameters influencing the extraction synergism: cation exchange/extraction solvent have been examined.

Keywords: synergistic extraction, lead, copper, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1854 Green Chemical Processing in the Teaching Laboratory: A Convenient Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Natural Products

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ferhat, Mohamed Nadjib Bouhatem, Farid Chemat

Abstract:

One of the principal aims of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry to both developed and developing nations. This paper describes one attempt to show that “north-south” collaborations yield innovative sustainable and green technologies which give major benefits for both nations. In this paper we present early results from a solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oils using fresh orange peel, a byproduct in the production of orange juice. SFME is performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. SFME increases essential oil yield and eliminate wastewater treatment. The procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, and allows the students to learn extraction, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis skills, and are expose to dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable and green extraction of essential oil, and are introduced to commercially successful sustainable and green chemical processing with microwave energy.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, green processing, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
1853 Oil Extraction from Microalgae Dunalliela sp. by Polar and Non-Polar Solvents

Authors: A. Zonouzi, M. Auli, M. Javanmard Dakheli, M. A. Hejazi

Abstract:

Microalgae are tiny photosynthetic plants. Nowadays, microalgae are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, carotenoids, vitamins, protein, minerals, chlorophyll, and pigments. Oil extraction from algae is a hotly debated topic currently because introducing an efficient method could decrease the process cost. This can determine the sustainability of algae-based foods. Scientific research works show that solvent extraction using chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture is one of the efficient methods for oil extraction from algal cells, but both methanol and chloroform are toxic solvents, and therefore, the extracted oil will not be suitable for food application. In this paper, the effect of two food grade solvents (hexane and hexane/ isopropanol) on oil extraction yield from microalgae Dunaliella sp. was investigated and the results were compared with chloroform/methanol (2:1) extraction yield. It was observed that the oil extraction yield using hexane, hexane/isopropanol (3:2) and chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture were 5.4, 13.93, and 17.5 (% w/w, dry basis), respectively. The fatty acid profile derived from GC illustrated that the palmitic (36.62%), oleic (18.62%), and stearic acids (19.08%) form the main portion of fatty acid composition of microalgae Dunalliela sp. oil. It was concluded that, the addition of isopropanol as polar solvent could increase the extraction yield significantly. Isopropanol solves cell wall phospholipids and enhances the release of intercellular lipids, which improves accessing of hexane to fatty acids.

Keywords: fatty acid profile‎, microalgae‎, oil extraction‎, polar solvent‎

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1852 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 29