Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2115

Search results for: proximate composition

2115 Phytochemical and Proximate Composition Analysis of Aspillia kotschyi

Authors: A. U. Adamu, E. D Paul, C. E. Gimba, I. G. Ndukwe

Abstract:

The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum sprit extract of the plant. The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glyscosides, flavonoids, triterpene, and alkaloids. The Petroleum sprit extract showed the presence of only carbohydrates and alkaloid. Proximate composition analysis shows moisture content of 5.7%, total ash of 4.03%, crude protein 10.94%, fibre 9.06%, fat value 0.83%, and nitrogen free extract of 70.19%. The results of this study suggest some merit in the popular use of Aspillia kotschi in herbal medicine.

Keywords: Aspillia kotschyi, herbal medicine, phytochemical, proximate composition

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2114 Proximate and Mineral Composition of Chicken Giblets from Vojvodina, Northern Serbia

Authors: M. R. Jokanović, V. M. Tomović, M. T. Jović, S. B. Škaljac, B. V. Šojić, P. M. Ikonić, T. A. Tasić

Abstract:

Proximate (moisture, protein, total fat, total ash) and mineral (K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) composition of chicken giblets (heart, liver and gizzard) were investigated. Phosphorous content, as well as proximate composition, were determined according to recommended ISO methods. The content of all elements, except phosphorus, of the giblets tissues were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), after dry ashing mineralization. Regarding proximate composition heart was the highest in total fat content, and the lowest in protein content. Liver was the highest in protein and total ash content, while gizzard was the highest in moisture and the lowest in total fat content. Regarding mineral composition liver was the highest for K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn, while heart was the highest for Na content. The contents of almost all investigated minerals in analysed giblets tissues of chickens from Vojvodina were similar to values reported in the literature, i.e. in national food composition databases of other countries.

Keywords: chicken giblets, proximate composition, mineral composition, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

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2113 Fatty Acid Composition and Therapeutic Effects of Beebread

Authors: Sibel Silici

Abstract:

Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acids composition of eight beebread samples obtained from different geographical origins were determined. Beebread moisture contents varied between 11.4-15.9 %, ash 1.9-2.54 %, fat 5.9-11.5 %, and protein between 14.8-24.3 %. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating fatty acids (FAs) composition of the selected monofloral beebreads. A total of thirty-seven FAs were identified. Of these (9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, (9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, (Z)-icos-11-enoic acid and octadecanoic acid were the most abundant in all the samples. Cotton beebread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, 41.3 %. Unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios ranged between 1.38 and 2.39 indicating that beebread is a good source of unsaturated FAs. The pollen, proximate and FAs composition of beebread samples of different botanical and geographical origins varied significantly.

Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, pollen analysis

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2112 Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves (African Basil)

Authors: Adebola Ajayi

Abstract:

Ocimum gratissimum belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is know generally as African Basil. Ocimum gratissimum leaves are widely used as local condiments in diets. The leaves were destalked sorted, washed with potable water to remove dirts, air dried for 14 days under ambient temperature and milled into powder. The proximate composition and mineral contents of Ocimum gratissimum leaves were investigated. The proximate analysis showed the moisture, crude, protein, total ash, crude fiber, crude lipid and total carbohydrate contents were 10.72±0.01%, 12.98±0.10%, 10.95±0.42, 10.21±0.04%, 4.81±0.04% and 49.01±0.25% respectively. The results of the analysis showed that Ocimum gratissimum could be a good source of important food nutrients.

Keywords: African Basil, drying, Ocimum gratissimum, proximate

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2111 Effect of Dehydration Methods of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Functional Properties of Starch Flour Extracted from Maize

Authors: Olakunle M. Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi

Abstract:

Effect of the dehydrated method on proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch was evaluated. The study was carried and to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch produced using three different drying methods namely (sun) (oven) and (cabinet) drying methods. The corn starch was obtained by cleaning, steeping, milling, sieving, dewatering and drying corn starch was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and mineral properties to determine the nutritional properties, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate were in the range of 9.35 to 12.16, 6.5 to 10.78 1.08 to 2.5, 1.08 to 2.5, 4.0 to 5.2, 69.58 to 75.8% respectively. Bulk density range between 0.610g/dm3 to 0.718 g/dm3, water, and oil absorption capacities range between 116.5 to 117.25 and 113.8 to 117.25 ml/g respectively. Swelling powder had value varying from 1.401 to 1.544g/g respectively. The results indicate that the cabinet method had the best result item of the quality attribute.

Keywords: starch flour, maize, dehydration, cabinet dryer

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2110 Comparative Proximate Composition of Selected Edible Vegetables Harvested from Farmland Nearby Oil Impacted Sites in Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: K. O. Igwe, E. N. Onyeike, A. A. Uwakwe

Abstract:

Comparative proximate composition of selected edible vegetables (Abelmoschus esculentus, Telfairia occidentalis, vernonia amygdalina and Talinum triangulare ) harvested in farmland nearby oil impacted sites in Rivers State was investigated. The result obtained was compared to the proximate composition of similar edible vegetables harvested from non oil producing areas in Imo State. Values from the study areas indicated vegetables with high moisture levels (highest values in Abelmoschus esculentus and Telfairia occidentalis; 6.07±0.11% and 4.10±0.12%) low ash contents (lowest value in Telfairia occidentalis 9.80±0.08%) low crude protein (lowest value in Talinum triangulare 8.15±0.06 %) high lipid content (highest value in Talinum triangulare 4.12± 0.20%) lower crude fibre (lowest value in Abelmoschus esculentus 9.58±0.08 %) and higher Carbohydrate contents (highest value in vernonia amygdalina 62.18± 0.67%). Values obtained indicated vegetables with lower quality in the study areas.

Keywords: edible vegetables, proximate composition, oil spill, farmland

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2109 Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Olakunle M. Makanjuola

Abstract:

Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.

Keywords: sprouting, sorghum, malted sorghum flour, cabinet dryer

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2108 Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Amaranthus hybridus (Spinach), Celosia argentea (Cock's Comb) and Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade)

Authors: S. O. Oladeji, I. Saleh, A. U. Adamu, S. A. Fowotade

Abstract:

The proximate composition, trace metal level and amino acid composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea and Solanum nigrum were determined. These vegetables were high in their ash contents. Twelve elements were determined: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, nickel, phosphorous, potassium, sodium and zinc using flame photometer, atomic absorption and UV-Visible spectrophotometers. Calcium levels were highest ranged between 145.28±0.38 to 235.62±0.41mg/100g in all the samples followed by phosphorus. Quantitative chromatographic analysis of the vegetables hydrolysates revealed seventeen amino acids with concentration of leucine (6.51 to 6.66±0.21g/16gN) doubling that of isoleucine (2.99 to 3.33±0.21g/16gN) in all the samples while the limiting amino acids were cystine and methionine. The result showed that these vegetables were of high nutritive values and could be adequate used as supplement in diet.

Keywords: proximate, amino acids, Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, Solanum nigrum

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2107 Solid State Fermentation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed to Produce Food Condiment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Adenike O. Ogunshe, Omotola F. Olagunju, Arinola O. Falola

Abstract:

Studies were conducted on fermentation of tamarind seed for production of food condiment. Fermentation followed the conventional traditional method of fermented locust bean (iru) production and was carried out over a period of three days (72 hours). Samples were withdrawn and analysed for proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity, tannin content, phytic acid content and trypsin inhibitor activity using standard methods. Effects of fermentation on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and sensory properties of the seed were evaluated. All data were analysed using ANOVA and means separated using Duncan multiple range test. Microbiological analysis to identify and characterize the microflora responsible for the fermentation of the seed was also carried out. Fermentation had significant effect on the proximate composition on the fermented seeds. As fermentation progressed, there was significant reduction in the anti-nutrient contents. Organisms isolated from the fermenting tamarind seeds were identified as non-pathogenic and common with fermented legumes.

Keywords: condiment, fermentation, legume, tamarind seed

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2106 Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria

Authors: I. C. Okwulehie, J. A. Ogoke

Abstract:

The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.

Keywords: bioactive, heavy metals, mushroom, nutritive

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2105 Preliminary Study of Material Composition of Wreathed Hornbill (Rhycticeros undulatus) Nest Cover Entrance in Mount Ungaran

Authors: Margareta Rahayuningsih, Siti Alimah, Novita Hermayani, Misbahul Munir

Abstract:

Wreathed Hornbill (Rhycticeros undulatus) was a protected bird that we can found in Mount Ungaran. It is known that the bird have been breeding and nesting on the mountain. The objective of the research was to analysis the materials composition of the Wreathed Hornbill nest wall plaster. The study was carried out in Curug Lawe and Gunung Gentong, Mount Ungaran Central Java. Nest wall plaster samples were collected from nest cavities were used by hornbill but after they left from the nest. The nest tree species on Gunung Gentong was Syzygium antisepticum and Syzigium glabratum on Curug Lawe. Materials analysis used proximate analysis and have been done on Chemistry Laboratory of Semarang State University. The result of proximate analysis showed that the material composition of nest wall plaster such as water, proteins. lipid, carbohydrate, and ash between Curug Lawe and Gunung Gentong was different. Except Carbohidrate, the highest componen showed in the nest wall plaster on Gunung Gentong.

Keywords: Mount Ungaran, nest cover entrance, Rhyticeros undulatus, proximate analysis

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2104 Proximate Composition, Colour and Sensory Properties of Akara egbe Prepared from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Taiwo Tijani, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Mutiat A. Balogun, Fausat L. Kolawole, John K. Joseph

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut is an underutilised leguminous crop that has a similar composition to cowpea. Hence, it could be used in making traditional snack usually produced from cowpea paste. In this study, akara egbe, a traditional snack was prepared from Bambara groundnut flour or paste. Cowpea was included as the reference sample. The proximate composition and functional properties of the flours were studies as well as the proximate composition and sensory properties of the resulting akara egbe. Protein and carbohydrate were the main components of Bambara groundnut and cowpea grains. Ash, fat and fiber contents were low. Bambara groundnut flour had higher protein content (23.71%) than cowpea (19.47%). In terms of functional properties, the oil absorption capacity (0.75 g oil/g flour) of Bambara groundnut flour was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the cowpea (0.92 g oil/g flour), whereas, Cowpea flour absorbed more water (1.59 g water/g flour) than Bambara groundnut flour (1.12 g/g). The packed bulk density (0.92 g/mL) of Bambara groundnut was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than cowpea flour (0.82 g/mL). Akara egbe prepared from Bambara groundnut flour showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher protein content (23.41%) than the sample made from Bambara groundnut paste (19.35%). Akara egbe prepared from cowpea paste had higher ratings in aroma, colour, taste, crunchiness and overall acceptability than those made from cowpea flour or Bambara groundnut paste or flour. Bambara groundnut can produce akara egbe with comparable nutritional and sensory properties to that made from cowpea.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Cowpea, Snack, Sensory properties

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2103 Assessment of Proximate Composition and Heavy Metal in Vigna unguculata (White Beans) Sold in Kazaure Market, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdu Umar Adamu, Saidu Akun Abdullahi, Al-Hassan Muhammed, Hamisu Abdu

Abstract:

Leguminous plants such as beans have been considered as a source of protein in this present work. The proximate analysis on beans (Vigna unguiculata) were determined in order to identify the nutritional content as well as presence of some heavy metals accumulation in washed and unwashed beans (white Beans) sold in Kazaure market Jigawa State Nigeria. On the average comparative analysis, the result has indicated that, the Vigna unguiculata had protein content of 61.1%, fibre 4.5%, ash 10.4%, moisture 5%, carbohydrate 15.8% and total lipid 4.9%, therefore it could be suggested that beans has enough nutritional content that helps the people health. The heavy metal analysis of unwashed white beans showed that Fe (17.37 ± 6.71)mg/kg had the highest concentration followed by Zn (6.41 ± 3.09), Cu (5.69 ± 2.42), Cd (0.46 ± 0.65) and Pb (0.57 ± 0.94)mg/kg , while the washed beans shows that Zn (0.11 ± 0.17), Fe (0.01 ± 0.006), Cd (0.02 ± 0.01), Cu (0.03 ± 0.021), Pb (0.01 ± 0.006)mg/kg. The washed white beans are safe for consumption and also the concentration of heavy metal are negligible and of nontoxic effect to human health.

Keywords: white beans, protein, proximate composition, heavy metal

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2102 Impact of Different Ripening Accelerators on the Microbial Load and Proximate Composition of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Banana (Musa sapientum), during the Ripening Process, and the Nutrition Implication for Food Security

Authors: Wisdom Robert Duruji, Oluwasegun Christopher Akinleye

Abstract:

This study reports on the impact of different ripening accelerators on the microbial load and proximate composition of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Banana (Musa sapientum) during the ripening process, and the nutrition implication for food security. The study comprised of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening accelerator was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating and enumerating their micro flora using pour plate method; and also, their proximate composition was determined using standard methods. The result indicated that the bacteria count of plantain increased from 3.25 ± 0.33 for unripe to 5.31 ± 0.30 log cfu/g for (treated) ripened, and that of banana increased from 3.69 ± 0.11 for unripe to 5.26 ± 0.21 log cfu/g for ripened. Also, the fungal count of plantain increased from 3.20 ± 0.16 for unripe to 4.88 ± 0.22 log sfu/g for ripened; and that of banana increased from 3.61 ± 0.19 for unripe to 5.43 ± 0.26 for ripened. Ripened plantain fingers without any ripening accelerator (control) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher values of crude protein 3.56 ± 0.06%, crude fat 0.42 ± 0.04%, total ash 2.74 ± 0.15 and carbohydrate 31.10 ± 0.20; but with significantly lower value of moisture 62.14 ± 0.07% when compared with treated plantain. The proximate composition trend of treated and banana fingers control is similar to that of treated and plantain control, except that higher moisture content of 75.11 ± 0.07% and lesser protein, crude fat, total ash and carbohydrate were obtained from treated and ripened banana control when the treatments were compared with that of plantain. The study concluded that plantain is more nutritious (mealy) than a banana; also, the ripening accelerators increased the microbial load and reduced the nutritional status of plantain and banana.

Keywords: food nutrition, calcium carbide, rvingia gabonensis, newbouldia laevis, plantain, banana

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2101 Development and Characterization of Biscuits Incorporated with Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds and Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Authors: Elina Brahma Hazarika, Jeuti Basumatary, Deepanka Saikia, Jaydeep Das, Micky Moni D'mary, Fungkha Basumatary

Abstract:

This study includes development of two varieties of biscuits incorporated with: the seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), which post-consumption of it’s pulp, is discarded as a waste, and Cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers.The jack fruit seeds and cassava were first ground into flour and its proximate and physiochemical properties were studied. The biscuits that were developed incorporating them had 50% wheat flour and 50% jackfruit seed flour and 50% cassava flours as the major composition, apart from the other general ingredients use in making biscuits. Various trials of compositions were made for baking to get the overall desirable acceptability in biscuits through sensory evaluation. Finally, the best composition of ingredients was selected to make the biscuits, and hence studies were done accordingly to compare it with the properties of their respective raw flours. The results showed that the proximate composition of the biscuits fared better than that of their respective flours: There was a decrease in the Moisture content of both Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits to 4.5% and 6.7% than that of their respective raw flours (8 and 12%). Post-baking, there is increase in the percentages of ash, protein, and fibre contents in both Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits; the values being 3% and 3.8%, 13.2% and 3.3%, and 3.2 and 4.1% respectively. Also the total carbohydrate content in Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits were 66.7% and 71.7% respectively. Their sensory evaluation and texture study also yielded a clear review that they have an overall good acceptability.

Keywords: baking, proximate, sensory, texture

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2100 Meat Yield and Proximate Composition Relations of Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Different Sizes

Authors: Mehmet Celik, Celal Erbas, Mehtap Baykal, Aygül Kucukgulmez, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu

Abstract:

In this study, determination of differences in fresh meat yield and proximate compositions of different weight groups of sea bream and sea bass grown in cages in Izmir region of the Aegean Sea were aimed. For this purpose, the length and weight of five different weight groups of sea bass (I: 175.8±5.2, II: 227.3±10.2, III: 293.3±21.3, IV: 404±9.9, V: 508.7±46 g) and sea bream (I: 146.6±13.6, II: 239.8±21.7, III: 279.2±20.8, IV: 400.9±10.5, V: 546.8±0.8 g) were measured and the amount of edible and non-edible parts were determined. Besides this, protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, condition factor, HSI and VSI values were compared according to different weight groups for each species. According to the results of analysis, while the absolute meat yields of sea bream was between 69-294 g, it was between 71-252 g for the sea bass and the highest meat yields were found in fifth (V) weight groups of fish for both species. The relative meat yield (%) was determined in weight group II for sea bass and in the IV. group in sea bream with 51.9%. However, the amount of muscle tissue lipids in I. and V. weight groups of sea bream ranged between 3.6 to 11.9 % and ranged between 6.2 to 9.0 % for sea bass respectively. Protein, fillet and ash content increased in direct proportion to the weight. As a result, it can be speculated that when the meat yield and lipid rates were considered, IV. group in sea bream and II. group in sea bass are the most advantageous groups for the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2015-3830.

Keywords: sea bream, sea bass, meat yield, proximate composition, different weight

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2099 Utilization and Proximate Composition of Nile Tilapia, Common Carp and African Mudfish Polycultured in Fertilized Ponds

Authors: I. A. Yola

Abstract:

Impact of poultry dropping, cow dung and rumen content on utilization and proximate composition of Oreochromis niliticus, Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus capio in a polyculture system were studied. The research was conducted over a period of 52 weeks. Poultry droppings (PD), cow dung (CD) and rumen content (RC) were applied at three levels 30g,60g and 120g/m2/week, 25g,50g and 100g/m2/week and 22g, 44g and 88g/m2/week treatment, respectively. The control only conventional feed with 40% CP without manure application was used. Physicochemical and biological properties measured were higher in manure pond than control. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) between and within treatments with exception of temperature with a combined mean of 27.900C. The water was consistently alkaline with mean values for pH of 6.61, transparency 22.6cm, conductivity 35.00µhos/cm, dissolved oxygen 4.6 mg/l, biological oxygen demand 2.8mg/l, nitrate and phosphates 0.9mg/l and 0.35mg/l, respectively. The three fish species increase in weight with increased manure rate, with a higher value in PD treatment on C. capio record 340g, O. niloticus weighed 310g and C. gariepinus 280g over the experimental period. Fishes fed supplementary diet (control) grew bigger with highest value on C. capio (685g) O. niloticus (620g) and then C. gariepinus (526g). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The result of whole body proximate analysis indicated that various manures and rates had an irregular pattern on the protein and ash gain per 100g of fish body weight gain. The combined means for whole fish carcass protein, lipids, moisture, ash and gross energy were 11.84, 2.43, 74.63, 3.00 and 109.9 respectively. The notable exceptions were significant (p < 0.05) increases in body fat and gross energy gains in all fish species accompanied by decreases in percentages of moisture as manure rates increased. Survival percentage decreases from 80% to 70%. It is recommended to use poultry dropping as manure/feeds at the rate of 120kg/ha/week for good performances in polyculture.

Keywords: organic manure, Nile tilapia, African mud fish, common carp, proximate composition

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2098 Effects of Storage Methods on Proximate Compositions of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Temitope A. Oyedele, Clement G. Afolabi

Abstract:

One of the limitations of African yam bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) is poor storage ability due to the adverse effect of seed-borne fungi. This study was conducted to examine the effects of storage methods on the nutritive composition of AYB seeds stored in three types of storage materials viz; Jute bags, Polypropylene bags, and Plastic Bowls. Freshly harvested seeds of AYB seeds were stored in all the storage materials for 6 months using 2 × 3 factorial (2 AYB cultivars and 3 storage methods) in 3 replicates. The proximate analysis of the stored AYB seeds was carried out at 3 and 6 months after storage using standard methods. The temperature and relative humidity of the storeroom was recorded monthly with Kestrel pocket weather tracker 4000. Seeds stored in jute bags gave the best values for crude protein (24.87%), ash (5.69%) and fat content (6.64%) but recorded least values for crude fibre (2.55%), carbohydrate (50.86%) and moisture content (12.68%) at the 6th month of storage. The temperature of the storeroom decreased from 32.9ºC - 28.3ºC, while the relative humidity increased from 78% - 86%. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Geotricum candidum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor meihei was accompanied by the increase in storage fungi viz: Apergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium espansum and Penicillium atrovenetum with prolonged storage. The study showed that of the three storage materials jute bag was more effective at preserving AYB seeds.

Keywords: storage methods, proximate composition, African Yam Bean, fungi

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2097 Fillet Chemical Composition of Sharpsnout Seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) from Wild and Cage-Cultured Conditions

Authors: Oğuz Taşbozan, Celal Erbaş, Şefik Surhan Tabakoğlu, Mahmut Ali Gökçe

Abstract:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and particularly the levels and ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are important for biological functions in humans and recognized as essential components of human diet. According to the terms of many different points of view, the nutritional composition of fish in culture conditions and caught from wild are wondered by the consumers. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of cage-cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream which has been preferred by the consumers as an economical important fish species in Turkey. The fish were caught from wild and obtained from cage-cultured commercial companies. Eight fish were obtained for each group, and their average weights of the samples were 245.8±13.5 g for cultured, 149.4±13.3 g for wild samples. All samples were stored in freezer (-18 °C) and analyses were carried out in triplicates, using homogenized boneless fish fillets. Proximate compositions (protein, ash, moisture and lipid) were determined. The fatty acid composition was analyzed by a GC Clarous 500 with auto sampler (Perkin–Elmer, USA). Proximate compositions of cage-cultured and wild samples of sharpsnout seabream were found statistical differences in terms of proximate composition between the groups. The saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and PUFA amounts of cultured and wild sharpsnout seabream were significantly different. ω3/ω6 ratio was higher in the cultured group. Especially in protein level and lipid level of cultured samples was significantly higher than wild counterparts. One of the reasons for this, cultured species exposed to continuous feeding. This situation had a direct effect on their body lipid content. The fatty acid composition of fish differs depending on a variety of factors including species, diet, environmental factors and whether they are farmed or wild. The higher levels of MUFA in the cultured fish may be explained with the high content of monoenoic fatty acids in the feed of cultured fish as in some other species. The ω3/ω6 ratio is a good index for comparing the relative nutritional value of fish oils. In our study, the cultured sharpsnout seabream appears to be better nutritious in terms of ω3/ω6. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5780.

Keywords: Diplodus puntazo, cage cultured, PUFA, fatty acid

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2096 Proximate Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Striped Sea Bream (Lithognathus mormyrus)

Authors: Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Oguz Tasbozan, Celal Erbas, Zafer Akpinar, S. Surhan Tabakoglu, Mehmet Celik, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of marketable size striped sea bream of obtained from fish cages of aquaculture companies and fishermen. Ten fish samples were used for both groups. The average total weight of farmed and wild samples was 252,75 ± 36,78 g and 193,0 ± 32 g respectively. While the protein level of farmed samples was (23,49±0,15) higher than that of wild fish (21,80±0,18), lipid level was less (1,55±0,08) in farmed group than wild fish samples (2,52±0,07). Amount of Σ SFA was significantly higher in wild group (44,09±0,9) than the farmed (32,79±1,13) group. Total MUFA were 36,38±29,91 in wild and 29,91±1,52 in farmed fish. However, Σ PUFA (27,89±1,53) and EPA+DHA values (15,73±1,63) of farmed samples were significantly higher than the wild (14,06 ±3,67 and 9,7±0,86) counterparts. Σώ3/ώ6 rate was better in farmed group with 2,54±0,84 in comparison with (1,59±0,06) the other group. As a result, it can be speculated that the farmed striped sea bream can be preferred by the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5073.

Keywords: striped sea bream, Litognathus mormyrus, proximate composition, fatty acid profile

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2095 Effect of Cooking Time, Seed-To-Water Ratio and Soaking Time on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian Walnut) Seeds

Authors: J. O. Idoko, C. N. Michael, T. O. Fasuan

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This study investigated the effects of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time on proximate and functional properties of African walnut seed using Box-Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology (BBD-RSM) with a view to increase its utilization in the food industry. African walnut seeds were sorted washed, soaked, cooked, dehulled, sliced, dried and milled. Proximate analysis and functional properties of the samples were evaluated using standard procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Quadratic models were obtained to predict the proximate and functional qualities as a function of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time. The results showed that the crude protein ranged between 11.80% and 23.50%, moisture content ranged between 1.00% and 4.66%, ash content ranged between 3.35% and 5.25%, crude fibre ranged from 0.10% to 7.25% and carbohydrate ranged from 1.22% to 29.35%. The functional properties showed that soluble protein ranged from 16.26% to 42.96%, viscosity ranged from 23.43 mPas to 57 mPas, emulsifying capacity ranged from 17.14% to 39.43% and water absorption capacity ranged from 232% to 297%. An increase in the volume of water used during cooking resulted in loss of water soluble protein through leaching, the length of soaking time and the moisture content of the dried product are inversely related, ash content is inversely related to the cooking time and amount of water used, extraction of fat is enhanced by increase in soaking time while increase in cooking and soaking times result into decrease in fibre content. The results obtained indicated that African walnut could be used in several food formulations as protein supplement and binder.

Keywords: African walnut, functional properties, proximate analysis, response surface methodology

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2094 Proximate, Functional and Sensory Evaluation of Some Brands of Instant Noodles in Nigeria

Authors: Olakunle Moses Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi

Abstract:

Noodles are made from unleavened dough, rolled flat and cut into shapes. The instant noodle market is growing fast in Asian countries and is gaining popularity in the western market. This project reports on the proximate functional and sensory evaluation of different brands of instant noodles in Nigeria. The comparisons were based on proximate functional and sensory evaluation of the product. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that sample QHR has the highest moisture content, sample BMG has the highest protein content, sample CPO has the highest fat content, sample. The obtained result from the functional properties showed that sample BMG (Dangote noodles) had the highest volume increase after cooking due to its high swelling capacity, high water absorption capacity and high hydration capacity. Sample sensory analysis of the noodles showed that all the samples are of significant difference (at P < 0.05) in terms of colour, texture, and aroma but there is no significant difference in terms of taste and overall acceptability. Sample QHR (Indomie noodles) is the most preferred by the panelists.

Keywords: proximate, functional, sensory evaluation, noodles

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2093 Proximate Composition, Minerals and Sensory Attributes of Cake, Cookies, Cracker, and Chin-Chin Prepared from Cassava-Gari Residue Flour

Authors: Alice Nwanyioma Ohuoba, Rose Erdoo Kukwa, Ukpabi Joseph Ukpabi

Abstract:

Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) is one of the important carbohydrates containing crops in Nigeria. It is a staple food, mostly in the southern part of the country, and a source of income to farmers and processors. Cassava gari processing methods result to residue fiber (solid waste) from the sieving operation, these residue fibers ( solid wastes) can be dried and milled into flour and used to prepare cakes, cookies, crackers and chin-chin instead of being thrown away mostly on farmland or near the residential area. Flour for baking or frying may contain carbohydrates and protein (wheat flour) or rich in only carbohydrates (cassava flour). Cake, cookies, crackers, and chin-chin were prepared using the residue flour obtained from the residue fiber of cassava variety NR87184 roots, processed into gari. This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, mineral content and sensory attributes of these selected snacks produced. The proximate composition results obtained showed that crackers had the lowest value in moisture (2.3390%) and fat (1.7130%), but highest in carbohydrates (85.2310%). Amongst the food products, cakes recorded the highest value in protein (8.0910%). Crude fibre values ranges from 2.5265% (cookies) to 3.4165% (crackers). The result of the mineral contents showed cookies ranking the highest in Phosphorus (65.8535 ppm) and Iron (0.1150 mg/L), Calcium (1.3800mg/L) and Potassium (7.2850 mg/L) contents, while chin-chin and crackers were lowest in Sodium ( 2.7000 mg/L). The food products were also subjected to sensory attributes evaluation by thirty member panelists using 9-hedonic scale which ranged from 1 ( dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely). The means score obtained shows all the food products having above 7.00 (above “like moderately”). This study has shown that food products that may be functional or nutraceuticals could be prepared from the residue flour. There is a call for the use of gluten-free flour in baking due to ciliac disease and other allergic causes by gluten. Therefore local carbohydrates food crops like cassava residue flour that are gluten-free, could be the solution. In addition, this could aid cassava gari processing waste management thereby reducing post-harvest losses of cassava root.

Keywords: allergy, flour, food-products, gluten-free

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2092 Evaluating the Performance of Organic, Inorganic and Liquid Sheep Manure on Growth, Yield and Nutritive Value of Hybrid Napier CO-3

Authors: F. A. M. Safwan, H. N. N. Dilrukshi, P. U. S. Peiris

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Less availability of high quality green forages leads to low productivity of national dairy herd of Sri Lanka. Growing grass and fodder to suit the production system is an efficient and economical solution for this problem. CO-3 is placed in a higher category, especially on tillering capacity, green forage yield, regeneration capacity, leaf to stem ratio, high crude protein content, resistance to pests and diseases and free from adverse factors along with other fodder varieties grown within the country. An experiment was designed to determine the effect of organic sheep manure, inorganic fertilizers and liquid sheep manure on growth, yield and nutritive value of CO-3. The study was consisted with three treatments; sheep manure (T1), recommended inorganic fertilizers (T2) and liquid sheep manure (T3) which was prepared using bucket fermentation method and each treatment was consisted with three replicates and those were assigned randomly. First harvest was obtained after 40 days of plant establishment and number of leaves (NL), leaf area (LA), tillering capacity (TC), fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) were recorded and second harvest was obtained after 30 days of first harvest and same set of data were recorded. SPSS 16 software was used for data analysis. For proximate analysis AOAC, 2000 standard methods were used. Results revealed that the plants treated with T1 recorded highest NL, LA, TC, FW and DW and were statistically significant at first and second harvest of CO-3 (p˂ 0.05) and it was found that T1 was statistically significant from T2 and T3. Although T3 was recorded higher than the T2 in almost all growth parameters; it was not statistically significant (p ˃0.05). In addition, the crude protein content was recorded highest in T1 with the value of 18.33±1.61 and was lowest in T2 with the value of 10.82±1.14 and was statistically significant (p˂ 0.05). Apart from this, other proximate composition crude fiber, crude fat, ash, moisture content and dry matter were not statistically significant between treatments (p ˃0.05). In accordance with the results, it was found that the organic fertilizer is the best fertilizer for CO-3 in terms of growth parameters and crude protein content.

Keywords: fertilizer, growth parameters, Hybrid Napier CO-3, proximate composition

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2091 Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Complementary Food from Fermented Acha (Digitaria exilis), Soybean and Orange-Flesh Sweet Potato Blends

Authors: N. C. Okoronkwo, I. E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, C. P. Agbata

Abstract:

Childhood malnutrition is one of the most persistent public health problems throughout developing countries, including Nigeria. Demographic and Health survey data from twenty-one developing countries indicated that poor complementary feeding of children aged 6- 23 months contributes to negative growth trends. To reduce malnutrition among children in the society, formulation of complimentary food rich in essential nutrient for optimum growth and development of infants is essential. This study focused on the evaluation of complementary food produced by solid-state fermentation of Acha and Soybean using Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) using Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). The raw materials were soaked separately, each in four volumes of 0.9M acetic acid for 16 hours, rinsed with clean water, steam cooked and cooled. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out by inoculating Acha and Soybean with spore suspension (1x 10⁶spores/ml) of Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and OFSP with spore suspension (1x 106spores/ml) of Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). Fermentation which lasted for 72hours was carried out with 24hours sampling. The samples were blended in the following ratios: Acha and soybean 100: 100 (AS), Acha/soybean and OFSP 50: 50(ASO), made into gruel and compared with a commercial infant formula (Cerelac) which served as the control (CTRL). The samples were analyzed for proximate composition using AOAC methods and sensory attributes using a hedonic scale. Results showed that moisture, crude protein, fibre and ash content increased significantly (p<0.05) as fermentation progressed, while carbohydrate and fat content decreased. The protein, moisture, fibre and ash content ranged from 17.10-19.02%, 54.97-56.27%, 7.08-7.60% and2.09-2.38%, respectively, while carbohydrate and fat content ranged from 12.95-10.21% and 5.81-4.52%, respectively. In sensory scores, there were no significant (p>0.05) difference between the average mean scores of colours, texture and consistency of the samples. The sensory score for the overall acceptability ranged from 6.20-7.80. Sample CTRL had the highest score, while sample ASO had the least score. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between samples CTRL and AS. Solid-state fermentation improved the nutritional content and flavour of the developed complementary food, which is needed for infant growth and development.

Keywords: Complementary food, malnutrition, proximate composition, solid-state fermentation

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2090 Synergetic Effect of Dietary Essential Amino Acids (Lysine and Methionine) on the Growth, Body Composition and Enzymes Activities of Genetically Male Tilapia

Authors: Noor Khan, Hira Waris

Abstract:

This study was conducted on genetically male tilapia (GMT) fry reared in glass aquarium for three months to examine the synergetic effect of essential amino acids (EAA) supplementation on growth, body composition, and enzyme activities. Fish having average body weight of 16.56 ± 0.42g were fed twice a day on artificial feed (20% crude protein) procured from Oryza Organics (commercial feed) supplemented with EAA; methionine (M) and lysine (L) designated as T1 (0.3%M and 2%L), T2 (0.6%M and 4%L), T3 (0.9%M and 6%L) and control without EAA. Significantly higher growth performance was observed in T1, followed by T2, T3, and control. The results revealed that whole-body dry matter and crude protein were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in T3 (0.9% and 6%) feeding fish, while the crude fat was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in a similar group of fish. Additionally, protease, amylase, and lipase activities were also observed maximum (p ≤ 0.05) in response to T3 than other treatments and control. However, the EAA, especially lysine and methionine, were found significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in T1 compared to other treatments. Conclusively, the addition of EAA, methionine, and lysine in the feed not only enhanced the growth performance of GMT fry but also improved body proximate composition and essential amino acid profile.

Keywords: genetically male tilapia, body composition, digestive enzyme activities, amino acid profile

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2089 Survey of Web Service Composition

Authors: Wala Ben Messaoud, Khaled Ghedira, Youssef Ben Halima, Henda Ben Ghezala

Abstract:

A web service (WS) is called compound or composite when its execution involves interactions with other WS to use their features. The composition of WS specifies which services need to be invoked, in what order and how to handle exception conditions. This paper gives an overview of research efforts of WS composition. The approaches proposed in the literature are diverse, interesting and have opened important research areas. Based on many studies, we extracted the most important role of WS composition use in order to facilitate its introduction in WS concept.

Keywords: SOA, web services, composition approach, composite WS

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2088 Drying Effect on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Cocoyam Flour

Authors: K. Maliki, A. Ajayi, O. M. Makanjuola, O. J. Adebowale

Abstract:

Cocoyam is herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to the family Araceae and genus xanthosoma or cococasia is mostly cultivated as food crop. It is very rich in Vitamin B6, Magnesium and also in dietary fiber. Matured cocoyam is eaten boiled, Fried or roasted in Nigeria. It can also be dried and used to make flour. Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried, thus inhibit the growth of bacteria yeast and mold through the removal of water. Drying effect on the proximate composition and functional properties of cocoyam flour were investigated. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, sliced into 0.3mm thickness blanch in boiling water at 100°C for 15 minutes and dried using sun drying oven and cabinet dryers. The blanched slices were divided into three lots and were subjected to different drying methods. The dried cocoyam slices were milled into flour using Apex mill and packed into Low Density Polyethylene Film (LDPE) 75 Micron 4 thickness and kept for four months under ambient temperature before analysis. The results showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 7.35% to 13.89%, 1.45% to 3.3%, 1.2% to 3.41%, 2.1% to 3.1%, 6.30% to 9.1% and 66% to 82% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam flour ranged from 1. 65ml/g to 4.24ml/g water absorption capacity, 0.85ml/g to 2.11ml/g oil absorption capacity 0.56ml/g and 0.78ml/g bulk density and 4.91% to 6.80% swelling capacity. The result showed that there was not significant difference (P ≥ 0.5) across the various drying methods used. Cabinet drying method was found to have the best quality characteristic values than the other drying methods. In conclusion, drying of cocoyam could be used for value addition and provide extension to shelf-life.

Keywords: cocoyam flour, drying, cabinet dryer, oven dryer

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2087 Studies on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Extracted Cocoyam Starch Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Francis B. Aiyeleye, Olakunke M. Makanjuola, Olalekan J. Adebowale

Abstract:

Cocoyam, a generic term for both xanthoma and colocasia, is a traditional staple root crop in many developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. It is mostly cultivated as food crop which is very rich in vitamin B6, magnesium and also in dietary fiber. The cocoyam starch is easily digested and often used for baby food. Drying food is a method of food preservation that removes enough moisture from the food so bacteria, yeast and molds cannot grow. It is a one of the oldest methods of preserving food. The effect of drying methods on the proximate composition and functional properties of extracted cocoyam starch flour were studied. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, washed and grated. The starch in the grated cocoyam was extracted, dried using sun drying, oven and cabinet dryers. The extracted starch flour was milled into flour using Apex mill and packed and sealed in low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) 75 micron thickness with Nylon sealing machine QN5-3200HI and kept for three months under ambient temperature before analysis. The result showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 6.28% to 12.8% 2.32% to 3.2%, 0.89% to 2.24%%, 1.89% to 2.91%, 7.30% to 10.2% and 69% to 83% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam starch flour ranged from 2.65ml/g to 4.84ml/g water absorption capacity, 1.95ml/g to 3.12ml/g oil absorption capacity, 0.66ml/g to 7.82ml/g bulk density and 3.82% to 5.30ml/g swelling capacity. Significant difference (P≥0.5) was not obtained across the various drying methods used. The drying methods provide extension to the shelf-life of the extracted cocoyam starch flour.

Keywords: cocoyam, extraction, oven dryer, cabinet dryer

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2086 Quality Assessment Of Instant Breakfast Cereals From Yellow Maize (Zea mays), Sesame (Sesamum indicium), And Mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus) Flour Blends

Authors: Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, Ifeoma Elizabeth, Orngu, Africa Orngu

Abstract:

Composite flours were processed from blends of yellow maize (Zea mays), sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder in the ratio of 80:20:0; 75:20:5; 70:20:10; 65:20:10 and 60:20:20, respectively to produce the breakfast cereal coded as YSB, SMB, TMB, PMB and OMB with YSB as the control. The breakfast cereals were produced by hydration and toasting of yellow maize and sesame to 160oC for 25 minutes and blended together with oven dried and packaged oyster mushroom. The developed products (flours and breakfast cereals) were analyzed for proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, anti-nutrients, phytochemicals, functional, microbial and sensory properties. Results for the flours showed: proximate composition (%): moisture (2.59-7.27), ash (1.29-7.57), crude fat (0.98-14.91), fibre (1.03-16.02), protein (10.13-35.29), carbohydrate (75.48-38.18) and energy (295.18-410.75kcal). Vitamins ranged as: vitamin A (0.14-9.03 ug/100g), vitamin B1 (0.14-0.38), vitamin B2 (0.07-0.15), vitamin B3(0.89-4.88) and Vitamin C (0.03-4.24). Minerals (mg/100g) were reported thus: calcium (8.01-372.02), potassium (1.40-1.85), magnesium (12.09-13.15), iron (1.23-5.25) and zinc (0.85-2.20). The results for anti-nutrients and phytochemical ranged from: tannin (1.50-1.61mg/g), Phytate (0.40-0.71mg/g), Oxalate(1.81-2.02mg/g), Flavonoid (0.21-1.27%) and phenolic (1.12-2.01%). Functional properties showed: bulk density (0.51-0.77g/ml), water absorption capacity (266.0-301.5%), swelling capacity (136.0-354.0%), least Gelation (0.55-1.45g/g) and reconstitution index (35.20-69.60%). The total viable count ranged from 6.4× 102to1.0× 103cfu/g while the total mold count was from 1.0× 10to 3.0× 10 cfu/g. For the breakfast cereals, proximate composition (%) ranged thus: moisture (4.07-7.08), ash (3.09-2.28), crude fat(16.04-12.83), crude fibre(4.30-8.22), protein(16.14-22.54), carbohydrate(56.34-47.04) and energy (434.34-393.83Kcal).Vitamin A (7.99-5.98 ug/100g), vitamin B1(0.08-0.42mg/100g), vitamin B2(0.06-0.15 mg/100g), vitamin B3(1.91-4.52 mg/100g) and Vitamin C(3.55-3.32 mg/100g) were reported while Minerals (mg/100g) were: calcium (75.31-58.02), potassium (0.65-4.01), magnesium(12.25-12.62), iron (1.21-4.15) and zinc (0.40-1.32). The anti-nutrients and phytochemical revealed the range (mg/g) as: tannin (1.12-1.21), phytate (0.69-0.53), oxalate (1.21-0.43), flavonoid (0.23-1.22%) and phenolic (0.23-1.23%). The bulk density (0.77-0.63g/ml), water absorption capacity (156.5-126.0%), swelling capacity (309.5-249.5%), least gelation (1.10-0.75g/g) and reconstitution index (49.95-39.95%) were recorded. From the total viable count, it ranged from 3.3× 102to4.2× 102cfu/g but no mold growth was detected. Sensory scores revealed that the breakfast cereals were acceptable to the panelist with oyster mushroom supplementation up to 10%.

Keywords: oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), sesame seed (Sesamum indicum), yellow maize (Zea mays, instant breakfast cereals

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