Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 153

Search results for: algae

153 Effects of Macrophyte Vallisneria asiatica Biomasses on the Algae Community

Authors: Caixia Kang, Takahiro Kuba, Aimin Hao, Yasushi Iseri, Chunjie Li, Zhenjia Zhang


To improve the water quality of lakes and control algae blooms, The effects of Vallisneria asiatica which is one of aquatic plants spread over Lake Taihu. With different biomasses on the water quality and algae communities were researched. The results indicated that V. asiatica could control an excess of Microcystis spp. When the V. asiatica biomass was larger than 50g in the tank with 30L solution in the laboratory, Planktonic and epiphytic algae responded differently to V. asiatica. The presence of macrophyte V. asiatica in eutrophic waters has a positive effect on algae compositions because of different sensitivities of algae species to allelopathic substances released by macrophyte V. asiatica. That is, V. asiatica could inhibit the growth of Microcystis spp. effectively and was benefited to the diatom on the condition in the laboratory.

Keywords: algae bloom, algae community, Microcystis spp., Vallisneria asiatica

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152 Effects of Alkalinity on the Treatment of Landfill Leachate through Algae Growth

Authors: Tahir Imran Qureshi


This study was aimed at finding out effects of potential influence of alkalinity on the treatment of landfill leachate through the growth of algae at varying dilution rates and toxicity potential. pH control proved to be an effective factor influencing on algal growth. With the use of algae Scenedesmus sp. for the treatment of leachate, a sharp increase in the growth of algae was recorded until pH 9. However, at pH 9.3 and 25 °C temperature, the growing trend of algae population showed a weakening tendency with the increase of total alkalinity in the leachate solution. Highest growth of algae was recorded in the leachate samples with alkalinity ranged at 1500-2500 mg CaCO3/L under neutral condition at pH 7 after 48 hours of cultivation time. Under the similar conditions, total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the leachate also reduced to 80% and 85%, respectively, however, no significant removal of COD was observed during the course of experiment.

Keywords: leachate treatment, microalgae, nutrient removal, ammonia toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
151 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae

Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar


The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.

Keywords: algae, crude oil, green algae, Cyanobacteria

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150 Absorption Capability Examination of Heavy Metals by Spirogyra Alga in Ahvaz Water Treatment Plant

Authors: F. Fakheri Raof, F. Zobeidizadeh


The present study examined the potential capability of Spirogyra algae remove heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr from the water. For this purpose, the water treatment No. 3 of Ahvaz County in Khuzestan Province of Iran was selected as a case study. From 8 sampling stations, 4 stations were dedicated to the water samples and 4 stations to the algae samples. According to the obtained results, the concentration of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water samples were within the ranges of 1.98-19.53, 0.67-13.45, 1-23.18, and 2.12-83.04 µg/L. Besides, the concentration of heavy metal Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn in spirogyra algae samples varied between the ranges 2.30-3.61, 2.06-3.43, 2.29-2.56, and 9.88-10.84 µg/L. The highest amount of metal absorption in spirogyra algae samples was related to the zinc. The obtained results also indicated that the last spirogyra algae sample which was at the inlet of Tank 4 absorbed the lowest concentration of metals. This would be due to the treatment process along the course of ponds resulted in completely pure water at the outlet without the existence of algae on the sides. The paper also provides some useful recommendations on this issue.

Keywords: absorption, Ahvaz, heavy metal, spirogyra algae, water treatment plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
149 Fungal Flocculation of Single Algae Species and Mixed Algal Communities

Authors: Digby Wrede, Stephen Gray, Syed Hussainy


Microalgae are extremely useful organisms but notoriously hard to harvest. The use of fungal pellets has been found to be an efficient way to flocculate numerous species of algae. However, only the flocculation of single species of algae has been investigated. Algae are generally found in complex communities in the environment comprising of numerous species of algae ranging from simple single cell algae such as Chlorella to more complex or communal algae such as Dictyosphaerium. This study investigated the flocculation capabilities of Aspergillus oryzae to flocculate four species of algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus and Dictyosphaerium sp., and the algal communities in four different types of domestic effluent from a lagoon-based treatment plant; primary effluent, secondary effluent and the high rate algal pond effluent at a natural and at a lowered pH level. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the changes in algal population. C. vulgaris, S. acuminatus and S. quadricauda, had over 90% reduction of algal in suspension after 24 hours. Dictyosphaerium sp. showed a little to no removal after 24 hours. The primary, secondary, and natural pH level HRAP had roughly a 50% removal after 24 hours, the HRAP which was grown at a lower pH level had over a 90% removal after 24 hours. pH has been shown previously to affect fungal flocculation. Fungal and algae pellets have been shown to be able to treat wastewater and can be converted to biofuels in a very similar method to how algae are currently converted. The mixture of both fungi and algae has also been shown to provide a higher yield of oils then separately and are able to more efficiently treat wastewater then algae or fungi by themselves.

Keywords: algae harvesting, Aspergillus oryzae, fungal flocculation, wastewater treatment

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148 Allergenic Potential of Airborne Algae Isolated from Malaysia

Authors: Chu Wan-Loy, Kok Yih-Yih, Choong Siew-Ling


The human health risks due to poor air quality caused by a wide array of microorganisms have attracted much interest. Airborne algae have been reported as early as 19th century and they can be found in the air of tropic and warm atmospheres. Airborne algae normally originate from water surfaces, soil, trees, buildings and rock surfaces. It is estimated that at least 2880 algal cells are inhaled per day by human. However, there are relatively little data published on airborne algae and its related adverse health effects except sporadic reports of algae associated clinical allergenicity. A collection of airborne algae cultures has been established following a recent survey on the occurrence of airborne algae in indoor and outdoor environments in Kuala Lumpur. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenic potential of the isolated airborne green and blue-green algae, namely Scenedesmus sp., Cylindrospermum sp. and Hapalosiphon sp.. The suspensions of freeze-dried airborne algae were adminstered into balb-c mice model through intra-nasal route to determine their allergenic potential. Results showed that Scenedesmus sp. (1 mg/mL) increased the systemic Ig E levels in mice by 3-8 fold compared to pre-treatment. On the other hand, Cylindrospermum sp. and Hapalosiphon sp. at similar concentration caused the Ig E to increase by 2-4 fold. The potential of airborne algae causing Ig E mediated type 1 hypersensitivity was elucidated using other immunological markers such as cytokine interleukin (IL)- 4, 5, 6 and interferon-ɣ. When we compared the amount of interleukins in mouse serum between day 0 and day 53 (day of sacrifice), Hapalosiphon sp. (1mg/mL) increased the expression of IL4 and 6 by 8 fold while the Cylindrospermum sp. (1mg/mL) increased the expression of IL4 and IFɣ by 8 and 2 fold respectively. In conclusion, repeated exposure to the three selected airborne algae may stimulate the immune response and generate Ig E in a mouse model.

Keywords: airborne algae, respiratory, allergenic, immune response, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
147 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul


Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: extraction, membrane process, microalgae, natural compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
146 Monitoring Spatial Distribution of Blue-Green Algae Blooms with Underwater Drones

Authors: R. L. P. De Lima, F. C. B. Boogaard, R. E. De Graaf-Van Dinther


Blue-green algae blooms (cyanobacteria) is currently a relevant ecological problem that is being addressed by most water authorities in the Netherlands. These can affect recreation areas by originating unpleasant smells and toxins that can poison humans and animals (e.g. fish, ducks, dogs). Contamination events usually take place during summer months, and their frequency is increasing with climate change. Traditional monitoring of this bacteria is expensive, labor-intensive and provides only limited (point sampling) information about the spatial distribution of algae concentrations. Recently, a novel handheld sensor allowed water authorities to quicken their algae surveying and alarm systems. This study converted the mentioned algae sensor into a mobile platform, by combining it with an underwater remotely operated vehicle (also equipped with other sensors and cameras). This provides a spatial visualization (mapping) of algae concentrations variations within the area covered with the drone, and also in depth. Measurements took place in different locations in the Netherlands: i) lake with thick silt layers at the bottom, very eutrophic former bottom of the sea and frequent / intense mowing regime; ii) outlet of waste water into large reservoir; iii) urban canal system. Results allowed to identify probable dominant causes of blooms (i), provide recommendations for the placement of an outlet, day-night differences in algae behavior (ii), or the highlight / pinpoint higher algae concentration areas (iii). Although further research is still needed to fully characterize these processes and to optimize the measuring tool (underwater drone developments / improvements), the method here presented can already provide valuable information about algae behavior and spatial / temporal variability and shows potential as an efficient monitoring system.

Keywords: blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, underwater drones / ROV / AUV, water quality monitoring

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145 Modeling and Optimization of Algae Oil Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: I. F. Ejim, F. L. Kamen


Aims: In this experiment, algae oil extraction with a combination of n-hexane and ethanol was investigated. The effects of extraction solvent concentration, extraction time and temperature on the yield and quality of oil were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental Design: Optimization of algae oil extraction using Box-Behnken design was used to generate 17 experimental runs in a three-factor-three-level design where oil yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value were evaluated as the response. Result: In this result, a minimum oil yield of 17% and maximum of 44% was realized. The optimum values for yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value from the overlay plot were 40.79%, 0.8788, 0.5056 mg KOH/g and 180.78 mg KOH/g respectively with desirability of 0.801. The maximum point prediction was yield 40.79% at solvent concentration 66.68 n-hexane, temperature of 40.0°C and extraction time of 4 hrs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that the linear and quadratic coefficient were all significant at p<0.05. The experiment was validated and results obtained were with the predicted values. Conclusion: Algae oil extraction was successfully optimized using RSM and its quality indicated it is suitable for many industrial uses.

Keywords: algae oil, response surface methodology, optimization, Box-Bohnken, extraction

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144 Mass Production of Endemic Diatoms in Polk County, Florida Concomitant with Biofuel Extraction

Authors: Melba D. Horton


Algae are identified as an alternative source of biofuel because of their ubiquitous distribution in aquatic environments. Diatoms are unique forms of algae characterized by silicified cell walls which have gained prominence in various technological applications. Polk County is home to a multitude of ponds and lakes but has not been explored for the presence of diatoms. Considering the condition of the waters brought about by predominant phosphate mining activities in the area, this research was conducted to determine if endemic diatoms are present and explore their potential for low-cost mass production. Using custom-built photobioreactors, water samples from various lakes provided by the Polk County Parks and Recreation and from nearby ponds were used as the source of diatoms together with other algae obtained during collection. Results of the initial culture cycles were successful, but later an overgrowth of other algae crashed the diatom population. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to tease out some factors possibly contributing to the die-off. Generally, the total biomass declines after two culture cycles and the causative factors need further investigation. The lipid yield is minimum; however, the high frustule production after die-off adds value to the overall benefit of the harvest.

Keywords: diatoms, algae, biofuel, lipid, photobioreactor, frustule

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143 Efficiency of an Algae-Zinc Complex Compared to Inorganic Zinc Sulfate on Broilers Performance

Authors: R. Boulmane, C. Alleno, D. Marzin


Trace minerals play an essential role in vital processes and are essential to many biological and physiological functions of the animal. They are usually incorporated in the form of inorganic salts such as sulfates and oxides. Most of these inorganic salts are excreted undigested by the animal causing economic losses as well as environmental pollution. In this context, the use of alternative organic trace minerals with higher bioavailability is emerging. This study was set up to evaluate the effect of using an algae-zinc complex in replacement of zinc sulfate in the feed, on growth performance of broiler chickens. One-thousand-two-hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly distributed to 30 pens, allocated to 1 of 3 groups receiving different diets: the standard diet containing 35ppm of inorganic zinc sulfate (C+), a test diet containing 35ppm of algae-based zinc (T+), and a test diet containing half dose (16ppm) of algae-based zinc (T-). Three different feeds were distributed from D0-D11, D11-D21 and D21-D35. Individual weighing of the animals (D21 and D35), feed consumption (D11, D21 and D35) and pododermatitis occurrence (D35) were monitored. Data were submitted to analysis of variance. Results show that in finishing period the ADWG of the T+ and T- groups are significantly higher than the control C+ (+6%, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the FCR for the total period is lower for both the T+ and T- groups than the control C+ (-1.2%, P = 0.04). Pododermatitis scoring also shows less lesions for the test groups with algae-based zinc compared to the control group receiving inorganic one. In the end, this study shows a positive effect of the algae zinc-complex on growth performance of broilers compared to inorganic zinc, both when using full dose (35 ppm) or half dose (16 ppm). The use of algae-zinc complex in the premix shows to be a good alternative to reduce zinc excretion while maintaining performance.

Keywords: algae-zinc complex, broiler performance, organic trace minerals, zinc sulfate

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142 The Potential of Edaphic Algae for Bioremediation of the Diesel-Contaminated Soil

Authors: C. J. Tien, C. S. Chen, S. F. Huang, Z. X. Wang


Algae in soil ecosystems can produce organic matters and oxygen by photosynthesis. Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen to increase soil nitrogen contents. Secretion of mucilage by some algae increases the soil water content and soil aggregation. These actions will improve soil quality and fertility, and further increase abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. In addition, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic algae are able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of algal addition on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), diversity and activity of bacteria and algae in the diesel-contaminated soil under different nutrient contents and frequency of plowing and irrigation in order to assess the potential bioremediation technique using edaphic algae. The known amount of diesel was added into the farmland soil. This diesel-contaminated soil was subject to five settings, experiment-1 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-2 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, experiment-3 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-4 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, and the control without algal addition. Soil samples were taken every two weeks to analyze TPH concentrations, diversity of bacteria and algae, and catabolic genes encoding functional degrading enzymes. The results show that the TPH removal rates of five settings after the two-month experimental period were in the order: experiment-2 > expermient-4 > experiment-3 > experiment-1 > control. It indicated that algal addition enhanced the degradation of TPH in the diesel-contaminated soil, but not for nutrient addition. Plowing and irrigation every four weeks resulted in more TPH removal than that every two weeks. The banding patterns of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed an increase in diversity of bacteria and algae after algal addition. Three petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading algae (Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nostoc sp.) and two added algal strains (Leptolyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp.) were sequenced from DGGE prominent bands. The four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria Gordonia sp., Mycobacterium sp., Rodococcus sp. and Alcanivorax sp. were abundant in the treated soils. These results suggested that growth of indigenous bacteria and algae were improved after adding edaphic algae. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that relative amounts of four catabolic genes encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, toluene monooxygenase, xylene monooxygenase and phenol monooxygenase were appeared and expressed in the treated soil. The addition of algae increased the expression of these genes at the end of experiments to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. This study demonstrated that edaphic algae were suitable biomaterials for bioremediating diesel-contaminated soils with plowing and irrigation every four weeks.

Keywords: catabolic gene, diesel, diversity, edaphic algae

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141 Algae Growth and Biofilm Control by Ultrasonic Technology

Authors: Vojtech Stejskal, Hana Skalova, Petr Kvapil, George Hutchinson


Algae growth has been an important issue in water management of water plants, ponds and lakes, swimming pools, aquaculture & fish farms, gardens or golf courses for last decades. There are solutions based on chemical or biological principles. Apart of these traditional principles for inhibition of algae growth and biofilm production there are also physical methods which are very competitive compared to the traditional ones. Ultrasonic technology is one of these alternatives. Ultrasonic emitter is able to eliminate the biofilm which behaves as a host and attachment point for algae and is original reason for the algae growth. The ultrasound waves prevent majority of the bacteria in planktonic form becoming strongly attached sessile bacteria that creates welcoming layer for the biofilm production. Biofilm creation is very fast – in the serene water it takes between 30 minutes to 4 hours, depending on temperature and other parameters. Ultrasound device is not killing bacteria. Ultrasound waves are passing through bacteria, which retract as if they were in very turbulent water even though the water is visually completely serene. In these conditions, bacteria does not excrete the polysaccharide glue they use to attach to the surface of the pool or pond, where ultrasonic technology is used. Ultrasonic waves decrease the production of biofilm on the surfaces in the selected area. In case there are already at the start of the application of ultrasonic technology in a pond or basin clean inner surfaces, the biofilm production is almost absolutely inhibited. This paper talks about two different pilot applications – one in Czech Republic and second in United States of America, where the used ultrasonic technology (AlgaeControl) is coming from. On both sites, there was used Mezzo Ultrasonic Algae Control System with very positive results not only on biofilm production, but also algae growth in the surrounding area. Technology has been successfully tested in two different environments. The poster describes the differences and their influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic technology application. Conclusions and lessons learned can be possibly applied also on other sites within Europe or even further.

Keywords: algae growth, biofilm production, ultrasonic solution, ultrasound

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140 Alternative Biocides to Reduce Algal Fouling in Seawater Industrial Cooling Towers

Authors: Mohammed Al-Bloushi, Sanghyun Jeong, Torove Leiknes


Biofouling in the open recirculating cooling water systems may cause biological corrosion, which can reduce the performance, increase the energy consummation and lower heat exchange efficiencies of the cooling tower. Seawater cooling towers are prone to biofouling due to the presences of organic and inorganic compounds in the seawater. The availability of organic and inorganic nutrients, along with sunlight and continuous aeration of the cooling tower contributes to an environment that is ideal for microbial growth. Various microorganisms (algae, fungi, and bacteria) can grow in a cooling tower system under certain environmental conditions. The most commonly being used method to control the biofouling in the cooling tower is the addition of biocides such as chlorination. In this study, algae containing diatom and green algae were added to the cooling tower basin, and its viability was monitored in the recirculating cooling seawater loop as well as in the cooling tower basin. Continuous addition of biocides was employed in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers, and it was operated continuously for 2 months. Three different types of oxidizing biocides, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone, were tested. The results showed that all biocides were effective in keeping the biological growth to the minimum regardless of algal addition. Amongst the biocides, ozone could reduce 99% of total live cells of bacteria and algae, followed by chlorine dioxide at 97%, while the conventional chlorine showed only 89% reduction in the bioactivities.

Keywords: algae, biocide, biofouling, seawater cooling tower

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139 Impact of Nitrogenous Wastewater and Seawater Acidification on Algae

Authors: Pei Luen Jiang


Oysters (Ostreidae) and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria) are important shallow sea-cultured shellfish in Taiwan, and are mainly farmed in Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan. As these shellfish are fed primarily on natural plankton, the artificial feed is not required, leading to high economic value in aquatic farming. However, in recent years, though mariculture production areas have expanded steadily, large-scale deaths of farmed shellfish have also become increasingly common due to climate change and human factors. Through studies over the past few years, our research team has determined the impact of nitrogen deprivation on growth and morphological variations in algae and sea anemones (Actiniaria) and identified the target genes affected by adverse environmental factors. In mariculture, high-density farming is commonly adopted, which results in elevated concentrations of nitrogenous waste in the water. In addition, excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also dissolves in seawater, causing a steady decrease in the pH of seawater, leading to acidification. This study to observe the impact of high concentrations of nitrogen sources and carbon dioxide on algae.

Keywords: algae, shellfish, nitrogen, acidification

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138 The Reef as Multiple: Coral Reefs between Exploitation and Protection along the Mexican Riviera Maya

Authors: Laura Otto


Sargasso algae currently threatens both livelihoods and marine eco systems along the Riviera Maya in Mexico. While the area was previously known for its white beaches, pristine waters, and intact, colorful reefs, the algae has turned the beaches into ‘stinky stretches of sand,’ made the water brown, and has led to reef degradation causing coral colonies to die off in vast amounts. Drawing on ethnographic research in the area, this paper shows how the reef was exploited for tourism before the Sargasso algae landed, and reef protection played a minor role among hoteliers, tourists, and tour operators. However, since Sargasso began arriving in large quantities, the reef has taken on new significance. Both natural science research and the everyday handling of Sargasso along the coast show that an intact reef provides a natural barrier for the algae and keeps them from reaching the beaches. Clean beaches are important to various local actors–among them, hotel operators, tourists, environmentalists – and against the backdrop of beach commodification, reefs are now taking on new meaning. The paper consequently discusses the commodification of beaches as more-than-human entanglements and illuminates which new human-environment relationships are currently emerging in the Anthropocene.

Keywords: anthropocene, human-environment-relations, fieldwork, mexico

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
137 Toxin-Producing Algae of Nigerian Coast, Gulf of Guinea

Authors: Medina O. Kadiri, Jeffrey U. Ogbebor


Toxin-producing algae are algal species that produce potent toxins, which accumulate in food chains and cause various gastrointestinal and neurological illnesses in humans and other animals. They result in shellfish toxicity, ecosystem alteration, cause fish kills and mortality of other animals and humans, in addition to compromised product quality as well as decreased consumer confidence. Animals, including man, are directly exposed to toxins by absorbing toxins from the water via swimming, drinking water with toxins, or ingestion of algal species via feeding on contaminated seafood. These toxins, algal toxins, undergo bioaccumulation, biotransformation, biotransferrence, and biomagnification through the natural food chains and food webs, thereby endangering animals and humans. The Nigerian coast is situated on the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Guinea, one of Africa’s five large marine ecosystems (LME), and studies on toxic algae in this ecosystem are generally lacking. Algal samples were collected from eight coastal states and ten locations spanning the Bight of Bonny and the Bight of Benin. A total of 70 species of toxin-producing algae were found in the coastal waters of Nigeria. There was a great variety of toxin-producing algae in the coastal waters of Nigeria. They were Domoic acid-producing forms (DSP), Saxitoxin-producing, Gonyautoxin-producing, and Yessotoxin-producing (all PSP). Others were Okadaic acid-producing, Dinophysistoxin-producing, and Palytoxin-producing, which are representatives of DSP; CFP was represented by Ciguatoxin-producing forms and NSP by Brevitoxin-producing species. Emerging or new toxins are comprising of Gymnodimines, Spirolides, Palytoxins, and Prorocentrolidess-producing algae. The CyanoToxin Poisoning (CTP) was represented by Anatoxin-, Microcystin-, Cylindrospermopsis-Lyngbyatoxin-, Nordularin-Applyssiatoxin and Debromoapplatoxin-producing species. The highest group was the Saxitoxin-producing species, followed by Microcystin-producing species, then Anatoxin-producing species. Gonyautoxin (PSP), Palytoxin (DSP), Emerging toxins, and Cylindrospermopsin -producing species had a very substantial representation. Only Ciguatoxin-producing species, Lyngbyatoxin-Nordularin, Applyssiatoxin, and Debromoapplatoxin-producing species were represented by one taxon each. The presence of such overwhelming diversity of toxin-producing algae on the Nigerian coast is a source of concern for fisheries, aquaculture, human health, and ecosystem services. Therefore routine monitoring of toxic and harmful algae is greatly recommended.

Keywords: algal syndromes, Atlantic Ocean, harmful algae, Nigeria

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136 Algae Biomass as Alternatives to Wood Pulp in Handmade Paper Technology

Authors: Piyali Mukherjee, Jai Prakash Keshri


Anticipated shortages of raw materials for paper industry have forged the entry of algae as alternatives to wood pulp. Five algal species: Pithophora sp., Lyngbya sp., Hydrodictyon sp., Cladophora sp. and Rhizoclonium sp. were collected from different parts of Burdwan town, West Bengal, India. Their biomass compositional values were determined with respect to eucalyptus wood pulp. Paper characteristics were studied in terms of breaking length, tensile strength, CI index, pH, brightness, recyclability, and durability. Hydrodictyon sp., besides Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. were established as the most suitable candidates for paper pulp formulation in terms of high cellulose, hemicelluloses contents and low lignin and silica contents. Paper from pure Hydrodictyon sp. pulp was found to have statistically significant (p < 0.05) improved breaking-length and tensile strength properties compared to that obtained from Lyngbya sp.

Keywords: algae, biomass, paper, pulp, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
135 Bioethanol Production from Marine Algae Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum Swartzii: Saccharification and Process Optimization

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian, A. George, B.S. Ashik, S. S. Kumar


Bioethanol is a sustainable biofuel that can be used alternative to fossil fuels. Today, third generation (3G) biofuel is gaining more attention than first and second-generation biofuel. The more lignin content in the lignocellulosic biomass is the major drawback of second generation biofuels. Algae are the renewable feedstock used in the third generation biofuel production. Algae contain a large number of carbohydrates, therefore it can be used for the fermentation by hydrolysis process. There are two groups of Algae, such as micro and macroalgae. In the present investigation, Macroalgae was chosen as raw material for the production of bioethanol. Two marine algae viz. Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii were used for the experimental studies. The algal biomass was characterized using various analytical techniques like Elemental Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to understand the physio-Chemical characteristics. The batch experiment was done to study the hydrolysis and operation parameters such as pH, agitation, fermentation time, inoculum size. The saccharification was done with acid and alkali treatment. The experimental results showed that NaOH treatment was shown to enhance the bioethanol. From the hydrolysis study, it was found that 0.5 M Alkali treatment would serve as optimum concentration for the saccharification of polysaccharide sugar to monomeric sugar. The maximum yield of bioethanol was attained at a fermentation time of 9 days. The inoculum volume of 1mL was found to be lowest for the ethanol fermentation. The agitation studies show that the fermentation was higher during the process. The percentage yield of bioethanol was found to be 22.752% and 14.23 %. The elemental analysis showed that S. swartzii contains a higher carbon source. The results confirmed hydrolysis was not completed to recover the sugar from biomass. The specific gravity of ethanol was found to 0.8047 and 0.808 for Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii, respectively. The purity of bioethanol also studied and found to be 92.55 %. Therefore, marine algae can be used as a most promising renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

Keywords: algae, biomass, bioethaol, biofuel, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
134 Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Red Algae Waste and Its Application in Polymer Composite Development

Authors: Z. Kassab, A. Aboulkas, A. Barakat, M. El Achaby


The red algae are available enormously around the world and their exploitation for the production of agar product has become as an important industry in recent years. However, this industrial processing of red algae generated a large quantity of solid fibrous wastes, which constitute a source of a serious environmental problem. For this reason, the exploitation of this solid waste would help to i) produce new value-added materials and ii) to improve waste disposal from environment. In fact, this solid waste can be fully utilized for the production of cellulose microfibers and nanocrystals because it consists of large amount of cellulose component. For this purpose, the red algae waste was chemically treated via alkali, bleaching and acid hydrolysis treatments with controlled conditions, in order to obtain pure cellulose microfibers and cellulose nanocrystals. The raw product and the as-extracted cellulosic materials were successively characterized using serval analysis techniques, including elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. As an application, the as extracted cellulose nanocrystals were used as nanofillers for the production of polymer-based composite films with improved thermal and tensile properties. In these composite materials, the adhesion properties and the large number of functional groups that are presented in the CNC’s surface and the macromolecular chains of the polymer matrix are exploited to improve the interfacial interactions between the both phases, improving the final properties. Consequently, the high performances of these composite materials can be expected to have potential in packaging material applications.

Keywords: cellulose nanowhiskers, food packaging, polymer composites, red algae waste

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133 The Role of Phycoremediation in the Sustainable Management of Aquatic Pollution

Authors: Raymond Ezenweani, Jeffrey Ogbebor


The menace of aquatic pollution has become increasingly of great concern and the effects of this pollution as a result of anthropogenic activities cannot be over emphasized. Phycoremediation is the application of algal remediation technology in the removal of harmful products from the environment. Harmful products also known as pollutants are usually introduced into the environment through variety of processes such as industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, flooding, and acid rain. This work has to do with the capability of algae in the efficient removal of different pollutants, ranging from hydrocarbons, eutrophication, agricultural chemicals and wastes, heavy metals, foul smell from septic tanks or dumps through different processes such as bioconversion, biosorption, bioabsorption and biodecomposition. Algae are capable of bioconversion of environmentally persistent compounds to degradable compounds and also capable of putting harmful bacteria growth into check in waste water remediation. Numerous algal organisms such as Nannochloropsis spp, Chlorella spp, Tetraselmis spp, Shpaerocystics spp, cyanobacteria and different macroalgae have been tested by different researchers in laboratory scale and shown to have 100% efficiency in environmental remediation. Algae as a result of their photosynthetic capacity are also efficient in air cleansing and management of global warming by sequestering carbon iv oxide in air and converting it into organic carbon, thereby making food available for the other organisms in the higher trophic level of the aquatic food chain. Algae play major role in the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem by their virtue of being photosynthetic. They are the primary producers and their role in environmental sustainability is remarkable.

Keywords: Algae , Pollutant, ., Phycoremediation, Aquatic, Sustainability

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132 Effect of Brown Algae, Ecklonia arborea and Silvetia compressa, in Lipidemic and Hepatic Metabolism in Wistar Rats

Authors: Laura Acevedo-Pacheco, Janet Alejandra Gutierrez-Uribe, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz-Suarez, Segio Othon Serna-Saldivar


Seaweeds can generate changes in the metabolism of lipids; as a consequence, this may diminish cholesterol and other lipids in the blood. However, the consumption of marine algae may also alter the functions of other organs. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of two different sorts of algae (Ecklonia arborea and Silvetia compressa) in the metabolism of lipids, as well as, in the physiology of the liver. Wistar male rats were fed for two months with independent diets composed of 20% of fat and 2.5% of E. arborea and S. compressa each. Blood parameters (cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides, hepatic enzymes) and triglycerides in the liver were quantified, and also hepatic histology analyses were performed. While S. compressa reduced 18% total cholesterol compared to the positive control, E. arborea increased it 5.8%. Animals fed with S. compressa presented a decrement, compared to the positive control, not only in low density lipoproteins levels (53%) but also in triglycerides (67%). The presence of steatosis in the histologies and the high levels of triglycerides showed an evident lipid accumulation in hepatic tissues of rats fed with both algae. These results indicate that even though S. compressa showed a promising resource to decrease total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in blood, a detrimental effect was observed in liver physiology. Further investigations should be made to find out if toxic compounds associated with these seaweeds may cause liver damage especially in terms of heavy metals.

Keywords: brown algae, Eisenia arborea, hepatic metabolism, lipidemic metabolism, Pelvetia compressa, steatosis

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131 Estimating Algae Concentration Based on Deep Learning from Satellite Observation in Korea

Authors: Heewon Jeong, Seongpyo Kim, Joon Ha Kim


Over the last few tens of years, the coastal regions of Korea have experienced red tide algal blooms, which are harmful and toxic to both humans and marine organisms due to their potential threat. It was accelerated owing to eutrophication by human activities, certain oceanic processes, and climate change. Previous studies have tried to monitoring and predicting the algae concentration of the ocean with the bio-optical algorithms applied to color images of the satellite. However, the accurate estimation of algal blooms remains problems to challenges because of the complexity of coastal waters. Therefore, this study suggests a new method to identify the concentration of red tide algal bloom from images of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) which are representing the water environment of the sea in Korea. The method employed GOCI images, which took the water leaving radiances centered at 443nm, 490nm and 660nm respectively, as well as observed weather data (i.e., humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure) for the database to apply optical characteristics of algae and train deep learning algorithm. Convolution neural network (CNN) was used to extract the significant features from the images. And then artificial neural network (ANN) was used to estimate the concentration of algae from the extracted features. For training of the deep learning model, backpropagation learning strategy is developed. The established methods were tested and compared with the performances of GOCI data processing system (GDPS), which is based on standard image processing algorithms and optical algorithms. The model had better performance to estimate algae concentration than the GDPS which is impossible to estimate greater than 5mg/m³. Thus, deep learning model trained successfully to assess algae concentration in spite of the complexity of water environment. Furthermore, the results of this system and methodology can be used to improve the performances of remote sensing. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.

Keywords: deep learning, algae concentration, remote sensing, satellite

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130 Technology for Biogas Upgrading with Immobilized Algae Biomass

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Miroslaw Krzemieniewski, Agata Glowacka-Gil, Paulina Rusanowska, Magdalena Zielinska, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska


Technologies of biogas upgrading are now perceived as competitive solution combustion and production of electricity and heat. Biomethane production will ensure broader application as energy carrier than biogas. Biomethane can be used as fuel in internal combustion engines or introduced into the natural gas transmission network. Therefore, there is a need to search for innovative, economically and technically justified methods for biogas enrichment. The aim of this paper is to present a technology solution for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass. Reactor for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass can be used for removing CO₂ from the biogas, flue gases and the waste gases especially coming from different industry sectors, e.g. from the food industry from yeast production process, biogas production systems, liquid and gaseous fuels combustion systems, hydrocarbon processing technology. The basis for the technological assumptions of presented technology were laboratory works and analyses that tested technological variants of biogas upgrading. The enrichment of biogas with a methane content of 90-97% pointed to technological assumptions for installation on a technical scale. Reactor for biogas upgrading with algae biomass is characterized by a significantly lower cubature in relation to the currently used solutions which use CO₂ removal processes. The invention, by its structure, assumes achieving a very high concentration of biomass of algae through its immobilization in capsules. This eliminates the phenomenon of lowering the pH value, i.e. acidification of the environment in which algae grow, resulting from the introduction of waste gases at a high CO₂ concentration. The system for introducing light into algae capsules is characterized by a higher degree of its use, due to lower losses resulting from the phenomenon of absorption of light energy by water. The light from the light source is continuously supplied to the formed biomass of algae or cyanobacteria in capsules by the light tubes. The light source may be sunlight or a light generator of a different wavelength of light from 300 nm to 800 nm. A portion of gas containing CO₂, accumulated in the tank and conveyed by the pump is periodically introduced into the housing of the photobioreactor tank. When conveying the gas that contains CO₂, it penetrates the algal biomass in capsules through the outer envelope, displacing, from the algal biomass, gaseous metabolic products which are discharged by the outlet duct for gases. It contributes to eliminating the negative impact of this factor on CO₂ binding processes. As a result of the cyclic dosing of gases containing carbon dioxide, gaseous metabolic products of algae are displaced and removed outside the technological system. Technology for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass is suitable for the small biogas plant. The advantages of this technology are high efficiency as well as useful algae biomass which can be used mainly as animal feed, fertilizers and in the power industry. The construction of the device allows effective removal of carbon dioxide from gases at a high CO₂ concentration.

Keywords: biogas, carbon dioxide, immobilised biomass, microalgae, upgrading

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129 Growth Rates of Planktonic Organisms in “Yerevanyan Lich” Reservoir and the Hrazdan River in Yerevan City, Armenia

Authors: G. A. Gevorgyan, A. S. Mamyan, L. G. Stepanyan, L. R. Hambaryan


Bacterio- and phytoplankton growth rates in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir and the Hrazdan river in Yerevan city, Armenia were investigated in April and June-August, 2015. Phytoplankton sampling and analysis were performed by the standard methods accepted in hydrobiological studies. The quantitative analysis of aerobic, coliform and E. coli bacteria is done by the 'RIDA COUNT' medium sheets (coated with ready-to-use culture medium). The investigations showed that the insufficient management of household discharges in Yerevan city caused the organic and fecal pollution of the Hrazdan river in this area which in turn resulted in an increase in bacterial count and increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health. During the investigation in April, the representatives of diatom algae prevailed quantitatively in the coastal area of 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir, nevertheless, a significant change in the phytoplankton community in June occurred: due to green algae bloom in the reservoir, the quantitative parameters of phytoplankton increased significantly. This was probably conditioned by a seasonal increase in the water temperature in the conditions of the sufficient concentration of nutrients. However, a succession in phytoplankton groups during July-August occurred, and a dominant group (according to quantitative parameters) in the phytoplankton community was changed as follows: green algae-diatom algae-blue-green algae. Rapid increase in the quantitative parameters of diatom and blue-green algae in the reservoir may have been conditioned by increased organic matter level resulted from green algae bloom. Algal bloom in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir caused changes in phytoplankton community and an increase in bacterioplankton count not only in the reservoir but also in the Hrazdan river sites located in the downstream from the reservoir. Thus, the insufficient management of urban discharges and aquatic ecosystems in Yerevan city led to unfavorable changes in water quality and microbial and phytoplankton communities in “Yerevanyan lich” reservoir and the Hrazdan river which in turn caused increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health.

Keywords: algal bloom, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, Hrazdan river, Yerevanyan lich reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
128 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy


Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
127 Assessment of Biotic and Abiotic Water Factors of Antiao and Jiabong Rivers for Benthic Algae

Authors: Geno Paul S. Cumla, Jan Mariel M. Gentiles, M. Brenda Gajelan-Samson


Eutrophication is a process where in there is a surplus of nutrients present in a lake or river. Harmful cyanobacteria, hypoxia, and primarily algae, which contain toxins, grow because of the excess nutrients. Algal blooms can cause fish kills, limiting the light penetration which reduces growth of aquatic organisms, causing die-offs of plants and produce conditions that are dangerous to aquatic and human life. The main cause for eutrophication is the presence of excessive amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Nitrogen is necessary for the production of the plant tissues and is usually used to synthesize proteins. Nitrate is a compound that contains nitrogen, and at elevated levels it can cause harmful effects. Excessive amounts of phosphorus, displaced through human activity, is the major cause of algae growth and as well as degraded water quality. To accomplish this study the Assessment of Soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), Assessment of Soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), Determination of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration, and Determination of Dominating Taxa were done. The study addresses the high probability of algal blooms in Maqueda Bay by assessing the biotic and abiotic factors of Antiao and Jiabong rivers. The data predicts the overgrowth of algae and to create awareness to prevent the event from taking place. The study assesses the adverse effects that could be prevented by understanding and controlling algae. This should predict future cases of algal blooms and allow government agencies which require data to create programs to prevent and assess these issues.

Keywords: eutrophication, chlorophyll a, nitrogen, phosphorus, red tide, Kjeldahl method, spectrophotometer, assessment of soluble inorganic nitrogen, SIN, assessment of soluble reactive phosphate, SRP

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126 Growth Performance Of fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella sp. Exposed to Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Titin Handayani, Adi Mulyanto, Fajar Eko Priyanto


It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO₂ emissions. Based on light and CO₂, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient feeding of CO₂, especially on a large scale, is one of them. Current methods for CO₂ feeding to algae cultures rely on the sparging pure CO₂ or directly from flue gas. The limiting factor in this system is the solubility of CO₂ in water, which demands a considerable amount of energy for an effective gas to liquid transfer and leads to losses to the atmosphere. Due to the current ineffective methods for CO₂ introduction into algae ponds very large surface areas would be required for enough ponds to capture a considerable amount of the CO₂. The purpose of this study is to assess technology to capture carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions generated by industry by utilizing of microalgae Chlorella sp. The microalgae were cultivated in a bioreactor culture pond raceway type. The result is expected to be useful in mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases in reducing the CO₂ emissions. The research activities include: (1) Characterization of boiler flue gas, (2) Operation of culture pond, (3) Sampling and sample analysis. The results of this study showed that the initial assessment absorption of the flue gas by microalgae using 1000 L raceway pond completed by heat exchanger were quite promising. The transfer of CO₂ into the pond culture system was run well. This identified from the success of cooling the boiler flue gas from the temperature of about 200 °C to below ambient temperature. Except for the temperature, the gas bubbles into the culture media were quite fine. Therefore, the contact between the gas and the media was well performed. The efficiency of CO₂ absorption by Chlorella sp reached 6.68 % with an average CO₂ loading of 0.29 g/L/day.

Keywords: Chlorella sp., CO2 emission, heat exchange, microalgae, milk industry, raceway pond

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125 Treatment of a Galvanization Wastewater in a Fixed-Bed Column Using L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata Macroalgae as Natural Cation Exchangers

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Maria A. P. Cechinel, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar.


Two brown macroalgae, Laminaria hyperborea and Pelvetia canaliculata, were employed as natural cation exchangers in a fixed-bed column for Zn(II) removal from a galvanization wastewater. The column (4.8 cm internal diameter) was packed with 30-59 g of previously hydrated algae up to a bed height of 17-27 cm. The wastewater or eluent was percolated using a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The effluent used in each experiment presented similar characteristics: pH of 6.7, 55 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand and about 300, 44, 186 and 244 mg/L of sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions, respectively. The main difference was nitrate concentration: 20 mg/L for the effluent used with L. hyperborean and 341 mg/L for the effluent used with P. canaliculata. The inlet zinc concentration also differed slightly: 11.2 mg/L for L. hyperborean and 8.9 mg/L for P. canaliculata experiments. The breakthrough time was approximately 22.5 hours for both macroalgae, corresponding to a service capacity of 43 bed volumes. This indicates that 30 g of biomass is able to treat 13.5 L of the galvanization wastewater. The uptake capacities at the saturation point were similar to that obtained in batch studies (unpublished data) for both algae. After column exhaustion, desorption with 0.1 M HNO3 was performed. Desorption using 9 and 8 bed volumes of eluent achieved an efficiency of 100 and 91%, respectively for L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata. After elution with nitric acid, the column was regenerated using different strategies: i) convert all the binding sites in the sodium form, by passing a solution of 0.5 M NaCl, until achieve a final pH of 6.0; ii) passing only tap water in order to increase the solution pH inside the column until pH 3.0, and in this case the second sorption cycle was performed using protonated algae. In the first approach, in order to remove the excess of salt inside the column, distilled water was passed through the column, leading to the algae structure destruction and the column collapsed. Using the second approach, the algae remained intact during three consecutive sorption/desorption cycles without loss of performance.

Keywords: biosorption, zinc, galvanization wastewater, packed-bed column

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124 Wet Extraction of Lutein and Lipids from Microalga by Quantitative Determination of Polarity

Authors: Mengyue Gong, Xinyi Li, Amarjeet Bassi


Harvesting by-products while recovering biodiesel is considered a potentially valuable approach to increase the market feasibility of microalgae industry. Lutein is a possible by-product from microalgae that promotes eye health. The extraction efficiency and the expensive drying process of wet algae represent the major challenges for the utilization of microalgae biomass as a feedstock for lipids, proteins, and carotenoids. A wet extraction method was developed to extract lipids and lutein from microalga Chlorella vulgaris. To evaluate different solvent (mixtures) for the extraction, a quantitative analysis was established based on the polarity of solvents using Nile Red as the polarity (ETN) indicator. By the choice of binary solvent system then adding proper amount of water to achieve phase separation, lipids and lutein can be extracted simultaneously. Some other parameters for lipids and lutein production were also studied including saponification time, temperature, choice of alkali, and pre-treatment methods. The extraction efficiency with wet algae was compared with dried algae and shown better pigment recovery. The results indicated that the product pattern in each extracted phase was polarity dependent. Lutein and β-carotene were the main carotenoids extracted with ethanol while lipids come out with hexane.

Keywords: biodiesel, Chlorella vulgaris, extraction, lutein

Procedia PDF Downloads 247