Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Neavty Thakur

48 Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty of Gırardınıa Heterophılla

Authors: P. S. BEDI* , Neavty Thakur, Balvınder Sıngh


In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3, NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria eg. Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria eg. E. coli, K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant posseses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, Antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
47 Ways of Innovative Sustainable Agriculture in India

Authors: Shailja Thakur


In this paper it is shown that how farmers are suffering from all sides including vagaries of weather then price fluctuations, demand supply constraints, poor soil health etc. Also the ICT can prove to be of great help if incorporated rightly into Indian agriculture. Some innovative ways to reward farmers and distribution of subsidies to them can improve the current scenario.

Keywords: cost of farming, information and communication technology, innovative steps, roof gardening, vermicomposting

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
46 Some New Hesitant Fuzzy Sets Operator

Authors: G. S. Thakur


In this paper, four new operators (O1, O2, O3, O4) are proposed, defined and considered to study the new properties and identities on hesitant fuzzy sets. These operators are useful for different operation on hesitant fuzzy sets. The various theorems are proved using the new operators. The study of the proposed new operators has opened a new area of research and applications.

Keywords: vague sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy set, fuzzy sets, fuzzy multisets

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
45 Adsorbed Probe Molecules on Surface for Analyzing the Properties of Cu/SnO2 Supported Catalysts

Authors: Neha Thakur, Pravin S. More


The interaction of CO, H2 and LPG with Cu-dosed SnO2 catalysts was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With increasing Cu loading, pronounced and progressive red shifts of the C–O stretching frequency associated with molecular CO adsorbed on the Cu/SnO2 component were observed. This decrease in n(CO) correlates with enhancement of CO dissociation at higher temperatures on Cu promoted SnO2 catalysts under conditions, where clean Cu is almost ineffective. In the conclusion, the capability of our technique is discussed, and a technique for enhancing the sensitivity in our technique is proposed.

Keywords: FTIR, spectroscopic, dissociation, n(CO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
44 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar


Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch.

Keywords: clutch, magnetorheological fluid, sedimentation, torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
43 Practices in Planning, Design and Construction of Head Race Tunnel of a Hydroelectric Project

Authors: M. S. Thakur, Mohit Shukla


A channel/tunnel, which carries the water to the penstock/pressure shaft is called headrace tunnel (HRT). It is necessary to know the general topography, geology of the area, state of stress and other mechanical properties of the strata. For this certain topographical and geological investigations, in-situ and laboratory tests, and observations are required to be done. These investigations play an important role in a tunnel design as these help in deciding the optimum layout, shape and size and support requirements of the tunnel. The paper includes inputs from Nathpa Jhakri Hydeoelectric project which is India’s highest capacity (1500 MW) operating hydroelectric project. The paper would help the design engineers with various new concepts and preparedness against geological surprises.

Keywords: tunnelling, geology, HRT, rockmass

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
42 Thermohydraulic Performance Comparison of Artificially Roughened Rectangular Channels

Authors: Narender Singh Thakur, Sunil Chamoli


The use of roughness geometry in the rectangular channel duct is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to the working fluid. The present research concentrates on the performance comparison of a rectangular channel with different roughness geometry of the test plate. The performance enhancement is compared by considering the statistical correlations developed by the various investigators for Nusselt number and friction factor. Among all the investigated geometries multiple v-shaped rib roughened rectangular channel found thermo hydraulically better than other investigated geometries under similar current and operating conditions.

Keywords: nusselt number, friction factor, thermohydraulic, performance parameter

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41 Recruitment Model (FSRM) for Faculty Selection Based on Fuzzy Soft

Authors: G. S. Thakur


This paper presents a Fuzzy Soft Recruitment Model (FSRM) for faculty selection of MHRD technical institutions. The selection criteria are based on 4-tier flexible structure in the institutions. The Advisory Committee on Faculty Recruitment (ACoFAR) suggested nine criteria for faculty in the proposed FSRM. The model Fuzzy Soft is proposed with consultation of ACoFAR based on selection criteria. The Fuzzy Soft distance similarity measures are applied for finding best faculty from the applicant pool.

Keywords: fuzzy soft set, fuzzy sets, fuzzy soft distance, fuzzy soft similarity measures, ACoFAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
40 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh


Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

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39 FPGA Based IIR Filter Design Using MAC Algorithm

Authors: Rajesh Mehra, Bharti Thakur


In this paper, an IIR filter has been designed and simulated on an FPGA. The implementation is based on MAC algorithm which uses multiply-and-accumulate operations IIR filter design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the look up table of the FPGA device. The designed filter has been synthesized on DSP slice based FPGA to perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful to enhance the speed performance. The developed IIR filter is designed and simulated with Matlab and synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST), and implemented on Virtex 5 and Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA devices. The IIR filter implemented on Virtex 5 FPGA can operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5 MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA. The Virtex 5 based implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, DSP, IIR, MAC, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
38 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Sveta Thakur, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim


Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: hydrogen, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell, fermentation, palm oil mill effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
37 Herbal Based Fingerprint Powder Formulation for Latent Fingermark Visualization: Catechu (Kattha)

Authors: Pallavi Thakur, Rakesh K. Garg


Latent fingerprints are commonly encountered evidence at the scene of the crime. It is very important to decipher these fingerprints in order to explore their identity and a lot of research has been made on the visualization of latent fingermarks on various substrates by numerous researchers. During the past few years large number of powder formulations has been evolved for the development of latent fingermarks on different surfaces. This paper reports a new and simple fingerprint powder which is non-toxic and has been employed on different substrates successfully for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks upto the time period of twelve days in varying temperature conditions. In this study, a less expensive, simple and easily available catechu (kattha) powder has been used to decipher the latent fingermarks on different substrates namely glass, plastic, metal, aluminium foil, white paper, wall tile and wooden sheet. It is observed that it gives very clear results on all the mentioned substrates and can be successfully used for the development and visualization of twelve days old latent fingermarks in varying temperature conditions on wall tiles.

Keywords: fingermarks, catechu, visualization, aged fingermarks

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
36 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant

Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah


The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
35 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini


Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), and batch extraction time (τ) with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs,, ψ, φ and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively.

Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, extraction, lactic acid, n-trioctylamine, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
34 Statistical Optimization of Distribution Coefficient for Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid Using Tri-n-octyl Amine in Oleyl Alcohol and n-Hexane

Authors: Avinash Thakur, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manohar Singh


The distribution coefficient, KD for the reactive extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solutions of lactic acid using 10-30% (v/v) tri-n-octyl amine (extractant) dissolved in n-hexane (inert diluent) and 20% (v/v) oleyl alcohol (modifier) was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined interactive effect of seven independent variables, viz lactic acid concentration (cl), pH, TOA concentration in organic phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), temperature (T), agitation speed (ω) and batch agitation time (τ) on distribution coefficient of lactic acid. The regression analysis recommended that the quadratic model is significant (R2 and adjusted R2 are 98.72 % and 98.69 % respectively) for analysis. A numerical optimization had resulted in maximum lactic acid distribution coefficient (KD) of 3.16 at the optimized values for test variables, cl, pH, ψ, φ, T, ω and τ as 0.15 [M], 3.0, 22.75% (v/v), 1.0 (v/v), 26°C, 145 rpm and 23 min respectively. A good agreement between the predicted and experimentally obtained values for distribution coefficient using the optimized conditions was exhibited.

Keywords: Distribution coefficient, tri-n-octylamine, lactic acid, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
33 Excitation Dependent Luminescence in Cr³+ Doped MgAl₂O₄ Nanocrystals

Authors: Savita, Pargam Vashishtha, Govind Gupta, Ankush Vij, Anup Thakur


The ligand field dependent visible as well as NIR emission of the Cr³+dopant in spinel hosts has attracted immense attention in tuning the color emitted by the material. In this research, Mg1-xCrxAl₂O₄(x=0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mol%) nanocrystals have been synthesizedby solution combustion method. The synthesized nanocrystals possessed a single phase cubic structure. The strong absorption by host lattice defects (antisite defects, F centres) andd-d transitions of Cr³+ ions lead to radiative emission in the visible and NIR region, respectively. The red-NIR emission in photoluminescence spectra inferred the octahedral symmetry of Cr³+ ions and anticipated the site distortion by the presence ofCr³+ clusters and antisite defects in the vicinity of Cr³+ ions. The thermoluminescence response of UV and γ-irradiated Cr doped MgAl2O4 samples revealed the formation of various shallow and deep defects with doping Cr³+ions. The induced structural cation disorder with an increase in doping concentration caused photoluminescence quenching beyond 3 mol% Cr³+ doping. The color tuning exhibited by Cr doped MgAl₂O₄ nanocrystals by varying Cr³+ ion concentration and excitation wavelength find its applicability in solid state lighting.

Keywords: antisite defects, cation disorder, color tuning, combustion synthesis

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32 Synthesis of Green Silver Nanoparticles with Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Characterization

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ankita Thakur


Glycyrrhiza glabra grows in the sub- tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, in Mediterranean countries and China, America, Europe, Asia and Australia. It grows in areas with sunny, dry and hot climates. It has numerous medicinal properties like it is used to cure Peptic Ulcers, Canker sores, Eczema, Indigestion and Upper Respiratory Infections. Biosynthetic methods such as plant extract have emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nanomaterials. Extract from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in silver nanoparticles synthesis. In the present work, Green Silver nanoparticles were successfully formulated from bioreduction of silver nitrate solutions using Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. These Green Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized using Visible spectroscopy, colour change. The Antimicrobial activity was done by Agar disc diffusion assay. AgNPs were developed by using aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The green synthetic method is a fast, low cost and eco-friendly process in the field of nanotechnology. The study revealed that the green-synthesized silver nanoparticle provides a promising approach for antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
31 Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components

Authors: Jaimala Ghambir, Tilak Thakur, Puneet Chawla


As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code requirements such as grid stability, fault ride through (FRT), power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc. Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in view of different grid disturbances.

Keywords: DFIG, dynamic modeling, DPC, sag, swell, voltage fluctuations, FRT

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
30 A Low Cost Non-Destructive Grain Moisture Embedded System for Food Safety and Quality

Authors: Ritula Thakur, Babankumar S. Bansod, Puneet Mehta, S. Chatterji


Moisture plays an important role in storage, harvesting and processing of food grains and related agricultural products. It is an important characteristic of most agricultural products for maintenance of quality. Accurate knowledge of the moisture content can be of significant value in maintaining quality and preventing contamination of cereal grains. The present work reports the design and development of microcontroller based low cost non-destructive moisture meter, which uses complex impedance measurement method for moisture measurement of wheat using parallel plate capacitor arrangement. Moisture can conveniently be sensed by measuring the complex impedance using a small parallel-plate capacitor sensor filled with the kernels in-between the two plates of sensor, exciting the sensor at 30 KHz and 100 KHz frequencies. The effects of density and temperature variations were compensated by providing suitable compensations in the developed algorithm. The results were compared with standard dry oven technique and the developed method was found to be highly accurate with less than 1% error. The developed moisture meter is low cost, highly accurate, non-destructible method for determining the moisture of grains utilizing the fast computing capabilities of microcontroller.

Keywords: complex impedance, moisture content, electrical properties, safety of food

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
29 Investigation of Flow Characteristics of Trapezoidal Side Weir in Rectangular Channel for Subcritical Flow

Authors: Malkhan Thakur, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit


In recent years, the hydraulic behavior of side weirs has been the subject of many investigations. Most of the studies have been in connection with specific problems and have involved models. This is perhaps understandable, since a generalized treatment is made difficult by the large number of possible variables to be used to define the problem. A variety of empirical head discharge relationships have been suggested for side weirs. These empirical approaches failed to adequately consider the actual situation, and produced equations applicable only in circumstances virtually identical to those of the experiment. The present investigation is targeted to study to a greater depth the effect of different trapezium angles of a trapezoidal side weir and study of water surface profile in spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge maintaining the main channel flow subcritical. On the basis of experiment, the relationship between upstream Froude number and coefficient of discharge has been established. All the characteristics of spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge have been studied and subsequently formulated. The scope of the present investigation has been basically limited to a one-dimensional model of flow for the purpose of analysis. A formulation has been derived using the theoretical concept of constant specific energy. Coefficient of discharge has been calculated and experimental results were presented.

Keywords: weirs, subcritical flow, rectangular channel, trapezoidal side weir

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
28 Impact of a Locally-Prepared Fermented Alcoholic Beverage from Jaggery on the Gut Bacterial Profile of the Tea-Tribal Populations of Assam, India

Authors: Rupamoni Thakur, Madhusmita Dehingia, Narayan C. Talukdar, Mojibur R. Khan


The human gut is an extremely active fermentation site and is inhabited by diverse bacterial species. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been shown to substantially modulate the human gut bacterial profile (GBP) of an individual. Assam, a major north-eastern state of India, is home to a number of tribal populations of which the tea-tribes form a major community. These tea-tribal communities are known to prepare and consume a locally-prepared alcoholic beverage from fermented jaggery, whose chemical composition is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of daily intake of the locally-prepared alcoholic beverage on the GBP of the tea-tribal communities and correlate it with the changes in the biochemical biomarkers of the population. The fecal bacterial diversity of 40 drinkers and 35 non-drinking healthy individuals were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results suggested that the GBP was significantly modulated in the fermented-beverage consuming subjects. Significant difference was also observed in the serum biochemical parameters such as triglyceride, total cholesterol and the liver marker enzymes (ASAT/ALAT and GGT). Further studies to identify the GBP of drinkers vs non-drinkers through Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis and to correlate the changes with the biochemical biomarkers of the population is underway.

Keywords: alcoholic beverage, gut bacterial profile, PCR-DGGE analysis, tea-tribes of India

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
27 Induction of Labor Using Misoprostol with or without Mifepristone in Intrauterine Death: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Ajay Agrawal, Pritha Basnet, Achala Thakur, Pappu Rizal, Rubina Rai


Context: Rapid expulsion of fetus in intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) is usually requested without any medical grounds for it. So; an efficient, safe method for induction of labor (IOL) is required. Objective: To determine if pre-treatment with mifepristone followed by IOL with misoprostol in late IUFD is more efficacious. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 100 patients. Group-A women received single oral dose of 200 mg mifepristone, followed by induction with vaginal misoprostol after 24-hour. Group-B women were induced only with vaginal misoprostol. In each group 5 dose of misoprostol was used 4 hourly. If first cycle was unsuccessful, after break of 12 hour, second course of misoprostol was started. The primary outcome was a measure of induction to delivery time and vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcome was to measure need of oxytocin and complications. Results: Maternal age, parity and period of gestation were comparable between groups. Number of misoprostol dose needed in group A was significantly less than group B. Mann Whitney U test showed, women in group A had significantly earlier onset of labor, however total induction to delivery interval was not significant. In group-A, 85.7% delivered within 24 hours of first dose of misoprostol while in group-B 70% delivered within 24 hour (p=0.07). More women in Group B required oxytocin. Conclusion: Pretreatment with mifepristone before IOL following late IUFD is an effective and safe regimen. It appears to shorten the duration of induction to onset of labor.

Keywords: induction of labor, intrauterine fetal death, mifepristone, misoprostol

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
26 Impacts of Aquaculture Farms on the Mangroves Forests of Sundarbans, India (2010-2018): Temporal Changes of NDVI

Authors: Sandeep Thakur, Ismail Mondal, Phani Bhusan Ghosh, Papita Das, Tarun Kumar De


Sundarbans Reserve forest of India has been undergoing major transformations in the recent past owing to population pressure and related changes. This has brought about major changes in the spatial landscape of the region especially in the western parts. This study attempts to assess the impacts of the Landcover changes on the mangrove habitats. Time series imageries of Landsat were used to analyze the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) patterns over the western parts of Indian Sundarbans forest in order to assess the heath of the mangroves in the region. The images were subjected to Land use Land cover (LULC) classification using sub-pixel classification techniques in ERDAS Imagine software and the changes were mapped. The spatial proliferation of aquaculture farms during the study period was also mapped. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out between the obtained NDVI values and the LULC classes. Similarly, the observed meteorological data sets (time series rainfall and minimum and maximum temperature) were also statistically correlated for regression. The study demonstrated the application of NDVI in assessing the environmental status of mangroves as the relationship between the changes in the environmental variables and the remote sensing based indices felicitate an efficient evaluation of environmental variables, which can be used in the coastal zone monitoring and development processes.

Keywords: aquaculture farms, LULC, Mangrove, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
25 Developing HRCT Criterion to Predict the Risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Vandna Raghuvanshi, Vikrant Thakur, Anupam Jhobta


Objective: To design HRCT criterion to forecast the threat of pulmonary tuberculosis. Material and methods: This was a prospective study of 69 patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied their medical characteristics, numerous separate HRCT-results, and a combination of HRCT findings to foresee the danger for PTB by utilizing univariate and multivariate investigation. Temporary HRCT diagnostic criteria were planned in view of these outcomes to find out the risk of PTB and tested these criteria on our patients. Results: The results of HRCT chest were analyzed, and Rank was given from 1 to 4 according to the HRCT chest findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Rank 1: Highly suspected PTB. Rank 2: Probable PTB Rank 3: Nonspecific or difficult to differentiate from other diseases Rank 4: Other suspected diseases • Rank 1 (Highly suspected TB) was present in 22 (31.9%) patients, all of them finally diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative likelihood ratio for RANK 1 on HRCT chest was 53.6%, 100%, and 0.43, respectively. • Rank 2 (Probable TB) was present in 13 patients, out of which 12 were tubercular, and 1 was non-tubercular. • The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of the combination of Rank 1 and Rank 2 was 82.9%, 96.4%, 23.22, and 0.18, respectively. • Rank 3 (Non-specific TB) was present in 25 patients, and out of these, 7 were tubercular, and 18 were non-tubercular. • When all these 3 ranks were considered together, the sensitivity approached 100% however, the specificity reduced to 35.7%. The positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 1.56 and 0, respectively. • Rank 4 (Other specific findings) was given to 9 patients, and all of these were non-tubercular. Conclusion: HRCT is useful in selecting individuals with greater chances of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: pulmonary, tuberculosis, multivariate, HRCT

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24 Open Source Knowledge Management Approach to Manage and Disseminate Distributed Content in a Global Enterprise

Authors: Rahul Thakur, Onkar Chandel


Red Hat is the world leader in providing open source software and solutions. A global enterprise, like Red Hat, has unique issues of connecting employees with content because of distributed offices, multiple teams spread across geographies, multiple languages, and different cultures. Employees, of a global company, create content that is distributed across departments, teams, regions, and countries. This makes finding the best content difficult since owners keep iterating on the existing content. When employees are unable to find the content, they end up creating it once again and in the process duplicating existing material and effort. Also, employees may not find the relevant content and spend time reviewing obsolete duplicate, or irrelevant content. On an average, a person spends 15 minutes/day in failed searches that might result in missed business opportunities, employee frustration, and substandard deliverables. Red Hat Knowledge Management Office (KMO) applied 'open source strategy' to solve the above problems. Under the Open Source Strategy, decisions are taken collectively. The strategy aims at accomplishing common goals with the help of communities. The objectives of this initiative were to save employees' time, get them authentic content, improve their content search experience, avoid duplicate content creation, provide context based search, improve analytics, improve content management workflows, automate content classification, and automate content upload. This session will describe open source strategy, its applicability in content management, challenges, recommended solutions, and outcome.

Keywords: content classification, content management, knowledge management, open source

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
23 An Anthropological Insight into Cultural Beliefs, Perceptions and Taboos Associated with Reproductive Tract Infections among Women of Village Junga Village, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: A. Ratika Thakur, B. A. K. Sinha , C. R. K. Pathak


Reproductive Tract Infections are recognized as a serious global health problem with direct impact on women. In the developing countries, prevalence of RTI is much higher relative to other health problems. Women of the reproductive age group are socially, mentally and physically more vulnerable to infections. Also, it is a well established fact that RTI has prolonged complications in women rather than men. It causes ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases, miscarriage and infertility in the long course. Women perspective about infections is less studied. In this view the study was carried out with an aim to determine knowledge, perception and belief of married women towards reproductive tract infection. The study was conducted in Junga village, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. 48 women were interviewed regarding awareness, beliefs and taboos related to reproductive tract infection. Other aspects like fertility history were also taken into account. The data were collected using interviews with the help of interview schedule and interview guide. Data were recorded in the form of narratives and case studies. The analysis was done using quantitative and qualitative analysis. It was found that a majority of women were not aware about the reasons of infection. Moreover cultural beliefs, perceptions and taboos made them more vulnerable and exposed to RTI. Economic dependency upon men, lack of control in barrier methods were some of the factors that contributed to delayed treatment of women. It was found that a majority of women suffering from RTIs were silently bearing the burden and underwent treatment when the case would not rest in their hands.

Keywords: belief, infection, perception, taboo, women

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22 Development of Nanoparticulate Based Chimeric Drug Delivery System Using Drug Bioconjugated Plant Virus Capsid on Biocompatible Nanoparticles

Authors: Indu Barwal, Shloka Thakur, Subhash C. Yadav


The plant virus capsid protein based nanoparticles are extensively studied for their application in biomedical research for development of nanomedicines and drug delivery systems. We have developed a chimeric drug delivery system by controlled in vitro assembly of separately bioconjugated fluorescent dye (as reporting molecule), folic acid (as receptor binding biomolecule for targeted delivery) and doxorubicin (as anticancer drug) using modified EDC NHS chemistry on heterologously overexpressed (E. coli) capsid proteins of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). This chimeric vehicle was further encapsidated on gold nanoparticles (20nm) coated with 5≠ thiolated DNA probe to neutralize the positive charge of capsid proteins. This facilitates the in vitro assembly of modified capsid subunits on the gold nanoparticles to develop chimeric GNPs encapsidated targeted drug delivery system. The bioconjugation of functionalities, number of functionality on capsid subunits as well as virus like nanoparticles, structural stability and in vitro assembly were confirmed by SDS PAGE, relative absorbance, MALDI TOF, ESI-MS, Circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, zeta particle size analyzer and TEM imaging. This vehicle was stable at pH 4.0 to 8.0 suitable for many organelles targeting. This in vitro assembled chimeric plant virus like particles could be suitable for ideal drug delivery vehicles for subcutaneous cancer treatment and could be further modified for other type of cancer treatment by conjugating other functionalities (targeting, drug) on capsids.

Keywords: chimeric drug delivery vehicles, bioconjugated plant, virus, capsid

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21 Biophysical Features of Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Diagnostic Markers

Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Youngjin Lee


Glioma is a lethal brain cancer whose early diagnosis and prognosis are limited due to the dearth of a suitable technique for its early detection. Current approaches, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and invasive biopsy for the diagnosis of this lethal disease, hold several limitations, demanding an alternative method. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been used in numerous biomarker studies, majorly exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which are found in most of the cells and biofluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. Remarkably, glioma cells (GMs) release a high number of EVs, which are found to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and impersonate the constituents of parent GMs including protein, and lncRNA; however, biophysical properties of EVs have not been explored yet as a biomarker for glioma. We isolated EVs from cell culture conditioned medium of GMs and regular primary culture, blood, and urine of wild-type (WT)- and glioma mouse models, and characterized by nano tracking analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, immunogold-EM, and differential light scanning. Next, we measured the biophysical parameters of GMs-EVs by using atomic force microscopy. Further, the functional constituents of EVs were examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Exosomes and MVs-derived from GMs, blood, and urine showed distinction biophysical parameters (roughness, adhesion force, and stiffness) and different from that of regular primary glial cells, WT-blood, and -urine, which can be attributed to the characteristic functional constituents. Therefore, biophysical features can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for glioma.

Keywords: glioma, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, microvesicles, biophysical properties

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20 Early Detection of Neuropathy in Leprosy-Comparing Clinical Tests with Nerve Conduction Study

Authors: Suchana Marahatta, Sabina Bhattarai, Bishnu Hari Paudel, Dilip Thakur


Background: Every year thousands of patients develop nerve damage and disabilities as a result of leprosy which can be prevented by early detection and treatment. So, early detection and treatment of nerve function impairment is of paramount importance in leprosy. Objectives: To assess the electrophysiological pattern of the peripheral nerves in leprosy patients and to compare it with clinical assessment tools. Materials and Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 74 newly diagnosed leprosy patients without reaction were enrolled. They underwent thorough evaluation for peripheral nerve function impairment using clinical tests [i.e. nerve palpation (NP), monofilament (MF) testing, voluntary muscle testing (VMT)] and nerve conduction study (NCS). Clinical findings were compared with that of NCS using SPSS version 11.5. Results: NCS was impaired in 43.24% of leprosy patient at the baseline. Among them, sensory NCS was impaired in more patients (32.4%) in comparison to motor NCS (20.3%). NP, MF, and VMT were impaired in 58.1%, 25.7%, and 9.4% of the patients, respectively. Maximum concordance of monofilament testing and sensory NCS was found for sural nerve (14.7%). Likewise, the concordance of motor NP and motor NCS was the maximum for ulnar nerve (14.9%). When individual parameters of the NCS were considered, amplitude was found to be the most frequently affected parameter for both sensory and motor NCS. It was impaired in 100% of cases with abnormal NCS findings. Conclusion: Since there was no acceptable concordance between NCS findings and clinical findings, we should consider NCS whenever feasible for early detection of neuropathy in leprosy. The amplitude of both sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and compound nerve action potential (CAMP) could be important determinants of the abnormal NCS if supported by further studies.

Keywords: leprosy, nerve function impairment, neuropathy, nerve conduction study

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19 Amyloid Deposition in Granuloma of Tuberculosis Patients: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shreya Ghosh, Akansha Garg, Chayanika Kala, Ashwani Kumar Thakur


Background: Granuloma formation is one of the characteristic features of tuberculosis. Besides, chronic inflammation underlying tuberculosis is often indicated by an increase in the concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein. The connection between tuberculosis and SAA-driven secondary amyloidosis is well documented. However, SAA-derived amyloid deposition start sites are not well understood in tuberculosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions. It was hypothesized that granuloma could be a potential site for an amyloid deposition because both SAA protein and proteases that cleave SAA into aggregation-prone fragments are reported to be present in the granuloma. Here the authors have shown the presence of SAA-derived amyloid deposits in the granuloma of tuberculosis patients. Methodology: Over a period of two years, tuberculosis patients were screened, and biopsies were collected from the affected organs of the patients. The gold standard, Congo red dye staining, was used to identify amyloid deposits in the tissue sections of tuberculosis patients containing granulomatous structure. Results: 11 out of 150 FFPE biopsy specimens of tuberculosis patients showed eosinophilic hyaline-rich deposits surrounding granuloma. Upon Congo red staining, these deposits exhibited characteristic apple-green birefringence under polarized light, confirming amyloid deposits. Further, upon immunohistochemical staining with anti-SAA, the amyloid enriched areas showed positive immunoreactivity. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we have shown that granuloma can be a potential site for serum amyloid A-derived amyloid formation in tuberculosis patients. Moreover, the presence of amyloid gave significant cues that granuloma might be a probable amyloid deposition start in tuberculosis patients. This study will set a stage to expand the clinical and fundamental research in the understanding of amyloid formation in granuloma underlying tuberculosis and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: amyloid, granuloma, periphery, serum amyloid A, tuberculosis

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