Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4981

Search results for: Antibacterial activity

4981 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability

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4980 A Furaneol-Containing Glass-Ionomer Cement for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Dong Xie, Yuling Xu, Leah Howard

Abstract:

Secondary caries is found to be one of the main reasons to the restoration failure of dental restoratives. To prevent secondary caries formation, dental restoratives ought to be made antibacterial. In this study, a natural fruit component furaneol was tethered onto polyacid, the formed polyacid was used to formulate the light-curable glass-ionomer cements, and then the effect of this new antibacterial compound on compressive strength (CS) and antibacterial activity of the formed cement was evaluated. Fuji II LC glass powders were used as fillers. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed cement. The experimental cement showed a significant antibacterial activity, accompanying with an initial CS reduction. Increasing the compound loading significantly decreased the S. mutans viability from 5 to 81% and also reduced the initial CS of the formed cements from 4 to 58%. The cement loading with 7% antibacterial polymer showed 168 MPa, 7.8 GPa, 243 MPa, 46 MPa, and 57 MPa in yield strength, modulus, CS, diametral tensile strength and flexural strength, respectively, as compared to 141, 6.9, 236, 42 and 53 for Fuji II LC. The cement also showed an antibacterial function to other bacteria. No human saliva effect was noticed. It is concluded that the experimental cement may potentially be developed to a permanent antibacterial cement.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental materials, strength, cell viability

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4979 Anti-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Compounds from Bauhinia kockiana Korth and Their Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Yik Ling Chew, Adlina Maisarah Mahadi, Joo Kheng Goh

Abstract:

Bauhinia kockiana originates from Peninsular Malaysia, and it is grown as a garden ornamental plant. However, it is used as medicinal plant by Malaysia ‘Kelabit’ ethic group in treating various diseases and illnesses. This study focused on the assessment of the antibacterial activity of B. kockiana towards MRSA, to purify and identify the antibacterial compounds, and to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity of B. kockiana flower is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using disc diffusion assay and microbroth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of extracts. Phytochemical analysis is performed to determine the classes of phytochemicals in the extracts. Bioactivity-guided isolation is performed to purify the antibacterial agents and identified the chemical structures via various spectroscopy methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique is adopted to evaluate the antibacterial mechanism of extract and compounds isolated. B. kockiana flower is found to exhibit fairly strong antibacterial activity towards both strains of MRSA bacteria. Gallic acid and its ester derivatives are purified from ethyl acetate extract and the antibacterial activity is evaluated. SEM has revealed the mechanism of the extracts and compounds isolated.

Keywords: alkyl gallates, Bauhinia kockiana, MRSA, scanning electron microscopy

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4978 Design, Synthesis and In-Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Novel Spiro[Azetidine-2, 3’-Indole]-2, 4(1’H)-Dione

Authors: Ravi J. Shah

Abstract:

The present study deals with the synthesis of novel spiro[azetidine-2, 3’-indole]-2’, 4(1’H)-dione derivative from the reactions of 3-(phenylimino)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one derivatives with chloracetyl chloride in presence of triethyl amine (TEA). All the compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. They were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results revealed that, compounds (7a), (7b), (7c), (7d) and (7e) showed very good activity with MIC value of 6.25-12.5 μg/ml against three evaluated bacterial strains and the remaining compounds showed good to moderate activity comparable to standard drugs as antibacterial agents. Compounds (7c) and (7h) displayed equipotent antifungal activity in comparison to standard drugs. Structure-activity relationship study of the compounds showed that the presence of electron withdrawing group substitution at 5’ and 7’ positions of indoline ring and on ortho or para position of phenyl ring increases both antibacterial and antifungal activity of the compound. Henceforth, our findings will have a good impact on chemists and biochemists for further investigations in search of bromine containing spiro fused antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, 2-Azetidinone, indoline

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4977 Antibacterial Activity of Northern Algerian Honey

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana, Djamila Benaziza

Abstract:

Our study focuses on determining the antibacterial activity of some honeys from northern Algeria. To test this activity, the agar well diffusion methods was employed. The bacterial strains tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeroginosae. The results showed that all the microbes tested were inhibited by all honey used in this study but Those bacteria that appear to be more sensitive to all honey tested are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosae.

Keywords: honey, antibacterial activity, Northern Algeria, Staphylococcus aureus

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4976 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Punica Granatum L. Bark

Authors: H. Kadi, A. Moussaoui, A. Medah, N. Benayahia, Nahal Bouderba

Abstract:

For thousands of years, Punica granatum L. has been used in traditional medicine all over the world and predate the introduction of antibacterial drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. bark obtained by decoction and maceration. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) bark have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic macerate extract showed the strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone inhibition of 24.4 mm. However, the results tests by disc diffusion method revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic decoctate against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus stearothermophilus) with diameter zone of inhibition varying with 21.1mm and 23.75 mm respectively.

Keywords: Punica granatum L. bark, antibacterial activity, maceration, decoction

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4975 Effect of Iron Fortification on the Antibacterial Activity of Synbiotic Fermented Milk

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Euis Nurdiyawati, Joko Susilo, Endri Yuliati, Siti Fadhilatun Nashriyah, Kurnia Widyastuti

Abstract:

Background: Iron fortification is one of the most effective and sustainable strategies to overcome anemia. It contradictively, has negative effect on gut microbiota balance. Pathogenic bacteria required iron for their growth. The iron source have greatly affect iron absorption in the intestine. Probiotic can inhibit the growth of pathogen. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, Indonesian local isolate provides many benefits for health while fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) provides selective substrates for probiotics’ growth. Objective: To determine the effect of iron fortification (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) on antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk. Methods: The antibacterial activity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Paper discs were soaked in three kinds of synbiotic fermented milk, which are: 1) fortified with NaFeEDTA, 2) FeSO4 and 3) control. Escherichia coli was inoculated on nutrient agar medium. The ability of inhibition was shown by the formation of clear zone around the paper disc and measured in diameter (mm). Results: Synbiotic fermented milk fortified with iron (either NaFeEDTA or FeSO4) had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with diameter of clear zone were 6.53 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to control (10.73 mm), synbiotic fermented milk fortified with FeSO4 had similar antibacterial activity (p>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro, synbiotic fermented milk fortified with NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 had different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Iron fortification compound affected the antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk.

Keywords: lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, FOS, NaFeEDTA, FeSO4, antibacterial activity

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4974 Synthesis of [1-(Substituted-Sulfonyl)-Piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-Difluoro-Phenyl)-Methanone Oximes and Their Biological Activity

Authors: L. Mallesha, C. S. Karthik, P. Mallu

Abstract:

A series of new [1-(substituted-benzoyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-methanone oxime derivatives, 3(a-f) were synthesized and characterized by different spectral studies. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. These compounds were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH• and Fe2+ chelating assay. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated using the MTT assay method against two human cancer cell lines and one astrocytoma brain tumor cell line. Compound 3b exhibited moderate antibacterial activity when compared with other compounds. All the compounds showed antioxidant activity, where compound 3f was the best radical scavenger and Fe2+ ion scavenger. Compounds, 3b, and 3d showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Piperidine, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative

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4973 Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty of Gırardınıa Heterophılla

Authors: P. S. BEDI* , Neavty Thakur, Balvınder Sıngh

Abstract:

In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3, NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria eg. Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria eg. E. coli, K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant posseses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, Antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.

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4972 Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Seaweed Extracts

Authors: Salmin K. Alshalmani, Nada H. Zobi, Ismaeel H. Bozakouk

Abstract:

Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bio active secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Libyan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bio activities. The phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic extracts of some commonly occurring seaweed Cystoseira compressa, enteromorpha intestinals, corallina, and Ulva lactuca and their evaluated for antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay were studied. Four different solvents namely water, ethanol 99 %, methanol 99 %, and methylated spirit 95 % were used for extraction. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, tannin & phenols, saponins, proteins, and glycosides. The extracts were subjected for study of antibacterial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 8 to 16 mm in aqueous extract and up to 16 mm in methanol extract. The maximum activity (16 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Ulva lactuca against Staphylococcus aureus and, minimum activity (8mm) recorded by Cystoseira compressa against S. aureus.

Keywords: macroalgae, phytochemicals, antibacterial activity, methanolic extract

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4971 Olive Oils from Algeria: Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Firdaousse Laincer, Rahima Laribi, Abderazak Tamendjari, Rovellini Venturini

Abstract:

Phenolic compounds present in olive oil have received much attention in recent years due to their beneficial functional and nutritional effects. Phenolic composition, antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from Algeria were investigated. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC. As a result, many phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by using HPLC; derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, flavonoids, and lignans reporting unique and characteristic phenolic profile. These phenolic fractions also differentiate the total antibacterial activity. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg•mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg•mL-1, respectively. The results obtained denote that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of healthy compounds, phenolics compounds, in the diet, suggesting that their consumption could be useful in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, olive oil, phenols, HPLC

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4970 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih

Abstract:

Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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4969 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba

Abstract:

In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, flavonoids, medicinal plants, polyphenols

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4968 Mansonone G and Its Ether Analogues as New Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Rita Hairani, Warinthorn Chavasiri

Abstract:

Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widespread in nature and can be produced by plants, fungi and actinomycetes. The interest of naphthoquinones is not only limited as organic dyes, but also their wide variety of biological activities such as antitumor, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Typical 1,2-naphthoquinones such as mansonones can be found in Mansonia gagei Drumm. (“chan-cha-mod”), Sterculaceae family. This plant has been used traditionally to treat some diseases such as antiemetic and antidepressant. In this study, some natural mansonones isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of M. gagei heartwood have been assessed for their antibacterial activities using agar well diffusion method. According to the antibacterial activity results of four natural mansonones (mansonones C, E, G and H), mansonones E and G showed higher activities than the others against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Since mansonone G exhibited good antibacterial activity and was obtained in the highest yield, we decided to derivertize mansonone G into five ether analogues. Based on the antibacterial activities of these synthesized compounds, four ether analogues (compounds 1-4) revealed higher antibacterial activities than its natural mansonone G against S. aureus and S. typhi.

Keywords: Mansonia gagei Drumm., antibacterial activities, mansonone G, ether analogues

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4967 In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Tamus communis L. from Algeria

Authors: F. Belkhiri, A. Baghiani, S. Boumerfeg, N. Charef, S. Khennouf, L. Arrar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts from roots of Tamus communis L. (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using tow complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene/linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (18.89 µg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (18.6 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 23 mm of diameter.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, Tamus communis L., polar fractions

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4966 Salmonella Spp. and Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

Abstract:

The food borne infections have a significant impact on public health. Salmonella is the first bacterial cause, especially because of its general availability in the intestinal tract of poultry, pigs and cattle. This bacteria and essential oil of Laurus nobilis subject in this article. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity shows a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with a MIC of 2.5 mg.ml -1 in vivo after infection of wistar rats and administered orally this essential oil, microbiological results fecal material shows the antibacterial effect of this oil on Salmonella spp.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis, essential oil, salmonella, antibacterial activity, fecal matte

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4965 Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Chrysanthellum indicum (Linn) Extracts

Authors: I. L. Ibrahim, A. Mann, B. M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are prevalent in developing countries and plant extracts are known to contained bioactive compounds that can be used in the management of these diseases. The entire plant of Chrysanthellum indicum (Linn) was air-dried and pulverized into fine powder and then percolated to give ethanol and aqueous extracts. These extracts were phytochemically screened for metabolites and evaluated antibacterial activity against some pathogenic organisms Klebsilla, pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar dilution method. It was found that crude extracts of C. indicum revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroidal nucleus, cardiac glycosides, and coumarin while flavonoids and anthraquinones were absent. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the active extract of C. indicum shows that the extract could be a potential source of antibacterial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Chrysanthellum indicum, infectious diseases, phytochemical screening

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4964 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

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4963 Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract of Punica Granatum Linn. (Punnicaceae) Fruit Peel Against Selected Bacterial Species

Authors: Afzan Mahmad, Santibuana Abd Rahman, Gouri Kumar Dash, Mohd. Syafiq Bin Abdullah

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn (Family: Punicaceae) was evaluated against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria. The Gram positive bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram negative organisms included Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The culture media used for antibacterial assay was Mueller Hinton agar for the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The media used for the growth of S. pneumoniae was Mueller Hinton blood agar. The antibacterial assay was performed through Disc diffusion technique. The methanol extract was tested at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/ml). Standard antibiotic discs containing vancomycin (30 μg) for S. pneumoniae, penicillin (10 units) for S. aureus, ceftriaxone (30 μg) for E. coli and ciprofloxacin (5 μg) for P. aeruginosa were used for the activity comparison. The results of the study revealed that the extract possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa at all tested concentrations. The maximum zone of inhibition of 19 mm of the extract at 200 mg/ml was observed against S. pneumoniae. However, no zone of inhibition was observed against E. coli at the tested concentrations of the extract. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be concluded that the fruit peel of P. granatum possess broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against a number bacteria.

Keywords: Punica granatum Linn., methanol extract, antibacterial, zone of inhibition

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4962 Preparation, Characterisation, and Antibacterial Activity of Green-Biosynthesised Silver Nanoparticles Using Clinacanthus Nutans Extract

Authors: Salahaedin Waiezi, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek, Hassan Abdelmagid Elzamzami, Shahrulnizahana Mohammad Din

Abstract:

A green and safe approach to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) can be performed using plant leaf extract as the reducing agent. Hence, this paper reports the biosynthesis of AgNP using Clinacanthus nutans plant extract. C. nutans is known as belalai gajah in Malaysia and is widely used as a medicinal herb locally. The biosynthesized AgNP, using C. nutans aqueous extract at pH 10, with the reaction temperature of 70°C and 48 h reaction time, was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A peak appeared in the UV-Vis spectra at around 400 nm, while XRD confirmed the crystal structure of AgNP, with the average size between 20 to 30 nm, as shown in FESEM and TEM. The antibacterial activity of the biosynthesized AgNP, which was performed using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) indicated effective inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, minimal antibacterial activity was detected against Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In general, AgNP produced using C. nutans leaf extract possesses potential antibacterial activity.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Clinacanthus nutans, antibacterial agent, biosynthesis

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4961 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

Abstract:

Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

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4960 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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4959 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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4958 Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Analysis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives by Linear Multivariate Method

Authors: Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac Kuzmanović

Abstract:

The relationship between antibacterial activity of eighteen different substituted benzimidazole derivatives and their molecular characteristics was studied using chemometric QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships) approach. QSAR analysis has been carried out on inhibitory activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, by using molecular descriptors, as well as minimal inhibitory activity (MIC). Molecular descriptors were calculated from the optimized structures. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) was performed in order to select molecular descriptors that best describe the antibacterial behavior of the compounds investigated, and to determine the similarities between molecules. The HCA grouped the molecules in separated clusters which have the similar inhibitory activity. PCA showed very similar classification of molecules as the HCA, and displayed which descriptors contribute to that classification. MLR equations, that represent MIC as a function of the in silico molecular descriptors were established. The statistical significance of the estimated models was confirmed by standard statistical measures and cross-validation parameters (SD = 0.0816, F = 46.27, R = 0.9791, R2CV = 0.8266, R2adj = 0.9379, PRESS = 0.1116). These parameters indicate the possibility of application of the established chemometric models in prediction of the antibacterial behaviour of studied derivatives and structurally very similar compounds.

Keywords: antibacterial, benzimidazole, molecular descriptors, QSAR

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4957 The Influence of Ligands Molecular Structure on the Antibacterial Activity of Some Metal Complexes

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija R. Jevrić, Strahinja Z. Kovačević

Abstract:

In last decade, metal-organic complexes have captured intensive attention because of their wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antimicrobial and antiHIV. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In view of our studies, we reasoned that benzimidazoles complexed to metal ions could act as a potent antibacterial agents. Thus, we have bioassayed the inhibitory potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Co or Ni) against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software’s. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Co, Ni) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and enhanced antibacterial activity in comparison with noncomplexed ligands. In view of their enhanced inhibitory properties we propose that the studied complexes can be used as potential pharmaceuticals. This study is financially supported by COST action CM1306 and the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina.

Keywords: benzimidazoles, complexes, antibacterial, Escherichia coli, metal

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4956 In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Selected Tanzania Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mhuji Kilonzo, Patrick Ndakidemi, Musa Chacha

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity from four selected medicinal plants namely Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Lonchocarpus capassa, Albizia anthelmentica and Myrica salicifolia used for management of bacterial infection in Tanzania. Methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plants extracts against the tested bacterial species was determined by using 96 wells microdilution method. In this method, 50 μL of nutrient broth were loaded in each well followed by 50 μL of extract (100 mg/mL) to make a final volume of 100 μL. Subsequently, 50 μL were transferred from first rows of each well to the second rows and the process was repeated down the columns to the last wells from which 50 μL were discarded. Thereafter, 50 μL of the selected bacterial suspension were added to each well thus making a final volume of 100 μL. The lowest concentration which showed no bacterial growth was considered as MIC. Results: It was revealed that L. capassa leaf ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella kisarawe and Salmonella typhi with MIC values of 0.39 and 0.781 mg/mL respectively. Likewise, L. capassa root bark ethyl acetate extracts inhibited growth of S. typhi and E. coli with MIC values of 0.39 and 0.781 mg/mL respectively. The M. aethiopicum leaf and root bark chloroform extracts displayed antibacterial activity against S. kisarawe and S. typhi respectively with MIC value of 0.781 mg/mL. The M. salicifolia stem bark ethyl acetate exhibited antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL whereas the methanolic stem and root bark of the same plant inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC value of 0.781 mg/mL. Conclusion: It was concluded that M. aethiopicum, L. capassa, A. anthelmentica and M. salicifolia are potential source of antibacterial agents. Further studies to establish structures of antibacterial and evaluate active ingredients are recommended.

Keywords: Albizia anthelmentica, Lonchocarpus capassa, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Myrica salicifolia

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4955 Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Substituted Pyrimidine Derivative Containing Thiol Group

Authors: Shradha S. Binani, Pravin S. Bodke, Ravi V. Joat

Abstract:

An efficient method has been described for the synthesis of 6-(substituted aryl)-4-(2'- hydroxy-5'-chlorophenyl)-1, 6-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol, as a beneficial antibacterial and antifungal agents. The diketones of title compounds were synthesized in four steps and subsequently these diketones were further reacted with thiourea in the presence of DMF, which led to the formation of dihydropyrimidine derivatives 5 (a-f). Compounds 5 (a-f) were screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity by agar well method. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5e, and 5f were exhibited significant antimicrobial potential against tested strains at 50ug/ml and 100ug/ml concentrations. Six novel dihydropyrimidine analogues have been synthesized, characterized and found to be promising antibacterial and antifungal agents.

Keywords: diketones, dihyropyrimidine, antimicrobial activity, thiol group

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4954 Comparative DNA Binding of Iron and Manganese Complexes by Spectroscopic and ITC Techniques and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Maryam Nejat Dehkordi, Per Lincoln, Hassan Momtaz

Abstract:

Interaction of Schiff base complexes of iron and manganese (iron [N, N’ Bis (5-(triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) chloride, [Fe Salen]Cl, manganese [N, N’ Bis (5-(triphenyl phosphonium methyl) salicylidene) -1, 2 ethanediamine) acetate) with DNA were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry techniques (ITC). The absorbance spectra of complexes have shown hyper and hypochromism in the presence of DNA that is indication of interaction of complexes with DNA. The linear dichroism (LD) measurements confirmed the bending of DNA in the presence of complexes. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments approved that complexes bound to DNA on the base of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, ITC profile exhibits the existence of two binding phases for the complex. Antibacterial activity of ligand and complexes were tested in vitro to evaluate their activity against the gram positive and negative bacteria.

Keywords: Schiff base complexes, ct-DNA, linear dichroism (LD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), antibacterial activity

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4953 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi

Abstract:

A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibition

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4952 Antimicrobial Activity of Igusa and the Application to Foam Materials for Food Industry

Authors: I. Nanako, Mariko Era, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Objectives: Japanese uses TATAMI rather than flooring at home. Igusa ( Juncus effuses var. decipiens ), which is commonly known in the forms of TATAMI. Juncus spp. grow at a relatively high humidity area (Japan, China and Southeast Asia ). Yatsushiro region in the southern part of Kumamoto prefecture is major produing area of Igusa. Igusa found to have honeycomb structure and was also shown to have the ability to control humidity. And Igusa has been used as a medicinal herb for diuretic and antiphlogistic agent. In previous study, we investigated antimicrobial effects of Igusa, and showed high antimicrobial activity against food poisoning bacteria. Therefore, the food trays blended Igusa can be kept clean by antimicrobial activity of Igusa. We focus on ‘Igusa foam materials’. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Igusa, and new application to foam materials for food industry. Materials and method: We used Igusa foam materials (3 × 3 × 3 cm) as a sample. We set about fifteen types of samples combined with a commercial antibacterial agent A, a commercial antibacterial agent B, potassium laurate (C12K) and a commercial antifungal agent C, a commercial antifungal agent D and a commercial antifungal agent E. We selected four bacteria strains (Escherichia coli NBRC 3972, Staphylococus aureus NBRC 12732, Salmonella typhimurium NBRC 13245, Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 ) and three fungus strains (Penicillium pinophilum NBRC 6345, Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314, Aspergillus oryzae NBRC 5238 ). The fungus was cultured at 30 °C on Igusa foam materials after inoculation of the fungus for fourteen days. The bacteria was cultured at 30 °C on Igusa foam materials after inoculation of the bacteria for three days. And the Igusa foam materials were washed with 10 mL normal saline after three days. The normal saline washed Igusa foam materials plated the NA medium. After, It was cultured at 30 °C and used colony counting method. Result and Conclusion: The fifteen types of sample of Igusa foam materials had antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides, A. oryzae and P. pinophilum for fourteen days. The four types of sample contained potassium laurate and antibacterial agent A, sample contained antibacterial agent B and antifungal agent D, sample contained A and antifungal agent E, sample contained B and E had antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. The three types of sample contained potassium laurate and A, sample contained B and D, sample contained A and E had antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium. The five types of sample contained potassium laurate and A, sample contained B and D, sample contained A and E, sample contained B and E, sample contained B and antifungal agent C had antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. These results indicate that Igusa of Igusa foam materials had high antifungal activity. In addition, Igusa foam materials combined with a commercial antibacterial agent had antibacterial activity. In the future, we consider that use of Igusa foam materials may be spread from food industry.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, foam materials, Igusa

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