Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: decontamination

52 Effectivity Analysis of The Decontamination Products for Radioactive 99mTc Used in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Hayrettin Eroglu, Oguz Aksakal


In this study, it is analysed that which decontamination products are more effective and how decontamination process should be performed in the case of contamination of radioactive 99mTc which is the most common radioactive element used in nuclear applications dealing with the human body or the environment. Based on the study, it is observed that existing radioactive washers are less effective than expected, alcohol has no effect on the decontamination of 99mTc, and temperature and pH are the most important factors. In the light of the analysis, it is concluded that the most effective decontamination product is DM-D (Decontamination Material-D). When the effect of DM-D on surfaces is analysed, it is observed that decontamination is very fast on scrubs and formica with both DM-D and water, and although DM-D is very effective on skin, it is not effective on f ceramic tiles and plastic floor covering material. Also in this study, the effectiveness of different molecular groups in the decontaminant was investigated. As a result, the acetate group has been observed as the most effective component of the decontaminant.

Keywords: contamination, radioactive, technetium, decontamination

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51 Design Considerations for the Construction of an Open Decontamination Facility for Managing Civil Emergencies

Authors: Sarmin, S., Ologuin, R.S.


Background: Rapid population growth and land constraints in Singapore results in a possible situation in which we face a higher number of casualties and lack of operational space in healthcare facilities during disasters and HAZMAT events, collectively known as Civil Emergencies. This creates a need for available working space within hospital grounds to be amphibious or multi-functional, to ensure the institution’s capability to respond efficiently to Civil Emergencies. The Emergency Department (ED) mitigates this issue by converting the Ambulance Assembly Area used during peacetime into an Open Decontamination Facility (ODF) during Civil Emergency Response, for decontamination of casualties before they proceed to treatment areas into Ambulance Assembly Area used during peacetime. Aims: To effectively operationalize the Open Decontamination Facility (ODF) through the reduction of manual handling. Methods: From past experiences on Civil Emergency exercises, it was labor-intensive for staff to set up the Open Decontamination Facility (ODF). Manual handling to set up the Decontamination lanes by bringing down the curtains and supply of water was required to be turned on. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the design construction of an Open Decontamination Facility (ODF) is based on the use of automation of bringing down the curtains on the various lanes. The use of control panels for water supply to decontaminate patients. Safety within the ODF was considered with the installation of panic buttons, intercom for staff communication, and perimeter curtains were installed with stability arm to manage the condition with high wind velocity.

Keywords: civil emergencies, disaster, emergency department, Hazmat

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50 Sustainable Technologies for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes


The German nuclear industry, while implementing the German policy, believes that the journey towards the green-field, namely phasing out of nuclear energy, should be achieved through green techniques. The most important techniques required for the wide range of decommissioning activities are decontamination techniques, cutting techniques, radioactivity measuring techniques, remote control techniques, techniques for worker and environmental protection and techniques for treating, preconditioning and conditioning nuclear waste. Many decontamination techniques are used for removing contamination from metal, concrete or other surfaces like the scales inside pipes. As the pipeline system is one of the important components of nuclear power plants, the process of decontamination in tubing is of more significance. The development of energy sectors like oil sector, gas sector and nuclear sector, since the middle of 20th century, increased the pipeline industry and the research in the decontamination of tubing in each sector is found to serve each other. The extraction of natural products and material through the pipeline can result in scale formation. These scales can be radioactively contaminated through an accumulation process especially in the petrochemical industry when oil and gas are extracted from the underground reservoir. The radioactivity measured in these scales can be significantly high and pose a great threat to people and the environment. At present, the decontamination process involves using high pressure water jets with or without abrasive material and this technology produces a high amount of secondary waste. In order to overcome it, the research team within Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed a new sustainable method to carry out the decontamination of tubing without producing any secondary waste. This method is based on vibration technique which removes scales and also does not require any auxiliary materials. The outcome of the research project proves that the vibration technique used for decontamination of tubing is environmental friendly in other words a sustainable technique.

Keywords: sustainable technologies, decontamination, pipeline, nuclear industry

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49 Radiation Skin Decontamination Formulation

Authors: Navneet Sharma, Himanshu Ojha, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rakesh Kumar Sharma


Radio-nuclides decontamination is an important task because any extra second of deposition leads to deleterious health effects. We had developed and characterise nanoemulsion of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens using phase inversion temperature (PIT) method and evaluate its decontamination efficacy (DE). The solubility of the drug was determined in various oils and surfactants. Nanoemulsion developed with an HLB value of 11 and different ratios of the surfactants 10% (7:3, w/w), oil (20%, w/w), and double distilled water (70%) were selected. Formulation was characterised by multi-photon spectroscopy and parameters like viscosity, droplet size distribution, zeta potential and stability were optimised. In vitro and Ex vivo decontamination efficacy (DE) was evaluated against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131, and Thallium-201 as radio-contaminants applied over skin of Sprague-Dawley rat and human tissue equivalent model. Contaminants were removed using formulation soaked in cotton swabs at different time intervals and whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using SPECT gamma camera before and after decontamination attempt. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was found to be significant (p <0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens was compared with placebo and recorded to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for 99mTc, 131I and 201Tl respectively. Ex-vivo complexation study of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion with surrogate nuclides of radioactive thallium and Iodine, were performed on rat skin mounted on Franz diffusion cell using high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). More than 90% complexation of the formulation with these nuclides was observed. Results demonstrate that the prepared nanoemulsion formulation was found efficacious for the decontamination of radionuclides from a large contaminated population.

Keywords: p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens, skin decontamination, radiological emergencies, nanoemulsion, iodine-131, thallium-201

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48 Guidelines to Designing Generic Protocol for Responding to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Mehdi Nasr Isfahani, Elham Anbari


Introduction: The awareness of using chemical, biological, and nuclear agents in everyday industrial and non-industrial incidents has increased recently; release of these materials can be accidental or intentional. Since hospitals are the forefronts of confronting Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear( CBRN) incidents, the goal of the present research was to provide a generic protocol for CBRN incidents through a comparative review of CBRN protocols and guidelines of different countries and reviewing various books, handbooks and papers. Method: The integrative approach or research synthesis was adopted in this study. First a simple narrative review of programs, books, handbooks, and papers about response to CBRN incidents in different countries was carried out. Then the most important and functional information was discussed in the form of a generic protocol in focus group sessions and subsequently confirmed. Results: Findings indicated that most of the countries had various protocols, guidelines, and handbooks for hazardous materials or CBRN incidents. The final outcome of the research synthesis was a 50 page generic protocol whose main topics included introduction, definition and classification of CBRN agents, four major phases of incident and disaster management cycle, hospital response management plan, equipment, and recommended supplies and antidotes for decontamination (radiological/nuclear, chemical, biological); each of these also had subtopics. Conclusion: In the majority of international protocols, guidelines, handbooks and also international and Iranian books and papers, there is an emphasis on the importance of incident command system, determining the safety degree of decontamination zones, maps of decontamination zones, decontamination process, triage classifications, personal protective equipment, and supplies and antidotes for decontamination; these are the least requirements for such incidents and also consistent with the provided generic protocol.

Keywords: hospital, CBRN, decontamination, generic protocol, CBRN Incidents

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47 The Impact of Low-Concentrated Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Ewa Brychcy, Natalia Ulbin-Figlewicz, Dominika Kulig, Żaneta Król, Andrzej Jarmoluk


Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is an alternative with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination. It is produced by membrane electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution in water ionizers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentrated AEW in reducing selected foodborne pathogens and to examine its bactericidal effect on cellular structures of Escherichia coli. E. coli and S. aureus cells were undetectable after 10 minutes of contact with electrolyzed salt solutions. Non-electrolyzed solutions did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. AE water was found to destroy the cellular structures of the E. coli. The use of more concentrated salt solutions and prolonged electrolysis time from 5 to 10 minutes resulted in a greater changes of rods shape as compared to the control and non-electrolyzed NaCl solutions. This research showed that low-concentrated acid electrolyzed water is an effective method to significantly reduce pathogenic microorganisms and indicated its potential application for decontamination of meat.

Keywords: acidic electrolyzed water, foodborne pathogens, meat decontamination, membrane electrolysis

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46 RF Plasma Discharge Equipment for Conservation Treatments of Paper Supports

Authors: Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Viorica Frunză, Dorina Rusu, Ana Maria Vlad, Catalin Tanase, Simona Dunca


The application of cold radio-frequency (RF) plasma in the conservation of cultural heritage became important in the last decades due to the positive results obtained in decontamination treatments. This paper presents an equipment especially designed for RF cold plasma application on paper documents, developed within a research project. The equipment allows the application of decontamination and cleaning treatments on any type of paper support, as well as the coating with a protective polymer. The equipment consists in a Pyrex vessel, inside which are placed two plane-parallel electrodes, capacitively coupled to a radio-frequency generator. The operating parameters of the equipment are: 1.2 MHz frequency, 50V/cm electric field intensity, current intensity in the discharge 100 mA, 40 W power in the discharge, the pressure varying from 5∙10-1 mbar to 5.5∙10-1 mbar, depending on the fragility of the material, operating in gaseous nitrogen. In order to optimize the equipment treatments in nitrogen plasma have been performed on samples infested with microorganisms, then the decontamination and the changes in surface properties (color, pH) were assessed. The analyses results presented in the table revealed only minor modifications of surface pH the colorimetric analysis showing a slight change to yellow. The equipment offers the possibility of performing decontamination, cleaning and protective coating of paper-based documents in successive stages, thus avoiding the recontamination with harmful biological agents.

Keywords: nitrogen plasma, cultural heritage, paper support, radio-frequency

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45 Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials

Authors: Steffen Happel


Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.

Keywords: elution, extraction chromatography, radiopharmacy, decontamination factors

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44 A Control Model for the Dismantling of Industrial Plants

Authors: Florian Mach, Eric Hund, Malte Stonis


The dismantling of disused industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants or refineries is an enormous challenge for the planning and control of the logistic processes. Existing control models do not meet the requirements for a proper dismantling of industrial plants. Therefore, the paper presents an approach for the control of dismantling and post-processing processes (e.g. decontamination) in plant decommissioning. In contrast to existing approaches, the dismantling sequence and depth are selected depending on the capacity utilization of required post-processing processes by also considering individual characteristics of respective dismantling tasks (e.g. decontamination success rate, uncertainties regarding the process times). The results can be used in the dismantling of industrial plants (e.g. nuclear power plants) to reduce dismantling time and costs by avoiding bottlenecks such as capacity constraints.

Keywords: dismantling management, logistics planning and control models, nuclear power plant dismantling, reverse logistics

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43 Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water

Authors: Hyun Kyu Lee, Won Zin Oh, June Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Sang June Choi, Hak Soo Kim


The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.

Keywords: permanganate reduction, spontaneous decomposition, water oxidation, acidity, temperature, permanganate concentration, chemical decontamination, nuclear power plant

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42 The Effect of Additive Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency

Authors: G. Hosseini, A. Sadighzadeh, M. Rahimnejad, N. Hosseini, Z. Jamalzadeh


Metal pollutants, especially heavy metals from anthropogenic sources such as metallurgical industries’ waste including mining, smelting, casting or production of nuclear fuel, including mining, concentrate production and uranium processing ends in the environment contamination (water and soil) and risk to human health around the facilities of this type of industrial activity. There are different methods that can be used to remove these contaminants from water and soil. These are very expensive and time-consuming. In this case, the people have been forced to leave the area and the decontamination is not done. For example, in the case of Chernobyl accident, an area of 30 km around the plant was emptied of human life. A very efficient and cost-effective method for decontamination of the soil and the water is phytoremediation. In this method, the plants preferentially native plants which are more adaptive to the regional climate are well used. In this study, three types of plants including Alfalfa, Sunflower and wheat were used to Barium decontamination. Alfalfa and Sunflower were not grown good enough in Saghand mine’s soil sample. This can be due to non-native origin of these plants. But, Wheat rise in Saghand Uranium Mine soil sample was satisfactory. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 4 types of acids inclusive nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid on the removal efficiency of Barium by Wheat. Our results indicate the increase of Barium absorption in the presence of citric acid in the soil. In this paper, we will present our research and laboratory results.

Keywords: phytoremediation, heavy metal, wheat, soil

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41 Addressing the Biocide Residue Issue in Museum Collections Already in the Planning Phase: An Investigation Into the Decontamination of Biocide Polluted Museum Collections Using the Temperature and Humidity Controlled Integrated Contamination Manageme

Authors: Nikolaus Wilke, Boaz Paz


Museum staff, conservators, restorers, curators, registrars, art handlers but potentially also museum visitors are often exposed to the harmful effects of biocides, which have been applied to collections in the past for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Due to stable light, moisture, and temperature conditions, the biocidal active ingredients were preserved for much longer than originally assumed by chemists, pest controllers, and museum scientists. Given the requirements to minimize the use and handling of toxic substances and the obligations of employers regarding safe working environments for their employees, but also for visitors, the museum sector worldwide needs adequate decontamination solutions. Today there are millions of contaminated objects in museums. This paper introduces the results of a systematic investigation into the reduction rate of biocide contamination in various organic materials that were treated with the humidity and temperature controlled ICM (Integrated Contamination Management) method. In the past, collections were treated with a wide range, at times even with a combination of toxins, either preventively or to eliminate active insect or fungi infestations. It was only later that most of those toxins were recognized as CMR (cancerogenic mutagen reprotoxic) substances. Among them were numerous chemical substances that are banned today because of their toxicity. While the biocidal effect of inorganic salts such as arsenic (arsenic(III) oxide), sublimate (mercury(II) chloride), copper oxychloride (basic copper chloride) and zinc chloride was known very early on, organic tar distillates such as paradichlorobenzene, carbolineum, creosote and naphthalene were increasingly used from the 19th century onwards, especially as wood preservatives. With the rapid development of organic synthesis chemistry in the 20th century and the development of highly effective warfare agents, pesticides and fungicides, these substances were replaced by chlorogenic compounds (e.g. γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hormone-like derivatives such as synthetic pyrethroids (e.g., permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin) and phosphoric acid esters (e.g., dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos). Today we know that textile artifacts (costumes, uniforms, carpets, tapestries), wooden objects, herbaria, libraries, archives and historical wall decorations made of fabric, paper and leather were also widely treated with toxic inorganic and organic substances. The migration (emission) of pollutants from the contaminated objects leads to continuous (secondary) contamination and accumulation in the indoor air and dust. It is important to note that many of mentioned toxic substances are also material-damaging; they cause discoloration and corrosion. Some, such as DDT, form crystals, which in turn can cause micro tectonic, destructive shifting, for example, in paint layers. Museums must integrate sustainable solutions to address the residual biocide problems already in the planning phase. Gas and dust phase measurements and analysis must become standard as well as methods of decontamination.

Keywords: biocides, decontamination, museum collections, toxic substances in museums

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40 Bench-scale Evaluation of Alternative-to-Chlorination Disinfection Technologies for the Treatment of the Maltese Tap-water

Authors: Georgios Psakis, Imren Rahbay, David Spiteri, Jeanice Mallia, Martin Polidano, Vasilis P. Valdramidis


Absence of surface water and progressive groundwater quality deterioration have exacerbated scarcity rapidly, making the Mediterranean island of Malta one of the most water-stressed countries in Europe. Water scarcity challenges have been addressed by reverse osmosis desalination of seawater, 60% of which is blended with groundwater to form the current potable tap-water supply. Chlorination has been the adopted method of water disinfection prior to distribution. However, with the Malteseconsumer chlorine sensory-threshold being as low as 0.34 ppm, presence of chorine residuals and chlorination by-products in the distributed tap-water impacts negatively on its organoleptic attributes, deterring the public from consuming it. As part of the PURILMA initiative, and with the aim of minimizing the impact of chlorine residual on the quality of the distributed water, UV-C, and hydrosonication, have been identified as cost- and energy-effective decontamination alternatives, paving the way for more sustainable water management. Bench-scale assessment of the decontamination efficiency of UV-C (254 nm), revealed 4.7-Log10 inactivation for both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis at 36 mJ/cm2. At >200 mJ/cm2fluence rates, there was a systematic 2-Log10 difference in the reductions exhibited by E. coli and E. faecalis to suggest that UV-C disinfection was more effective against E. coli. Hybrid treatment schemes involving hydrosonication(at 9.5 and 12.5 dm3/min flow rates with 1-5 MPa maximum pressure) and UV-C showed at least 1.1-fold greater bactericidal activity relative to the individualized UV-C treatments. The observed inactivation appeared to have stemmed from additive effects of the combined treatments, with hydrosonication-generated reactive oxygen species enhancing the biocidal activity of UV-C.

Keywords: disinfection, groundwater, hydrosonication, UV-C

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39 Solar Energy for Decontamination of Ricinus communis

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


The solar energy was used as a source of heating in Ricinus communis pie with the objective of eliminating or minimizing the percentage of the poison in it, so that it can be used as animal feed. A solar cylinder and plane collector were used as heating system. In the focal area of the solar concentrator a gutter support endowed with stove effect was placed. Parameters that denote the efficiency of the systems for the proposed objective was analyzed.

Keywords: solar energy, concentrate, Ricinus communis, temperature

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38 Comparison Study of 70% Ethanol Effect on Direct and Retrival Culture of Contaminated Umblical Cord Tissue for Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ganeshkumar, Ashika, Valavan, Ramesh, Thangam, Chirayu


MSCs are found in much higher concentration in the Wharton’s jelly compared to the umbilical cord blood, which is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue is collected at the time of birth; it is processed and stored in liquid nitrogen for future therapeutical purpose. The source of contamination might be either from vaginal tract of mother or from hospital environment or from personal handling during cord tissue sample collection. If the sample were contaminated, decontamination procedure will be done with 70% ethanol (1 minute) in order to avoid sample rejection. Ethanol is effective against a wide range of bacteria, protozoa and fungi and has low toxicity to humans. Among the 1954 samples taken for the study, 24 samples were found to be contaminated with microorganism. The organisms isolated from the positive samples were found to be E. coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis. Among these organisms 70% ethanol successfully eliminated E. coli, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Proteus mirabilis. 70% ethanol was unsuccessful in eliminating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aueroginosa have the ability to form biofilm that make them resistant to alcohol. Biofilm act as protective layer for bacteria and which protects them from host defense and antibiotic wash. Finally it was found 70% ethanol wash saved 58.3% cord tissue samples from rejection and it is ineffective against 41% of the samples. The contamination rate can be reduced by maintaining proper aseptic techniques during sample collection and processing.

Keywords: umblical cord tissue, decontamination, 70% ethanol effectiveness, contamination

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37 Preliminary Evaluation of Decommissioning Wastes for the First Commercial Nuclear Power Reactor in South Korea

Authors: Kyomin Lee, Joohee Kim, Sangho Kang


The commercial nuclear power reactor in South Korea, Kori Unit 1, which was a 587 MWe pressurized water reactor that started operation since 1978, was permanently shut down in June 2017 without an additional operating license extension. The Kori 1 Unit is scheduled to become the nuclear power unit to enter the decommissioning phase. In this study, the preliminary evaluation of the decommissioning wastes for the Kori Unit 1 was performed based on the following series of process: firstly, the plant inventory is investigated based on various documents (i.e., equipment/ component list, construction records, general arrangement drawings). Secondly, the radiological conditions of systems, structures and components (SSCs) are established to estimate the amount of radioactive waste by waste classification. Third, the waste management strategies for Kori Unit 1 including waste packaging are established. Forth, selection of the proper decontamination and dismantling (D&D) technologies is made considering the various factors. Finally, the amount of decommissioning waste by classification for Kori 1 is estimated using the DeCAT program, which was developed by KEPCO-E&C for a decommissioning cost estimation. The preliminary evaluation results have shown that the expected amounts of decommissioning wastes were less than about 2% and 8% of the total wastes generated (i.e., sum of clean wastes and radwastes) before/after waste processing, respectively, and it was found that the majority of contaminated material was carbon or alloy steel and stainless steel. In addition, within the range of availability of information, the results of the evaluation were compared with the results from the various decommissioning experiences data or international/national decommissioning study. The comparison results have shown that the radioactive waste amount from Kori Unit 1 decommissioning were much less than those from the plants decommissioned in U.S. and were comparable to those from the plants in Europe. This result comes from the difference of disposal cost and clearance criteria (i.e., free release level) between U.S. and non-U.S. The preliminary evaluation performed using the methodology established in this study will be useful as a important information in establishing the decommissioning planning for the decommissioning schedule and waste management strategy establishment including the transportation, packaging, handling, and disposal of radioactive wastes.

Keywords: characterization, classification, decommissioning, decontamination and dismantling, Kori 1, radioactive waste

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36 Farmers Perception in Pesticide Usage in Curry Leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.))

Authors: Swarupa Shashi Senivarapu Vemuri


Curry leaf (Murraya koeinigii (L.)) exported from India had insecticide residues above maximum residue limits, which are hazardous to consumer health and caused rejection of the commodity at the point of entry in Europe and middle east resulting in a check on export of curry leaf. Hence to study current pesticide usage patterns in major curry leaf growing areas, a survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out in curry leaf growing areas in Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2014-15, by interviewing farmers growing curry leaf utilizing the questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of farmers are less, where 13.96 per cent were only high school educated, and 13.96% were illiterates. 18.60% farmers were found cultivating curry leaf crop in less than 1 acre of land, 32.56% in 2-5 acres, 20.93% in 5-10 acres and 27.91% of the farmers in more than 10 acres of land. Majority of the curry leaf farmers (93.03%) used pesticide mixtures rather than applying single pesticide at a time, basically to save time, labour, money and to combat two or more pests with single spray. About 53.48% of farmers applied pesticides at 2 days interval followed by 34.89% of the farmers at 4 days interval, and about 11.63% of the farmers sprayed at weekly intervals. Only 27.91% of farmers thought that the quantity of pesticides used at their farm is adequate, 90.69% of farmers had perception that pesticides are helpful in getting good returns. 83.72% of farmers felt that crop change is the only way to control sucking pests which damages whole crop. About 4.65% of the curry leaf farmers opined that integrated pest management practices are alternative to pesticides and only 11.63% of farmers felt natural control as an alternative to pesticides. About 65.12% of farmers had perception that high pesticide dose will give higher yields. However, in general, Curry leaf farmers preferred to contact pesticide dealers (100%) and were not interested in contacting either agricultural officer or a scientist. Farmers were aware of endosulfan ban 93.04%), in contrast, only 65.12, per cent of farmers knew about the ban of monocrotophos on vegetables. Very few farmers knew about pesticide residues and decontamination by washing. Extension educational interventions are necessary to produce fresh curry leaf free from pesticide residues.

Keywords: Curry leaf, decontamination, endosulfan, leaf roller, psyllids, tetranychid mite

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35 Text Mining Analysis of the Reconstruction Plans after the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Minami Ito, Akihiro Iijima


On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. It is important to build a sustainable society through the reconstruction process rather than simply restoring the infrastructure. To compare the goals of reconstruction plans of quake-stricken municipalities, Japanese language morphological analysis was performed by using text mining techniques. Frequently-used nouns were sorted into four main categories of “life”, “disaster prevention”, “economy”, and “harmony with environment”. Because Soma City is affected by nuclear accident, sentences tagged to “harmony with environment” tended to be frequent compared to the other municipalities. Results from cluster analysis and principle component analysis clearly indicated that the local government reinforces the efforts to reduce risks from radiation exposure as a top priority.

Keywords: eco-friendly reconstruction, harmony with environment, decontamination, nuclear disaster

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34 Phytoremediation Potenciality of ‘Polypogon monspeliensis L. in Detoxification of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Mozhgan Farzami Sepehr, Farhad Nourozi


In a greenhouse study, decontamination capacity of the species Polypogon monspoliensis, for detoxification of petroleum-polluted soils caused by sewage and waste materials of Tehran Petroleum Refinery. For this purpose, the amount of total oil and grease before and 45 days after transplanting one-month-old seedlings in the soils of five different treatments in which pollution-free agricultural soil and contaminated soil were mixed together with the weight ratio of respectively 1 to 9 (% 10), 2 to 8 (%20), 3 to 7 (%30) , 4 to 6 (%40), and 5 to 5 (%50) were evaluated and compared with the amounts obtained from control treatment without vegetation, but with the same concentration of pollution. Findings demonstrated that the maximum reduction in the petroleum rate ,as much as 84.85 percent, is related to the treatment 10% containing the plant. Increasing the shoot height in treatments 10% and 20% as well as the root dry and fresh weight in treatments 10% , 20% , and 30% shows that probably activity of more rhizosphere microorganisms of the plant in these treatments has led to the improvement in growth of plant organs comparing to the treatments without pollution.

Keywords: phytoremediation, total oil and grease, rhizosphere, microorganisms, petroleum-contaminated soil

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33 Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants

Authors: Samira Ferhat, Redha Alouaoui, Leila Trifi, Abdelmalek Badis


The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

Keywords: surfactants, biosurfactant, naphthalene, copper, critical micelle concentration, solubilization, desorption

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32 Investigation on the Changes in the Chemical Composition and Ecological State of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Metodi Mladenov


Heavy metals contamination of soils is a big problem mainly as a result of industrial production. From this point of view, this is of interests the processes for decontamination of soils for crop of production with low content of heavy metals and suitable for consumption from the animals and the peoples. In the current article, there are presented data for established changes in chemical composition and ecological state on soils contaminated from non-ferrous metallurgy manufacturing, for seven years time period. There was done investigation on alteration of pH, conductivity and contain of the next elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn and Al. Also, there was done visual observations under the processes of recovery of root-inhabitable soil layer and reforestation. Obtained data show friendly changes for the investigated indicators pH and conductivity and decreasing of content of some form analyzed elements. Visual observations show augmentation of plant cover areas and change in species structure with increase of number of shrubby and wood specimens.

Keywords: conductivity, contamination of soils, chemical composition, inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, heavy metals, visual observation

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31 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das


The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: acoustic doppler velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra

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30 Inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33092 by Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


High voltage electrical discharge plasmas are new nonthermal developing techniques used for water decontamination. To the full understanding of cell inactivation mechanisms, this study brings inactivation, recovery and cellular leakage of L. innocua cells before and after the treatment. Bacterial solution (200 mL) of L. innocua was treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire, was in the gas phase and grounded electrode was in the liquid phase). Argon was injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min, positive polarity and conductivity of media of 100 µS/cm were chosen to define listed parameters. With a longer treatment time inactivation was higher as well as the increase in cellular leakage. Despite total inactivation recovery of cells occurred probably because of a high leakage of proteins, compared to lower leakage of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In order to define mechanisms of inactivation further research is needed.

Keywords: Listeria innocua ATCC 33092, inactivation, gas phase plasma, cellular leakage, recovery of cells

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29 Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination

Authors: Pei-Lin Yueh, Bor-Yann Chen, Chuan-Chung Hsueh


This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple benzene rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles, redox-mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, and RBk5) were clearly disclosed. With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and 198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented. This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting reactor scheme for operation.

Keywords: redox mediators, dye decolorization, bioelectricity generation, microbial fuel cells

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28 Model Evaluation of Nanosecond, High-Intensity Electric Pulses Induced Cellular Apoptosis

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra Joshi


High-intensity, nanosecond, pulsed electric fields have been shown to be useful non-thermal tools capable of producing a variety of specific cellular responses. While reversible and temporary changes are often desired based on electromanipulation, irreversible effects can also be important objectives. These include elimination of tumor cells and bacterial decontamination. A simple model-based rate-equation treatment of the various cellular biochemical processes was used to qualitatively predict the pulse number-dependent caspase activation and cell survival trends. The model incorporated the caspase-8 associated extrinsic pathway, the delay inherent in its activation, cytochrome c release, and the internal feedback mechanism between caspase-3 and Bid. Results were roughly in keeping with the experimental cell-survival data. A pulse-number threshold was predicted followed by a near-exponential fall-off. The intrinsic pathway was shown to be much weaker as compared to the extrinsic mechanism for electric pulse induced cell apoptosis. Also, delays of about an hour are predicted for detectable molecular concentration increases following electrical pulsing.

Keywords: apoptosis, cell survival, model, pathway

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27 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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26 Interventions to Control Listeria Monocytogenes on Sliced Mushrooms

Authors: Alanna Goodman, Kayla Murray, Keith Warriner


The following reports on a comparative study on the efficacy of different decontamination technologies to decrease Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto white sliced mushrooms and assesses the fate of residual levels during posttreatment storage under aerobic conditions at 8uC. The treatments were chemical (hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, ozonated water, electrolyzed water, chitosan, lactic acid), biological (Listeria bacteriophages), and physical (UV-C, UV:hydrogen peroxide). None of the treatments achieved .1.2 log CFU reduction in L. monocytogenes levels; bacteriophages at a multiplicity of infection of 100 and 3% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide were the most effective of the treatments tested. However, growth of residual L. monocytogenes during posttreatment storage attained levels equal to or greater than levels in the nontreated controls. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited on mushrooms treated with chitosan, electrolyzed water, peroxyacetic acid, or UV. Yet, L. monocytogenes inoculated onto mushrooms and treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide decreased during posttreatment storage, through a combination of sublethal injury and dehydration of the mushroom surface. Although mushrooms treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide became darker during storage, the samples were visually acceptable relative to controls. In conclusion, of the treatments evaluated, UV:hydrogen peroxide holds promise to control L. monocytogenes on mushroom surfaces.

Keywords: listeria monocytogenes, sliced mushrooms, bacteriophages, UV, sanitizers

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25 Synthesis and Applications of Biosorbent from Barley Husk for Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Bacteria from Water

Authors: Sudarshan Kalsulkar, Sunil S. Bhagwat


Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure. Activated carbons (AC) are one such efficient biosorbents made by utilizing lignocellulosic materials from agricultural waste. Steam activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from Barley husk. Its synthesis parameters of time and temperature were optimized. Its physico-chemical properties like density, surface area, pore volume, Methylene blue and Iodine values were characterized. BET surface area was found to be 42 m²/g. Batch Adsorption tests were carried out to determine the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for various metal ions. Cd+2 48.74 mg/g, Pb+2 19.28 mg/g, Hg+2 39.1mg/g were the respective qmax values. pH and time were optimized for adsorption of each ion. Column Adsorptions were carried for each to obtain breakthrough data. Microbial adsorption was carried using E. coli K12 strain. 78% reduction in cell count was observed at operating conditions. Thus the synthesized Barley husk AC can be an economically feasible replacement for commercially available AC prepared from the costlier coconut shells. Breweries and malting industries where barley husk is a primary waste generated on a large scale can be a good source for bulk raw material.

Keywords: activated carbon, Barley husk, biosorption, decontamination, heavy metal removal, water treatment

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24 Role of the Marshes in the Natural Decontamination of Surface Water: A Case of the Redjla Marsh, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, S. Mahdid, F. Zahi


The marsh is the impermeable depression. It is not very deep and presents the stagnant water. Their water level varies according to the contributions of water (rain, groundwater, stream etc.), when this last reaches the maximum level of the marsh, it flows towards the downstream through the discharge system. The marsh accumulates all the liquid and solid contributions of upstream part. In the North-East Algerian, the Redjla marsh is located on the course of the Tassift river. Its contributions of water come from the upstream part of the river, often characterized by the presence of several pollutants in water related to the urban effluents, and its discharge system supply the downstream part of the river. In order to determine the effect of the marsh on the water quality of the river this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and water chemistry of the river were carried out, before and after the marsh, during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that the marsh plays the role of a natural purifier of water of Tassift river, present by drops of conductivity and concentration of the pollutants (ammonium, phosphate, iron, chlorides and bicarbonates) between the upstream part and downstream of the marsh. That indicates that these pollutants are transformed with other chemical forms (case of ammonium towards nitrate), precipitated in complex forms or/and adsorbed by the sediments of the marsh. This storage of the pollutants in the ground of the marsh will be later on a source of pollution for the plants and river water.

Keywords: marsh, natural purification, urban pollution, nitrogen

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23 Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric

Authors: J. R. Mudakavi, K. Puttanna


Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Keywords: activated carbon fabric, hexavalent chromium, adsorption, drinking water

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