Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: simulators

54 Analysis of the Benefits of Motion Simulators in 5th Generation Fighter Pilots' Training

Authors: Ali Mithad Emre

Abstract:

In military aviation, the use of flight simulators has proliferated recently in order to train fifth generation fighter pilots. With these simulators, pilots can carry out real-time flights resulting in seeing their faults and can perform emergency drills prior to real flights. Since we cannot risk losing the aircraft and the pilot himself/herself in the flight training process, flight simulators are of great importance to adapt the fighter pilots competently to real flights aboard the fifth generation aircraft. The real flights are impossible to simulate thoroughly on the ground. To some extent, the fixed-based simulators may assist the pilot to steer aircraft technically and visually but flight simulators can’t trick the pilot’s vestibular, sensory, and perceptual systems without motion platforms. This paper discusses the benefits of motion simulators for fifth generation fighter pilots’ training in preference to the fixed-based counterparts by analyzing their pros and cons.

Keywords: military, pilot, sickness, simulator

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53 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali

Abstract:

The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
52 The Impact of Physics Taught with Simulators and Texts in Brazilian High School: A Study in the Adult and Youth Education

Authors: Leandro Marcos Alves Vaz

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The teaching of physics in Brazilian public schools emphasizes strongly the theoretical aspects of this science, showing its philosophical and mathematical basis, but neglecting its experimental character. Perhaps the lack of science laboratories explains this practice. In this work, we present a method of teaching physics using the computer. As alternatives to real experiments, we have the trials through simulators, many of which are free software available on the internet. In order to develop a study on the use of simulators in teaching, knowing the impossibility of simulations on all topics in a given subject, we combined these programs with phenomenological and/or experimental texts in order to mitigate this limitation. This study proposes the use of simulators and the debate using phenomenological/experimental texts on electrostatic theme in groups of the 3rd year of EJA (Adult and Youth Education) in order to verify the advantages of this methodology. Some benefits of the hybridization of the traditional method with the tools used were: Greater motivation of the students in learning, development of experimental notions, proactive socialization to learning, greater easiness to understand some concepts and the creation of collaborative activities that can reduce timidity of part of the students.

Keywords: experimentation, learning physical, simulators, youth and adult

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51 Circle of Learning Using High-Fidelity Simulators Promoting a Better Understanding of Resident Physicians on Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Emergency Medicine

Authors: Takamitsu Kodama, Eiji Kawamoto

Abstract:

Introduction: Ultrasound in emergency room has advantages of safer, faster, repeatable and noninvasive. Especially focused Point-Of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) is used daily for prompt and accurate diagnoses, for quickly identifying critical and life-threatening conditions. That is why ultrasound has demonstrated its usefulness in emergency medicine. The true value of ultrasound has been once again recognized in recent years. It is thought that all resident physicians working at emergency room should perform an ultrasound scan to interpret signs and symptoms of deteriorating patients in the emergency room. However, a practical education on ultrasound is still in development. To resolve this issue, we established a new educational program using high-fidelity simulators and evaluated the efficacy of this course. Methods: Educational program includes didactic lectures and skill stations in half-day course. Instructor gives a lecture on POCUS such as Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) and/or Focused Assessment Transthoracic Echo (FATE) protocol at the beginning of the course. Then, attendees are provided for training of scanning with cooperation of normal simulated patients. In the end, attendees learn how to apply focused POCUS skills at clinical situation using high-fidelity simulators such as SonoSim® (SonoSim, Inc) and SimMan® 3G (Laerdal Medical). Evaluation was conducted through surveillance questionnaires to 19 attendees after two pilot courses. The questionnaires were focused on understanding course concept and satisfaction. Results: All attendees answered the questionnaires. With respect to the degree of understanding, 12 attendees (number of valid responses: 13) scored four or more points out of five points. High-fidelity simulators, especially SonoSim® was highly appreciated to enhance learning how to handle ultrasound at an actual practice site by 11 attendees (number of valid responses: 12). All attendees encouraged colleagues to take this course because the high level of satisfaction was achieved. Discussion: Newly introduced educational course using high-fidelity simulators realizes the circle of learning to deepen the understanding on focused POCUS by gradual stages. SonoSim® can faithfully reproduce scan images with pathologic findings of ultrasound and provide experimental learning for a growth number of beginners such as resident physicians. In addition, valuable education can be provided if it is used combined with SimMan® 3G. Conclusions: Newly introduced educational course using high-fidelity simulators is supposed to be effective and helps in providing better education compared with conventional courses for emergency physicians.

Keywords: point-of-care ultrasound, high-fidelity simulators, education, circle of learning

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50 Cache Analysis and Software Optimizations for Faster on-Chip Network Simulations

Authors: Khyamling Parane, B. M. Prabhu Prasad, Basavaraj Talawar

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Fast simulations are critical in reducing time to market in CMPs and SoCs. Several simulators have been used to evaluate the performance and power consumed by Network-on-Chips. Researchers and designers rely upon these simulators for design space exploration of NoC architectures. Our experiments show that simulating large NoC topologies take hours to several days for completion. To speed up the simulations, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the hotspots in simulator source code. Among several simulators available, we choose Booksim2.0, as it is being extensively used in the NoC community. In this paper, we analyze the cache and memory system behaviour of Booksim2.0 to accurately monitor input dependent performance bottlenecks. Our measurements show that cache and memory usage patterns vary widely based on the input parameters given to Booksim2.0. Based on these measurements, the cache configuration having least misses has been identified. To further reduce the cache misses, we use software optimization techniques such as removal of unused functions, loop interchanging and replacing post-increment operator with pre-increment operator for non-primitive data types. The cache misses were reduced by 18.52%, 5.34% and 3.91% by employing above technology respectively. We also employ thread parallelization and vectorization to improve the overall performance of Booksim2.0. The OpenMP programming model and SIMD are used for parallelizing and vectorizing the more time-consuming portions of Booksim2.0. Speedups of 2.93x and 3.97x were observed for the Mesh topology with 30 × 30 network size by employing thread parallelization and vectorization respectively.

Keywords: cache behaviour, network-on-chip, performance profiling, vectorization

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49 Integration of Technology into Nursing Education: A Collaboration between College of Nursing and University Research Center

Authors: Lori Lioce, Gary Maddux, Norven Goddard, Ishella Fogle, Bernard Schroer

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This paper presents the integration of technologies into nursing education. The collaborative effort includes the College of Nursing (CoN) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and the UAH Systems Management and Production Center (SMAP). The faculty at the CoN conducts needs assessments to identify education and training requirements. A team of CoN faculty and SMAP engineers then prioritize these requirements and establish improvement/development teams. The development teams consist of nurses to evaluate the models and to provide feedback and of undergraduate engineering students and their senior staff mentors from SMAP. The SMAP engineering staff develops and creates the physical models using 3D printing, silicone molds and specialized molding mixtures and techniques. The collaboration has focused on developing teaching and training, or clinical, simulators. In addition, the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic has intensified this relationship, as 3D modeling shifted to supplied personal protection equipment (PPE) to local health care providers. A secondary collaboration has been introducing students to clinical benchmarking through the UAH Center for Management and Economic Research. As a result of these successful collaborations the Model Exchange & Development of Nursing & Engineering Technology (MEDNET) has been established. MEDNET seeks to extend and expand the linkage between engineering and nursing to K-12 schools, technical schools and medical facilities in the region to the resources available from the CoN and SMAP. As an example, stereolithography (STL) files of the 3D printed models, along with the specifications to fabricate models, are available on the MEDNET website. Ten 3D printed models have been developed and are currently in use by the CoN. The following additional training simulators are currently under development:1) suture pads, 2) gelatin wound models and 3) printed wound tattoos. Specification sheets have been written for these simulations that describe the use, fabrication procedures and parts list. These specifications are available for viewing and download on MEDNET. Included in this paper are 1) descriptions of CoN, SMAP and MEDNET, 2) collaborative process used in product improvement/development, 3) 3D printed models of training and teaching simulators, 4) training simulators under development with specification sheets, 5) family care practice benchmarking, 6) integrating the simulators into the nursing curriculum, 7) utilizing MEDNET as a pandemic response, and 8) conclusions and lessons learned.

Keywords: 3D printing, nursing education, simulation, trainers

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48 Case for Simulating Consumer Response to Feed in Tariff Based on Socio-Economic Parameters

Authors: Fahad Javed, Tasneem Akhter, Maria Zafar, Adnan Shafique

Abstract:

Evaluation and quantification of techniques is critical element of research and development of technology. Simulations and models play an important role in providing the tools for such assessments. When we look at technologies which impact or is dependent on an average Joe consumer then modeling the socio-economic and psychological aspects of the consumer also gain an importance. For feed in tariff for home consumers which is being deployed for average consumer may force many consumers to be adapters of the technology. Understanding how consumers will adapt this technologies thus hold as much significance as evaluating how the techniques would work in consumer agnostic scenarios. In this paper we first build the case for simulators which accommodate socio-economic realities of the consumers to evaluate smart grid technologies, provide a glossary of data that can aid in this effort and present an abstract model to capture and simulate consumers' adaptation and behavioral response to smart grid technologies. We provide a case study to express the power of such simulators.

Keywords: smart grids, simulation, socio-economic parameters, feed in tariff (FiT), forecasting

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47 Using Rainfall Simulators to Design and Assess the Post-Mining Erosional Stability

Authors: Ashraf M. Khalifa, Hwat Bing So, Greg Maddocks

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Changes to the mining environmental approvals process in Queensland have been rolled out under the MERFP Act (2018). This includes requirements for a Progressive Rehabilitation and Closure Plan (PRC Plan). Key considerations of the landform design report within the PRC Plan must include: (i) identification of materials available for landform rehabilitation, including their ability to achieve the required landform design outcomes, (ii) erosion assessments to determine landform heights, gradients, profiles, and material placement, (iii) slope profile design considering the interactions between soil erodibility, rainfall erosivity, landform height, gradient, and vegetation cover to identify acceptable erosion rates over a long-term average, (iv) an analysis of future stability based on the factors described above e.g., erosion and /or landform evolution modelling. ACARP funded an extensive and thorough erosion assessment program using rainfall simulators from 1998 to 2010. The ACARP program included laboratory assessment of 35 soil and spoil samples from 16 coal mines and samples from a gold mine in Queensland using 3 x 0.8 m laboratory rainfall simulator. The reliability of the laboratory rainfall simulator was verified through field measurements using larger flumes 20 x 5 meters and catchment scale measurements at three sites (3 different catchments, average area of 2.5 ha each). Soil cover systems are a primary component of a constructed mine landform. The primary functions of a soil cover system are to sustain vegetation and limit the infiltration of water and oxygen into underlying reactive mine waste. If the external surface of the landform erodes, the functions of the cover system cannot be maintained, and the cover system will most likely fail. Assessing a constructed landform’s potential ‘long-term’ erosion stability requires defensible erosion rate thresholds below which rehabilitation landform designs are considered acceptably erosion-resistant or ‘stable’. The process used to quantify erosion rates using rainfall simulators (flumes) to measure rill and inter-rill erosion on bulk samples under laboratory conditions or on in-situ material under field conditions will be explained.

Keywords: open-cut, mining, erosion, rainfall simulator

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46 Developing a Driving Simulator with a Navigation System to Measure Driver Distraction, Workload, Driving Safety and Performance

Authors: Tamer E. Yared

Abstract:

The use of driving simulators has made laboratory testing easier. It has been proven to be valid for testing driving ability by many researchers. One benefit of using driving simulators is keeping the human subjects away from traffic hazards, which drivers usually face in a real driving environment while performing a driving experiment. In this study, a driving simulator was developed with a navigation system using a game development software (Unity 3D) and C-sharp codes to measure and evaluate driving performance, safety, and workload for different driving tasks. The driving simulator hardware included a gaming steering wheel and pedals as well as a monitor to view the driving tasks. Moreover, driver distraction was evaluated by utilizing an eye-tracking system working in conjunction with the driving simulator. Twenty subjects were recruited to evaluate driver distraction, workload, driving safety, and performance, as well as provide their feedback about the driving simulator. The subjects’ feedback was obtained by filling a survey after conducting several driving tasks. The main question of that survey was asking the subjects to compare driving on the driving simulator with real driving. Furthermore, other aspects of the driving simulator were evaluated by the subjects in the survey. The survey revealed that the recruited subjects gave an average score of 7.5 out of 10 to the driving simulator when compared to real driving, where the scores ranged between 6 and 8.5. This study is a preliminary effort that opens the door for more improvements to the driving simulator in terms of hardware and software development, which will contribute significantly to driving ability testing.

Keywords: driver distraction, driving performance, driving safety, driving simulator, driving workload, navigation system

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45 An Assessment of Different Blade Tip Timing (BTT) Algorithms Using an Experimentally Validated Finite Element Model Simulator

Authors: Mohamed Mohamed, Philip Bonello, Peter Russhard

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Blade Tip Timing (BTT) is a technology concerned with the estimation of both frequency and amplitude of rotating blades. A BTT system comprises two main parts: (a) the arrival time measurement system, and (b) the analysis algorithms. Simulators play an important role in the development of the analysis algorithms since they generate blade tip displacement data from the simulated blade vibration under controlled conditions. This enables an assessment of the performance of the different algorithms with respect to their ability to accurately reproduce the original simulated vibration. Such an assessment is usually not possible with real engine data since there is no practical alternative to BTT for blade vibration measurement. Most simulators used in the literature are based on a simple spring-mass-damper model to determine the vibration. In this work, a more realistic experimentally validated simulator based on the Finite Element (FE) model of a bladed disc (blisk) is first presented. It is then used to generate the necessary data for the assessment of different BTT algorithms. The FE modelling is validated using both a hammer test and two firewire cameras for the mode shapes. A number of autoregressive methods, fitting methods and state-of-the-art inverse methods (i.e. Russhard) are compared. All methods are compared with respect to both synchronous and asynchronous excitations with both single and simultaneous frequencies. The study assesses the applicability of each method for different conditions of vibration, amount of sampling data, and testing facilities, according to its performance and efficiency under these conditions.

Keywords: blade tip timing, blisk, finite element, vibration measurement

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44 Use of Simulation in Medical Education: Role and Challenges

Authors: Raneem Osama Salem, Ayesha Nuzhat, Fatimah Nasser Al Shehri, Nasser Al Hamdan

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Background: Recently, most medical schools around the globe are using simulation for teaching and assessing students’ clinical skills and competence. There are many obstacles that could face students and faculty when simulation sessions are introduced into undergraduate curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study is to obtain the opinion of undergraduate medical students and our faculty regarding the role of simulation in undergraduate curriculum, the simulation modalities used, and perceived barriers in implementing stimulation sessions. Methods: To address the role of simulation, modalities used, and perceived challenges to implementation of simulation sessions, a self-administered pilot tested questionnaire with 18 items using a 5 point Likert scale was distributed. Participants included undergraduate male medical students (n=125) and female students (n=70) as well as the faculty members (n=14). Result: Various learning outcomes are achieved and improved through the technology enhanced simulation sessions such as communication skills, diagnostic skills, procedural skills, self-confidence, and integration of basic and clinical sciences. The use of high fidelity simulators, simulated patients and task trainers was more desirable by our students and faculty for teaching and learning as well as an evaluation tool. According to most of the students,' institutional support in terms of resources, staff and duration of sessions was adequate. However, motivation to participate in the sessions and provision of adequate feedback by the staff was a constraint. Conclusion: The use of simulation laboratory is of great benefit to the students and a great teaching tool for the staff to ensure students learning of the various skills.

Keywords: simulators, medical students, skills, simulated patients, performance, challenges, skill laboratory

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
43 Efficiency of Maritime Simulator Training in Oil Spill Response Competence Development

Authors: Antti Lanki, Justiina Halonen, Juuso Punnonen, Emmi Rantavuo

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Marine oil spill response operation requires extensive vessel maneuvering and navigation skills. At-sea oil containment and recovery include both single vessel and multi-vessel operations. Towing long oil containment booms that are several hundreds of meters in length, is a challenge in itself. Boom deployment and towing in multi-vessel configurations is an added challenge that requires precise coordination and control of the vessels. Efficient communication, as a prerequisite for shared situational awareness, is needed in order to execute the response task effectively. To gain and maintain adequate maritime skills, practical training is needed. Field exercises are the most effective way of learning, but especially the related vessel operations are resource-intensive and costly. Field exercises may also be affected by environmental limitations such as high sea-state or other adverse weather conditions. In Finland, the seasonal ice-coverage also limits the training period to summer seasons only. In addition, environmental sensitiveness of the sea area restricts the use of real oil or other target substances. This paper examines, whether maritime simulator training can offer a complementary method to overcome the training challenges related to field exercises. The objective is to assess the efficiency and the learning impact of simulator training, and the specific skills that can be trained most effectively in simulators. This paper provides an overview of learning results from two oil spill response pilot courses, in which maritime navigational bridge simulators were used to train the oil spill response authorities. The simulators were equipped with an oil spill functionality module. The courses were targeted at coastal Fire and Rescue Services responsible for near shore oil spill response in Finland. The competence levels of the participants were surveyed before and after the course in order to measure potential shifts in competencies due to the simulator training. In addition to the quantitative analysis, the efficiency of the simulator training is evaluated qualitatively through feedback from the participants. The results indicate that simulator training is a valid and effective method for developing marine oil spill response competencies that complement traditional field exercises. Simulator training provides a safe environment for assessing various oil containment and recovery tactics. One of the main benefits of the simulator training was found to be the immediate feedback the spill modelling software provides on the oil spill behaviour as a reaction to response measures.

Keywords: maritime training, oil spill response, simulation, vessel manoeuvring

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42 Parametric Analysis of Lumped Devices Modeling Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain

Authors: Felipe M. de Freitas, Icaro V. Soares, Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves, Úrsula D. C. Resende

Abstract:

The SPICE-based simulators are quite robust and widely used for simulation of electronic circuits, their algorithms support linear and non-linear lumped components and they can manipulate an expressive amount of encapsulated elements. Despite the great potential of these simulators based on SPICE in the analysis of quasi-static electromagnetic field interaction, that is, at low frequency, these simulators are limited when applied to microwave hybrid circuits in which there are both lumped and distributed elements. Usually the spatial discretization of the FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method is done according to the actual size of the element under analysis. After spatial discretization, the Courant Stability Criterion calculates the maximum temporal discretization accepted for such spatial discretization and for the propagation velocity of the wave. This criterion guarantees the stability conditions for the leapfrogging of the Yee algorithm; however, it is known that for the field update, the stability of the complete FDTD procedure depends on factors other than just the stability of the Yee algorithm, because the FDTD program needs other algorithms in order to be useful in engineering problems. Examples of these algorithms are Absorbent Boundary Conditions (ABCs), excitation sources, subcellular techniques, grouped elements, and non-uniform or non-orthogonal meshes. In this work, the influence of the stability of the FDTD method in the modeling of concentrated elements such as resistive sources, resistors, capacitors, inductors and diode will be evaluated. In this paper is proposed, therefore, the electromagnetic modeling of electronic components in order to create models that satisfy the needs for simulations of circuits in ultra-wide frequencies. The models of the resistive source, the resistor, the capacitor, the inductor, and the diode will be evaluated, among the mathematical models for lumped components in the LE-FDTD method (Lumped-Element Finite-Difference Time-Domain), through the parametric analysis of Yee cells size which discretizes the lumped components. In this way, it is sought to find an ideal cell size so that the analysis in FDTD environment is in greater agreement with the expected circuit behavior, maintaining the stability conditions of this method. Based on the mathematical models and the theoretical basis of the required extensions of the FDTD method, the computational implementation of the models in Matlab® environment is carried out. The boundary condition Mur is used as the absorbing boundary of the FDTD method. The validation of the model is done through the comparison between the obtained results by the FDTD method through the electric field values and the currents in the components, and the analytical results using circuit parameters.

Keywords: hybrid circuits, LE-FDTD, lumped element, parametric analysis

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41 A Study of Recent Contribution on Simulation Tools for Network-on-Chip

Authors: Muthana Saleh Alalaki, Michael Opoku Agyeman

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The growth in the number of Intellectual Properties (IPs) or the number of cores on the same chip becomes a critical issue in System-on-Chip (SoC) due to the intra-communication problem between the chip elements. As a result, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a system architecture to overcome intra-communication issues. This paper presents a study of recent contributions on simulation tools for NoC. Furthermore, an overview of NoC is covered as well as a comparison between some NoC simulators to help facilitate research in on-chip communication.

Keywords: WiNoC, simulation tool, network-on-chip, SoC

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40 Power MOSFET Models Including Quasi-Saturation Effect

Authors: Abdelghafour Galadi

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In this paper, accurate power MOSFET models including quasi-saturation effect are presented. These models have no internal node voltages determined by the circuit simulator and use one JFET or one depletion mode MOSFET transistors controlled by an “effective” gate voltage taking into account the quasi-saturation effect. The proposed models achieve accurate simulation results with an average error percentage less than 9%, which is an improvement of 21 percentage points compared to the commonly used standard power MOSFET model. In addition, the models can be integrated in any available commercial circuit simulators by using their analytical equations. A description of the models will be provided along with the parameter extraction procedure.

Keywords: power MOSFET, drift layer, quasi-saturation effect, SPICE model

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
39 The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.

Keywords: space environment simulator, control system, architecture, automation control technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
38 Conceptual Design of Unmanned Aerial Targets

Authors: M. Adamski, J. Cwiklak

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The contemporary battlefield creates a demand for more costly and highly advanced munitions. Training personnel responsible for operations, as well as an immediate execution of combat tasks, which engage real assets, is unrealistic and economically not feasible. Owing to a wide array of exploited simulators and various types of imitators, it is possible to reduce the costs. One of the effective elements of training, which can be applied in the training of all service branches, are imitators of aerial targets. This research serves as an introduction to the commencement of design analysis over a real aerial target imitator. Within the project, the basic aerodynamic calculations were made, which enabled to determine its geometry, design layout, performance, as well as the mass balance of individual components. The conducted calculations of the parameters of flight characteristics come closer to the real performance of such unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: aerial target, aerodynamics, imitator, performance

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37 The Use of Computer Simulation as Technological Education for Crisis Management Staff

Authors: Jiří Barta, Josef Krahulec, Jiří F. Urbánek

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Education and practical training crisis management members are a topical issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of ‘smart solutions’ to education for crisis management staff. Currently, there are a large number of simulation tools, which notes that they are suitable for practical training of crisis management staff. The first part of the paper is focused on the introduction of the technology simulation tools. The simulators aim is to create a realistic environment for the practical training of extending units of crisis staff. The second part of the paper concerns the possibilities of using the simulation technology to the education process. The aim of this section is to introduce the practical capabilities and potential of the simulation programs for practical training of crisis management staff.

Keywords: crisis management staff, computer simulation, software, technological education

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36 Design of an Ultra High Frequency Rectifier for Wireless Power Systems by Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain

Authors: Felipe M. de Freitas, Ícaro V. Soares, Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves, Úrsula D. C. Resende

Abstract:

There is a dispersed energy in Radio Frequencies (RF) that can be reused to power electronics circuits such as: sensors, actuators, identification devices, among other systems, without wire connections or a battery supply requirement. In this context, there are different types of energy harvesting systems, including rectennas, coil systems, graphene and new materials. A secondary step of an energy harvesting system is the rectification of the collected signal which may be carried out, for example, by the combination of one or more Schottky diodes connected in series or shunt. In the case of a rectenna-based system, for instance, the diode used must be able to receive low power signals at ultra-high frequencies. Therefore, it is required low values of series resistance, junction capacitance and potential barrier voltage. Due to this low-power condition, voltage multiplier configurations are used such as voltage doublers or modified bridge converters. Lowpass filter (LPF) at the input, DC output filter, and a resistive load are also commonly used in the rectifier design. The electronic circuits projects are commonly analyzed through simulation in SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) environment. Despite the remarkable potential of SPICE-based simulators for complex circuit modeling and analysis of quasi-static electromagnetic fields interaction, i.e., at low frequency, these simulators are limited and they cannot model properly applications of microwave hybrid circuits in which there are both, lumped elements as well as distributed elements. This work proposes, therefore, the electromagnetic modelling of electronic components in order to create models that satisfy the needs for simulations of circuits in ultra-high frequencies, with application in rectifiers coupled to antennas, as in energy harvesting systems, that is, in rectennas. For this purpose, the numerical method FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) is applied and SPICE computational tools are used for comparison. In the present work, initially the Ampere-Maxwell equation is applied to the equations of current density and electric field within the FDTD method and its circuital relation with the voltage drop in the modeled component for the case of lumped parameter using the FDTD (Lumped-Element Finite-Difference Time-Domain) proposed in for the passive components and the one proposed in for the diode. Next, a rectifier is built with the essential requirements for operating rectenna energy harvesting systems and the FDTD results are compared with experimental measurements.

Keywords: energy harvesting system, LE-FDTD, rectenna, rectifier, wireless power systems

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35 Modeling the Transport of Charge Carriers in the Active Devices MESFET Based of GaInP by the Monte Carlo Method

Authors: N. Massoum, A. Guen. Bouazza, B. Bouazza, A. El Ouchdi

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The progress of industry integrated circuits in recent years has been pushed by continuous miniaturization of transistors. With the reduction of dimensions of components at 0.1 micron and below, new physical effects come into play as the standard simulators of two dimensions (2D) do not consider. In fact the third dimension comes into play because the transverse and longitudinal dimensions of the components are of the same order of magnitude. To describe the operation of such components with greater fidelity, we must refine simulation tools and adapted to take into account these phenomena. After an analytical study of the static characteristics of the component, according to the different operating modes, a numerical simulation is performed of field-effect transistor with submicron gate MESFET GaInP. The influence of the dimensions of the gate length is studied. The results are used to determine the optimal geometric and physical parameters of the component for their specific applications and uses.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, transient electron transport, MESFET device, GaInP

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34 Assessment of the Simulation Programs Usable to Support Decision Making Processes of the Critical Infrastructure Emergency Management

Authors: Jiří Barta, Oldřich Svoboda

Abstract:

This article deals with the issue of practical training of the management staff during emergency events in the frame of critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure represents one of the possible targets of destructive activities as well as operational accidents and incidents which can seriously influence the functioning of the system of ensuring the basic needs of the inhabitants. Therefore, protection of critical infrastructure and training of the staff in dealing with emergencies becomes a broadly discussed topic. Nowadays, the market offers a wide range of simulation tools which proclaim that they are suitable for practical training of management staff and completing their tasks. Another group of programs declares that they are not primarily designed for this type of simulations. However, after some minor adaptations, for example by adding or changing users‘ roles, they are able to fulfil the needs of practical training as well as the process of emergency simulation. This paper characterises and selects simulators and programs for simulating emergency events.

Keywords: computer simulation, Symos´97, simulation software, harmful substances, Konstruktivní simulace, SIMEX

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
33 PSS®E Based Modelling, Simulation and Synchronous Interconnection of Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India

Authors: Toushik Maiti, Saibal Chatterjee, Kamaljyoti Gogoi, Arijit Basuray

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Eastern Regional(ER) Grid and North Eastern Regional (NER) Grid are two major grids of Eastern Part of India. Both of the grid consists of voltage level 765kV, 400 kV, 220 kV and numerous buses at lower voltage range. Eastern Regional Grid and North Eastern Regional Grid are not only connected among themselves but are also connected to various other grids of India. ER and NER Grid having various HVDC lines or back to back systems which form the total network. The studied system comprises of 340 buses of different voltage levels and transmission lines running over a length of 32089 km. The validation of load flow has been done using IEEE STANDARD 30 bus system. The power flow simulation analysis has been performed after synchronizing both the Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India using Power System Simulators for Engineering (PSS®E) Important inferences has been drawn from the study.

Keywords: HVDC, load flow, PSS®E, unsymmetrical and symmetrical faults

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32 Head-Mounted Displays for HCI Validations While Driving

Authors: D. Reich, R. Stark

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To provide reliable and valid findings when evaluating innovative in-car devices in the automotive context highly realistic driving environments are recommended. Nowadays, in-car devices are mostly evaluated due to driving simulator studies followed by real car driving experiments. Driving simulators are characterized by high internal validity, but weak regarding ecological validity. Real car driving experiments are ecologically valid, but difficult to standardize, more time-robbing and costly. One economizing suggestion is to implement more immersive driving environments when applying driving simulator studies. This paper presents research comparing non-immersive standard PC conditions with mobile and highly immersive Oculus Rift conditions while performing the Lane Change Task (LCT). Subjective data with twenty participants show advantages regarding presence and immersion experience when performing the LCT with the Oculus Rift, but affect adversely cognitive workload and simulator sickness, compared to non-immersive PC condition.

Keywords: immersion, oculus rift, presence, situation awareness

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31 'iTheory': Mobile Way to Music Fundamentals

Authors: Marina Karaseva

Abstract:

The beginning of our century became a new digital epoch in the educational situation. Last decade the newest stage of this process had been initialized by the touch-screen mobile devices with program applications for them. The touch possibilities for learning fundamentals of music are of especially importance for music majors. The phenomenon of touching, firstly, makes it realistic to play on the screen as on music instrument, secondly, helps students to learn music theory while listening in its sound elements by music ear. Nowadays we can detect several levels of such mobile applications: from the basic ones devoting to the elementary music training such as intervals and chords recognition, to the more advanced applications which deal with music perception of non-major and minor modes, ethnic timbres, and complicated rhythms. The main purpose of the proposed paper is to disclose the main tendencies in this process and to demonstrate the most innovative features of music theory applications on the base of iOS and Android systems as the most common used. Methodological recommendations how to use these digital material musicologically will be done for the professional music education of different levels. These recommendations are based on more than ten year ‘iTheory’ teaching experience of the author. In this paper, we try to logically classify all types of ‘iTheory’mobile applications into several groups, according to their methodological goals. General concepts given below will be demonstrated in concrete examples. The most numerous group of programs is formed with simulators for studying notes with audio-visual links. There are link-pair types as follows: sound — musical notation which may be used as flashcards for studying words and letters, sound — key, sound — string (basically, guitar’s). The second large group of programs is programs-tests containing a game component. As a rule, their basis is made with exercises on ear identification and reconstruction by voice: sounds and intervals on their sounding — harmonical and melodical, music modes, rhythmic patterns, chords, selected instrumental timbres. Some programs are aimed at an establishment of acoustical communications between concepts of the musical theory and their musical embodiments. There are also programs focused on progress of operative musical memory (with repeating of sounding phrases and their transposing in a new pitch), as well as on perfect pitch training In addition a number of programs improvisation skills have been developed. An absolute pitch-system of solmisation is a common base for mobile programs. However, it is possible to find also the programs focused on the relative pitch system of solfegе. In App Store and Google Play Market online store there are also many free programs-simulators of musical instruments — piano, guitars, celesta, violin, organ. These programs may be effective for individual and group exercises in ear training or composition classes. Great variety and good sound quality of these programs give now a unique opportunity to musicians to master their music abilities in a shorter time. That is why such teaching material may be a way to effective study of music theory.

Keywords: ear training, innovation in music education, music theory, mobile devices

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30 Modeling and Simulation Frameworks for Cloud Computing Environment: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Abul Bashar

Abstract:

The recent surge in the adoption of cloud computing systems by various organizations has brought forth the challenge of evaluating their performance. One of the major issues faced by the cloud service providers and customers is to assess the ability of cloud computing systems to provide the desired services in accordance to the QoS and SLA constraints. To this end, an opportunity exists to develop means to ensure that the desired performance levels of such systems are met under simulated environments. This will eventually minimize the service disruptions and performance degradation issues during the commissioning and operational phase of cloud computing infrastructure. However, it is observed that several simulators and modelers are available for simulating the cloud computing systems. Therefore, this paper presents a critical evaluation of the state-of-the-art modeling and simulation frameworks applicable to cloud computing systems. It compares the prominent simulation frameworks in terms of the API features, programming flexibility, operating system requirements, supported services, licensing needs and popularity. Subsequently, it provides recommendations regarding the choice of the most appropriate framework for researchers, administrators and managers of cloud computing systems.

Keywords: cloud computing, modeling framework, performance evaluation, simulation tools

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29 Simultech - Innovative Country-Wide Ultrasound Training Center

Authors: Yael Rieder, Yael Gilboa, S. O. Adva, Efrat Halevi, Ronnie Tepper

Abstract:

Background: Operation of ultrasound equipment is a core skill for many clinical specialties. As part of the training program at -Simultech- a simulation center for Ob\Gyn at the Meir Medical Center, Israel, teaching how to operate ultrasound equipment requires dealing with misunderstandings of spatial and 3D orientation, failure of the operator to hold a transducer correctly, and limited ability to evaluate the data on the screen. We have developed a platform intended to endow physicians and sonographers with clinical and operational skills of obstetric ultrasound. Simultech's simulations are focused on medical knowledge, risk management, technology operations and physician-patient communication. The simulations encompass extreme work conditions. Setup: Between eight and ten of the eight hundred and fifty physicians and sonographers of the Clalit health services from seven hospitals and eight community centers across Israel, participate in individual Ob/Gyn training sessions each week. These include Ob/Gyn specialists, experts, interns, and sonographers. Innovative teaching and training methodologies: The six-hour training program includes: (1) An educational computer program that challenges trainees to deal with medical questions based upon ultrasound pictures and films. (2) Sophisticated hands-on simulators that challenge the trainees to practice correct grip of the transducer, elucidate pathology, and practice daily tasks such as biometric measurements and analysis of sonographic data. (3) Participation in a video-taped simulation which focuses on physician-patient communications. In the simulation, the physician is required to diagnose the clinical condition of a hired actress based on the data she provides and by evaluating the assigned ultrasound films accordingly. Giving ‘bad news’ to the patient may put the physician in a stressful situation that must be properly managed. (4) Feedback at the end of each phase is provided by a designated trainer, not a physician, who is specially qualified by Ob\Gyn senior specialists. (5) A group exercise in which the trainer presents a medico-legal case in order to encourage the participants to use their own experience and knowledge to conduct a productive ‘brainstorming’ session. Medical cases are presented and analyzed by the participants together with the trainer's feedback. Findings: (1) The training methods and content that Simultech provides allows trainees to review their medical and communications skills. (2) Simultech training sessions expose physicians to both basic and new, up-to-date cases, refreshing and expanding the trainee's knowledge. (3) Practicing on advanced simulators enables trainees to understand the sonographic space and to implement the basic principles of ultrasound. (4) Communications simulations were found to be beneficial for trainees who were unaware of their interpersonal skills. The trainer feedback, supported by the recorded simulation, allows the trainee to draw conclusions about his performance. Conclusion: Simultech was found to contribute to physicians at all levels of clinical expertise who deal with ultrasound. A break in daily routine together with attendance at a neutral educational center can vastly improve performance and outlook.

Keywords: medical training, simulations, ultrasound, Simultech

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28 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, CO₂ flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding

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27 D6tions: A Serious Game to Learn Software Engineering Process and Design

Authors: Hector G. Perez-Gonzalez, Miriam Vazquez-Escalante, Sandra E. Nava-Muñoz, 
 Francisco E. Martinez-Perez, Alberto S. Nunez-Varela

Abstract:

The software engineering teaching process has been the subject of many studies. To improve this process, researchers have proposed merely illustrative techniques in the classroom, such as topic presentations and dynamics between students on one side or attempts to involve students in real projects with companies and institutions to bring them to a real software development problem on the other hand. Simulators and serious games have been used as auxiliary tools to introduce students to topics that are too abstract when these are presented in the traditional way. Most of these tools cover a limited area of the huge software engineering scope. To address this problem, we have developed D6tions, an educational serious game that simulates the software engineering process and is designed to experiment the different stages a software engineer (playing roles as project leader or as a developer or designer) goes through, while participating in a software project. We describe previous approaches to this problem, how D6tions was designed, its rules, directions, and the results we obtained of the use of this game involving undergraduate students playing the game.

Keywords: serious games, software engineering, software engineering education, software engineering teaching process

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26 Ultra-High Frequency Passive Radar Coverage for Cars Detection in Semi-Urban Scenarios

Authors: Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores, David Mata-Moya

Abstract:

A study of achievable coverages using passive radar systems in terrestrial traffic monitoring applications is presented. The study includes the estimation of the bistatic radar cross section of different commercial vehicle models that provide challenging low values which make detection really difficult. A semi-urban scenario is selected to evaluate the impact of excess propagation losses generated by an irregular relief. A bistatic passive radar exploiting UHF frequencies radiated by digital video broadcasting transmitters is assumed. A general method of coverage estimation using electromagnetic simulators in combination with estimated car average bistatic radar cross section is applied. In order to reduce the computational cost, hybrid solution is implemented, assuming free space for the target-receiver path but estimating the excess propagation losses for the transmitter-target one.

Keywords: bistatic radar cross section, passive radar, propagation losses, radar coverage

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
25 Integration of Climatic Factors in the Meta-Population Modelling of the Dynamic of Malaria Transmission, Case of Douala and Yaoundé, Two Cities of Cameroon

Authors: Justin-Herve Noubissi, Jean Claude Kamgang, Eric Ramat, Januarius Asongu, Christophe Cambier

Abstract:

The goal of our study is to analyse the impact of climatic factors in malaria transmission taking into account migration between Douala and Yaoundé, two cities of Cameroon country. We show how variations of climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity affect the malaria spread. We propose a meta-population model of the dynamic transmission of malaria that evolves in space and time and that takes into account temperature and relative humidity and the migration between Douala and Yaoundé. We also integrate the variation of environmental factors as events also called mathematical impulsion that can disrupt the model evolution at any time. Our modelling has been done using the Discrete EVents System Specification (DEVS) formalism. Our implementation has been done on Virtual Laboratory Environment (VLE) that uses DEVS formalism and abstract simulators for coupling models by integrating the concept of DEVS.

Keywords: compartmental models, DEVS, discrete events, meta-population model, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 262