Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1995

Search results for: infrared spectroscopy

1995 Determination of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Susceptibility to Antibiotics Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Manal Suleiman, George Abu-Aqil, Uraib Sharaha, Klaris Riesenberg, Itshak Lapidot, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel


Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most aggressive multidrug-resistant bacteria associated with human infections resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Thus, for an effective treatment, it is important to diagnose both the species of infecting bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Current used methods for diagnosing the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are time-consuming (about 24h following the first culture). Thus, there is a clear need for rapid methods to determine the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Infrared spectroscopy is a well-known method that is known as sensitive and simple which is able to detect minor biomolecular changes in biological samples associated with developing abnormalities. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of infrared spectroscopy in tandem with Random Forest and XGBoost machine learning algorithms to diagnose the susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae to antibiotics within approximately 20 minutes following the first culture. In this study, 1190 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were obtained from different patients with urinary tract infections. The isolates were measured by the infrared spectrometer, and the spectra were analyzed by machine learning algorithms Random Forest and XGBoost to determine their susceptibility regarding nine specific antibiotics. Our results confirm that it was possible to classify the isolates into sensitive and resistant to specific antibiotics with a success rate range of 80%-85% for the different tested antibiotics. These results prove the promising potential of infrared spectroscopy as a powerful diagnostic method for determining the Klebsiella pneumoniae susceptibility to antibiotics.

Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI), Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial susceptibility, infrared spectroscopy, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1994 Real-Time Classification of Hemodynamic Response by Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using an Adaptive Estimation of General Linear Model Coefficients

Authors: Sahar Jahani, Meryem Ayse Yucel, David Boas, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan


Near-infrared spectroscopy allows monitoring of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes associated with hemodynamic response function (HRF). HRF is usually affected by natural physiological hemodynamic (systemic interferences) which occur in all body tissues including brain tissue. This makes HRF extraction a very challenging task. In this study, we used Kalman filter based on a general linear model (GLM) of brain activity to define the proportion of systemic interference in the brain hemodynamic. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in terms of the peak to peak error (Ep), mean square error (MSE), and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R2) criteria between the estimated and the simulated hemodynamic responses. This technique also has the ability of real time estimation of single trial functional activations as it was applied to classify finger tapping versus resting state. The average real-time classification accuracy of 74% over 11 subjects demonstrates the feasibility of developing an effective functional near infrared spectroscopy for brain computer interface purposes (fNIRS-BCI).

Keywords: hemodynamic response function, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive filter, Kalman filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1993 Phase Detection Using Infrared Spectroscopy: A Build up to Inline Gas–Liquid Flow Characterization

Authors: Kwame Sarkodie, William Cheung, Andrew R. Fergursson


The characterization of multiphase flow has gained enormous attention for most petroleum and chemical industrial processes. In order to fully characterize fluid phases in a stream or containment, there needs to be a profound knowledge of the existing composition of fluids present. This introduces a problem for real-time monitoring of fluid dynamics such as fluid distributions, and phase fractions. This work presents a simple technique of correlating absorbance spectrums of water, oil and air bubble present in containment. These spectra absorption outputs are derived by using an Fourier Infrared spectrometer. During the testing, air bubbles were introduced into static water column and oil containment and with light absorbed in the infrared regions of specific wavelength ranges. Attenuation coefficients are derived for various combinations of water, gas and oil which reveal the presence of each phase in the samples. The results from this work are preliminary and viewed as a build up to the design of a multiphase flow rig which has an infrared sensor pair to be used for multiphase flow characterization.

Keywords: attenuation, infrared, multiphase, spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
1992 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid


Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: macronutrients absorption, optical spectroscopy, soil, absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
1991 Short-Path Near-Infrared Laser Detection of Environmental Gases by Wavelength-Modulation Spectroscopy

Authors: Isao Tomita


The detection of environmental gases, 12CO_2, 13CO_2, and CH_4, using near-infrared semiconductor lasers with a short laser path length is studied by means of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy. The developed system is compact and has high sensitivity enough to detect the absorption peaks of isotopic 13CO_2 of a 3-% CO_2 gas at 2 um with a path length of 2.4 m, where its peak size is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the ordinary 12CO_2 peaks. In addition, the detection of 12CO_2 peaks of a 385-ppm (0.0385-%) CO_2 gas in the air is made at 2 um with a path length of 1.4 m. Furthermore, in pursuing the detection of an ancient environmental CH_4 gas confined to a bubble in ice at the polar regions, measurements of the absorption spectrum for a trace gas of CH_4 in a small area are attempted. For a 100-% CH_4 gas trapped in a 1 mm^3 glass container, the absorption peaks of CH_4 are obtained at 1.65 um with a path length of 3 mm, and also the gas pressure is extrapolated from the measured data.

Keywords: environmental gases, Near-Infrared Laser Detection, Wavelength-Modulation Spectroscopy, gas pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1990 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush


Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus, bacillus, FT-IR, spectroscopy, PCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
1989 Analysis of Active Compounds in Thai Herbs by near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Chaluntorn Vichasilp, Sutee Wangtueai


This study aims to develop a new method to detect active compounds in Thai herbs (1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leave, anthocyanin in Mao and curcumin in turmeric) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs). NIRs is non-destructive technique that rapid, non-chemical involved and low-cost determination. By NIRs and chemometrics technique, it was found that the DNJ prediction equation conducted with partial least square regression with cross-validation had low accuracy R2 (0.42) and SEP (31.87 mg/100g). On the other hand, the anthocyanin prediction equation showed moderate good results (R2 and SEP of 0.78 and 0.51 mg/g) with Multiplication scattering correction at wavelength of 2000-2200 nm. The high absorption could be observed at wavelength of 2047 nm and this model could be used as screening level. For curcumin prediction, the good result was obtained when applied original spectra with smoothing technique. The wavelength of 1400-2500 nm was created regression model with R2 (0.68) and SEP (0.17 mg/g). This model had high NIRs absorption at a wavelength of 1476, 1665, 1986 and 2395 nm, respectively. NIRs showed prospective technique for detection of some active compounds in Thai herbs.

Keywords: anthocyanin, curcumin, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1988 A Non-Destructive TeraHertz System and Method for Capsule and Liquid Medicine Identification

Authors: Ke Lin, Steve Wu Qing Yang, Zhang Nan


The medicine and drugs has in the past been manufactured to the final products and then used laboratory analysis to verify their quality. However the industry needs crucially a monitoring technique for the final batch to batch quality check. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) provides an incentive to obtain real-time information about drugs on the production line, with the following optical techniques being considered: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, mid-infrared spectroscopy with the use of chemometric techniques to quantify the final product. However, presents problems in that the spectra obtained will consist of many combination and overtone bands of the fundamental vibrations observed, making analysis difficult. In this work, we describe a non-destructive system and method for capsule and liquid medicine identification, more particularly, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and/or designed terahertz portable system for identifying different types of medicine in the package of capsule or in liquid medicine bottles. The target medicine can be detected directly, non-destructively and non-invasively.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1987 Rb-Modified Few-Layered Graphene for Gas Sensing Application

Authors: Vasant Reddy, Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More


In the present investigation, we demonstrated the fabrication of few-layers of graphene sheets with alkali metal i.e. Rb-G using chemical route method. The obtained materials were characterized by means of chemical, structural and electrical techniques, using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 4 points probe, respectively. The XRD studies were carried out to understand the phase of the samples where we found a sharp peak of Rb-G at 26.470. UV-Spectroscopy of Graphene and Rb-modified graphene samples shows the absorption peaks at ~248 nm and ~318 nm respectively. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical route, graphene, gas sensing, UV-spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
1986 Simulation of Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Silicon Germanium Photonic Waveguides for Gas Spectroscopy

Authors: Proficiency Munsaka, Peter Baricholo, Erich Rohwer


Pulse evolutions along the 5 cm long, 6.0 ×4.2 μm² cross-section silicon germanium (SiGe) photonic waveguides were simulated and compared with experiments. Simulations were carried out by solving a generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation (GNLSE) for an optical pulse evolution along the length of the SiGe photonic waveguides by the split-step Fourier method (SSFM). The solution obtained from the SSFM gave the pulse envelope in both time and spectral domain calculated at each distance step along the propagation direction. The SiGe photonic waveguides were pumped in an anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime using a 4.7 μm, 210 fs femtosecond laser to produce a significant supercontinuum (SC). The simulated propagation of ultrafast pulse along the SiGe photonic waveguides produced an SC covering the atmospheric window (2.5-8.5 μm) containing the molecular fingerprints for important gases. Thus, the mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in SiGe photonic waveguides system can be commercialized for gas spectroscopy for detecting gases that include CO₂, CH₄, H₂O, SO₂, SO₃, NO₂, H₂S, CO, and NO at trace level using absorption spectroscopy technique. The simulated profile evolutions are spectrally and temporally similar to those obtained by other researchers. Obtained evolution profiles are characterized by pulse compression, Soliton fission, dispersive wave generation, stimulated Raman Scattering, and Four Wave mixing.

Keywords: silicon germanium photonic waveguide, supercontinuum generation, spectroscopy, mid infrared

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
1985 Rapid Classification of Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae Phyto-Pathogens Pectobacterium and Dickeya Spp. Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning

Authors: George Abu-Aqil, Leah Tsror, Elad Shufan, Shaul Mordechai, Mahmoud Huleihel, Ahmad Salman


Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp which negatively affect a wide range of crops are the main causes of the aggressive diseases of agricultural crops. These aggressive diseases are responsible for a huge economic loss in agriculture including a severe decrease in the quality of the stored vegetables and fruits. Therefore, it is important to detect these pathogenic bacteria at their early stages of infection to control their spread and consequently reduce the economic losses. In addition, early detection is vital for producing non-infected propagative material for future generations. The currently used molecular techniques for the identification of these bacteria at the strain level are expensive and laborious. Other techniques require a long time of ~48 h for detection. Thus, there is a clear need for rapid, non-expensive, accurate and reliable techniques for early detection of these bacteria. In this study, infrared spectroscopy, which is a well-known technique with all its features, was used for rapid detection of Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. at the strain level. The bacteria were isolated from potato plants and tubers with soft rot symptoms and measured by infrared spectroscopy. The obtained spectra were analyzed using different machine learning algorithms. The performances of our approach for taxonomic classification among the bacterial samples were evaluated in terms of success rates. The success rates for the correct classification of the genus, species and strain levels were ~100%, 95.2% and 92.6% respectively.

Keywords: soft rot enterobacteriaceae (SRE), pectobacterium, dickeya, plant infections, potato, solanum tuberosum, infrared spectroscopy, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1984 Structural and Magnetic Properties of NiFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer


Nickel spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 525 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in nickel ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed.

Keywords: nickel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, NiFe2O4

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1983 Scientific Investigation for an Ancient Egyptian Polychrome Wooden Stele

Authors: Ahmed Abdrabou, Medhat Abdalla


The studied stele dates back to Third Intermediate Period (1075-664) B.C in an ancient Egypt. It is made of wood and covered with painted gesso layers. This study aims to use a combination of multi spectral imaging {visible, infrared (IR), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL), Visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL) and ultraviolet reflected (UVR)}, along with portable x-ray fluorescence in order to map and identify the pigments as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the painting techniques. Moreover; the authors were significantly interested in the identification of wood species. Multispectral imaging acquired in 3 spectral bands, ultraviolet (360-400 nm), visible (400-780 nm) and infrared (780-1100 nm) using (UV Ultraviolet-induced luminescence (UVL), UV Reflected (UVR), Visible (VIS), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL) and Infrared photography. False color images are made by digitally editing the VIS with IR or UV images using Adobe Photoshop. Optical Microscopy (OM), potable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (p-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study. Mapping and imaging techniques provided useful information about the spatial distribution of pigments, in particular visible-induced luminescence (VIL) which allowed the spatial distribution of Egyptian blue pigment to be mapped and every region containing Egyptian blue, even down to single crystals in some instances, is clearly visible as a bright white area; however complete characterization of the pigments requires the use of p. XRF spectroscopy. Based on the elemental analysis found by P.XRF, we conclude that the artists used mixtures of the basic mineral pigments to achieve a wider palette of hues. Identification of wood species Microscopic identification indicated that the wood used was Sycamore Fig (Ficus sycomorus L.) which is recorded as being native to Egypt and was used to make wooden artifacts since at least the Fifth Dynasty.

Keywords: polychrome wooden stele, multispectral imaging, IR luminescence, Wood identification, Sycamore Fig, p-XRF

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
1982 Soil Macronutrients Sensing for Precision Agriculture Purpose Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Hossein Navid, Maryam Adeli Khadem, Shahin Oustan, Mahmoud Zareie


Among the nutrients needed by the plants, three elements containing nitrate, phosphorus and potassium are more important. The objective of this research was measuring these nutrient amounts in soil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in range of 400- 4000 cm-1. Soil samples for different soil types (sandy, clay and loam) were collected from different areas of East Azerbaijan. Three types of fertilizers in conventional farming (urea, triple superphosphate, potassium sulphate) were used for soil treatment. Each specimen was divided into two categories: The first group was used in the laboratory (direct measurement) to extract nitrate, phosphorus and potassium uptake by colorimetric method of Olsen and ammonium acetate. The second group was used to measure drug absorption spectrometry. In spectrometry, the small amount of soil samples mixed with KBr and was taken in a small pill form. For the tests, the pills were put in the center of infrared spectrometer and graphs were obtained. Analysis of data was done using MINITAB and PLSR software. The data obtained from spectrometry method were compared with amount of soil nutrients obtained from direct drug absorption using EXCEL software. There were good fitting between these two data series. For nitrate, phosphorus and potassium R2 was 79.5%, 92.0% and 81.9%, respectively. Also, results showed that the range of MIR (mid-infrared) is appropriate for determine the amount of soil nitrate and potassium and can be used in future research to obtain detailed maps of land in agricultural use.

Keywords: nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, soil nutrients, spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1981 A Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Remote Data Logging

Authors: Bodhayan Nandi, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury


This paper presents the development of a portable blood glucose monitoring device based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. The system supports Internet connectivity through WiFi and uploads the time series data of glucose concentration of patients to a server. In addition, the server is given sufficient intelligence to predict the future pathophysiological state of a patient given the current and past pathophysiological data. This will enable to prognosticate the approaching critical condition of the patient much before the critical condition actually occurs.The server hosts web applications to allow authorized users to monitor the data remotely.

Keywords: non invasive, blood glucose concentration, microcontroller, IoT, application server, database server

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1980 Initial Dip: An Early Indicator of Neural Activity in Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Waveform

Authors: Mannan Malik Muhammad Naeem, Jeong Myung Yung


Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has a favorable position in non-invasive brain imaging techniques. The concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin and de-oxygenated hemoglobin during particular cognitive activity is the basis for this neuro-imaging modality. Two wavelengths of near-infrared light can be used with modified Beer-Lambert law to explain the indirect status of neuronal activity inside brain. The temporal resolution of fNIRS is very good for real-time brain computer-interface applications. The portability, low cost and an acceptable temporal resolution of fNIRS put it on a better position in neuro-imaging modalities. In this study, an optimization model for impulse response function has been used to estimate/predict initial dip using fNIRS data. In addition, the activity strength parameter related to motor based cognitive task has been analyzed. We found an initial dip that remains around 200-300 millisecond and better localize neural activity.

Keywords: fNIRS, brain-computer interface, optimization algorithm, adaptive signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1979 Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer


In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.

Keywords: copper ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, CuFe2O4

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1978 Non-Destructive Prediction System Using near Infrared Spectroscopy for Crude Palm Oil

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of predictive models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this research, 176 crude palm oil (CPO) samples acquired from Felda Johor Bulker Sdn Bhd were studied. A FOSS NIRSystem was used to tak e absorbance measurements from the sample. The wavelength range for the spectral measurement is taken at 1600nm to 1900nm. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) prediction model with 50 optimal number of principal components was implemented to study the relationship between the measured Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values and the measured spectral absorption. PLSR showed predictive ability of FFA values with correlative coefficient (R) of 0.9808 for the training set and 0.9684 for the testing set.

Keywords: palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, PLSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1977 Principal Component Regression in Amylose Content on the Malaysian Market Rice Grains Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Authors: Syahira Ibrahim, Herlina Abdul Rahim


The amylose content is an essential element in determining the texture and taste of rice grains. This paper evaluates the use of VIS-SWNIRS in estimating the amylose content for seven varieties of rice grains available in the Malaysian market. Each type consists of 30 samples and all the samples are scanned using the spectroscopy to obtain a range of values between 680-1000nm. The Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing filter is applied to each sample’s data before the Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique is used to examine the data and produce a single value for each sample. This value is then compared with reference values obtained from the standard iodine colorimetric test in terms of its coefficient of determination, R2. Results show that this technique produced low R2 values of less than 0.50. In order to improve the result, the range should include a wavelength range of 1100-2500nm and the number of samples processed should also be increased.

Keywords: amylose content, diffuse reflectance, Malaysia rice grain, principal component regression (PCR), Visible and Shortwave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS-SWNIRS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1976 Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)

Authors: Amanda T. Badaró, Douglas F. Barbin, Sofia T. Garcia, Maria Teresa P. S. Clerici, Amanda R. Ferreira


Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.

Keywords: Chemometrics, fiber, linear discriminant analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy, principal component analysis, semolina

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1975 Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Carbon Nanotube Electrode Patterns on Cotton Fabric

Authors: N. Najafi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya


An aqueous conductive ink of single-walled carbon nanotubes for inkjet printing was formulated. To prepare the homogeneous SWCNT ink in a size small enough not to block a commercial inkjet printer nozzle, we used a kinetic ball-milling process to disperse the SWCNTs in an aqueous suspension. When a patterned electrode was overlaid by repeated inkjet printings of the ink on various types of fabric, the fabric resistance decreased rapidly following a power law, reaching approximately 760 X/sq, which is the lowest value ever for a dozen printings. The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the oxidation of the SWCNTs was the source of the doped impurities. This study proved also that the droplet ejection velocity can have an impact on the CNT distribution and consequently on the electrical performances of the ink.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, carbon nanotube, fabric ink, cotton fabric, raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dozen printings

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1974 Development of a Non-Dispersive Infrared Multi Gas Analyzer for a TMS

Authors: T. V. Dinh, I. Y. Choi, J. W. Ahn, Y. H. Oh, G. Bo, J. Y. Lee, J. C. Kim


A Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) multi-gas analyzer has been developed to monitor the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from various industries. The NDIR technique for gas measurement is based on the wavelength absorption in the infrared spectrum as a way to detect particular gasses. NDIR analyzers have popularly applied in the Tele-Monitoring System (TMS). The advantage of the NDIR analyzer is low energy consumption and cost compared with other spectroscopy methods. However, zero/span drift and interference are its urgent issues to be solved. Multi-pathway technique based on optical White cell was employed to improve the sensitivity of the analyzer in this work. A pyroelectric detector was used to detect the Infrared radiation. The analytical range of the analyzer was 0 ~ 200 ppm. The instrument response time was < 2 min. The detection limits of CO and SO2 were < 4 ppm and < 6 ppm, respectively. The zero and span drift of 24 h was less than 3%. The linearity of the analyzer was less than 2.5% of reference values. The precision and accuracy of both CO and SO2 channels were < 2.5% of relative standard deviation. In general, the analyzer performed well. However, the detection limit and 24h drift should be improved to be a more competitive instrument.

Keywords: analyzer, CEMS, monitoring, NDIR, TMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1973 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Thermodynamics Studies

Authors: Abeer S. Elsherbiny, Ali H. Gemeay


In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic tools such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, BET specific surface area and Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM). The prepared GO was investigated for the removal of malachite green, a cationic dye from aqueous solution. The removal methods of malachite green has been proceeded via adsorption process. GO nanosheets can be predicted as a good adsorbent material for the adsorption of cationic species. The adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption kinetics, concentration of adsorbate, pH, and temperature. The kinetics of the adsorption data were analyzed using four kinetic models such as the pseudo first-order model, pseudo second-order model, intraparticle diffusion, and the Boyd model to understand the adsorption behavior of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets and the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm of adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated at 25, 35 and 45 °C. The equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) change were also evaluated. The interaction of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated by infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, kinetics, malachite green

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1972 Infrared Thermography Applications for Building Investigation

Authors: Hamid Yazdani, Raheleh Akbar


Infrared thermography is a modern non-destructive measuring method for the examination of redeveloped and non-renovated buildings. Infrared cameras provide a means for temperature measurement in building constructions from the inside, as well as from the outside. Thus, heat bridges can be detected. It has been shown that infrared thermography is applicable for insulation inspection, identifying air leakage and heat losses sources, finding the exact position of heating tubes or for discovering the reasons why mold, moisture is growing in a particular area, and it is also used in conservation field to detect hidden characteristics, degradations of building structures. The paper gives a brief description of the theoretical background of infrared thermography.

Keywords: infrared thermography, examination of buildings, emissivity, heat losses sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
1971 Spectroscopy Investigation of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nano Ferrite Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis

Authors: Z. Ž. Lazarević, Č. Jovalekić, V. N. Ivanovski, N. Ž. Romčević


Nickel-zinc ferrite, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 was prepared by mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 hydroxide powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 5 h and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e. mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality single phase Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples in much more efficient way. From the IR spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra alows to separate contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and to estimate the degree of inversion.

Keywords: ferrite, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1970 Analytical Authentication of Butter Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics

Authors: M. Bodner, M. Scampicchio


Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.

Keywords: adulterated butter, margarine, PCA, PLS-DA, PLS-R, SIMCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1969 Fe-Doped Graphene Nanoparticles for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More


In the present inspection, we indicate the falsification of Fe-doped graphene nanoparticles by modified Hummers method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the resulting pallets were explored with the help of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) for graphene sample exhibits absorption peaks ~248nm. Pure graphene shows PL peak at 348 nm. After doping of Fe with graphene the PL peak shifted from 348 nm to 332 nm. The oxidation degree, i.e. the relative amount of oxygen functional groups was estimated from the relative intensities of the oxygen related bands (ORB) in the FTIR measurements. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical doping, graphene, gas sensing, sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1968 Development and Validation of a Green Analytical Method for the Analysis of Daptomycin Injectable by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Eliane G. Tótoli, Hérida Regina N. Salgado


Daptomycin is an important antimicrobial agent used in clinical practice nowadays, since it is very active against some Gram-positive bacteria that are particularly challenges for the medicine, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). The importance of environmental preservation has receiving special attention since last years. Considering the evident need to protect the natural environment and the introduction of strict quality requirements regarding analytical procedures used in pharmaceutical analysis, the industries must seek environmentally friendly alternatives in relation to the analytical methods and other processes that they follow in their routine. In view of these factors, green analytical chemistry is prevalent and encouraged nowadays. In this context, infrared spectroscopy stands out. This is a method that does not use organic solvents and, although it is formally accepted for the identification of individual compounds, also allows the quantitation of substances. Considering that there are few green analytical methods described in literature for the analysis of daptomycin, the aim of this work was the development and validation of a green analytical method for the quantification of this drug in lyophilized powder for injectable solution, by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Method: Translucent potassium bromide pellets containing predetermined amounts of the drug were prepared and subjected to spectrophotometric analysis in the mid-infrared region. After obtaining the infrared spectrum and with the assistance of the IR Solution software, quantitative analysis was carried out in the spectral region between 1575 and 1700 cm-1, related to a carbonyl band of the daptomycin molecule, and this band had its height analyzed in terms of absorbance. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines regarding linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and robustness. Results and discussion: The method showed to be linear (r = 0.9999), precise (RSD% < 2.0), accurate and robust, over a concentration range from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/pellet. In addition, this technique does not use organic solvents, which is one great advantage over the most common analytical methods. This fact contributes to minimize the generation of organic solvent waste by the industry and thereby reduces the impact of its activities on the environment. Conclusion: The validated method proved to be adequate to quantify daptomycin in lyophilized powder for injectable solution and can be used for its routine analysis in quality control. In addition, the proposed method is environmentally friendly, which is in line with the global trend.

Keywords: daptomycin, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, green analytical chemistry, quality control, spectrometry in IR region

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1967 Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin

Authors: Tasnuva Tamanna, Aimin Yu


Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.

Keywords: drug loading, nanoparticles, polydopamine, rifampicin

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1966 Selective and Highly Sensitive Measurement of ¹⁵NH₃ Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Environmental Applications

Authors: Emily Awuor, Helga Huszar, Zoltan Bozoki


Isotope analysis has found numerous applications in the environmental science discipline, most common being the tracing of environmental contaminants on both regional and global scales. Many environmental contaminants contain ammonia (NH₃) since it is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and its largest sources are from agricultural and industrial activities. NH₃ isotopes (¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃) are therefore important and can be used in the traceability studies of these atmospheric pollutants. The goal of the project is the construction of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system that is capable of measuring ¹⁵NH₃ isotope selectively in terms of its concentration. A further objective is for the system to be robust, easy-to-use, and automated. This is provided by using two telecommunication type near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers and a laser coupler as the light source in the photoacoustic measurement system. The central wavelength of the lasers in use was 1532 nm, with the tuning range of ± 1 nm. In this range, strong absorption lines can be found for both ¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃. For the selective measurement of ¹⁵NH₃, wavelengths were chosen where the cross effect of ¹⁴NH₃ and water vapor is negligible. We completed the calibration of the photoacoustic system, and as a result, the lowest detectable concentration was 3.32 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁵NH₃ and 0.44 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁴NH₃. The results are most useful in the environmental pollution measurement and analysis.

Keywords: ammonia isotope, near-infrared DFB diode laser, photoacoustic spectroscopy, environmental monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 68