Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 564

Search results for: crude oil

564 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae

Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar

Abstract:

The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.

Keywords: algae, crude oil, green algae, Cyanobacteria

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563 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali

Abstract:

The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

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562 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina

Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan

Abstract:

A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.

Keywords: Avicennia marina, morphology, oil contamination, protein content

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561 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity

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560 Process Optimization for Albanian Crude Oil Characterization

Authors: Xhaklina Cani, Ilirjan Malollari, Ismet Beqiraj, Lorina Lici

Abstract:

Oil characterization is an essential step in the design, simulation, and optimization of refining facilities. To achieve optimal crude selection and processing decisions, a refiner must have exact information refer to crude oil quality. This includes crude oil TBP-curve as the main data for correct operation of refinery crude oil atmospheric distillation plants. Crude oil is typically characterized based on a distillation assay. This procedure is reasonably well-defined and is based on the representation of the mixture of actual components that boil within a boiling point interval by hypothetical components that boil at the average boiling temperature of the interval. The crude oil assay typically includes TBP distillation according to ASTM D-2892, which can characterize this part of oil that boils up to 400 C atmospheric equivalent boiling point. To model the yield curves obtained by physical distillation is necessary to compare the differences between the modelling and the experimental data. Most commercial use a different number of components and pseudo-components to represent crude oil. Laboratory tests include distillations, vapor pressures, flash points, pour points, cetane numbers, octane numbers, densities, and viscosities. The aim of the study is the drawing of true boiling curves for different crude oil resources in Albania and to compare the differences between the modeling and the experimental data for optimal characterization of crude oil.

Keywords: TBP distillation curves, crude oil, optimization, simulation

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559 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion

Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas

Abstract:

The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.

Keywords: demulsifier, emulsion, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)

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558 Oil Logistics for Refining to Northern Europe

Authors: Vladimir Klepikov

Abstract:

To develop the programs to supply crude oil to North European refineries, it is necessary to take into account the refineries’ location, crude refining capacity, and the transport infrastructure capacity. Among the countries of the region, we include those having a marine boundary along the Northern Sea and the Baltic Sea (from France in the west to Finland in the east). The paper envisages the geographic allocation of the refineries and contains the evaluation of the refineries’ capacities for the region under review. The sustainable operations of refineries in the region are determined by the transportation system capacity to supply crude oil to them. The assessment of capacity of crude oil transportation to the refineries is conducted. The research is performed for the period of 2005/2015, using the quantitative analysis method. The countries are classified by the refineries’ aggregate capacities and the crude oil output on their territory. The crude oil output capacities in the region in the period under review are determined. The capacities of the region’s transportation system to supply crude oil produced in the region to the refineries are revealed. The analysis suggested that imported raw materials are the main source of oil for the refineries in the region. The main sources of crude oil supplies to North European refineries are reviewed. The change in the refineries’ capacities in the group of countries and each particular country, as well as the utilization of the refineries' capacities in the region in the period under review, was studied. The input suggests that the bulk of crude oil is supplied by marine and pipeline transport. The paper contains the assessment of the crude oil transportation by pipeline transport in the overall crude oil cargo flow. The refineries’ production rate for the groups of countries under the review and for each particular country was the subject of study. Our study yielded the trend towards the increase in the crude oil refining at the refineries of the region and reduction in the crude oil output. If this trend persists in the near future, the cargo flow of imported crude oil and the utilization of the North European logistics infrastructure may increase. According to the study, the existing transport infrastructure in the region is able to handle the increasing imported crude oil flow.

Keywords: European region, infrastructure, oil terminal capacity, pipeline capacity, tanker draft

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557 Improving the Quality of Casava Peel-Leaf Mixture through Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas Poultry Ration

Authors: Mirnawati, G. Ciptaan, Ferawati

Abstract:

This study aims to improve the quality of the cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) through fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas poultry ration. This research is an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. The treatments were a combination of cassava peel and leaves with the ratio of; A (9:1), B (8:2), C (7:3), and D (6:4). The observed variables were protease enzyme activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and metabolic energy. The results of the diversity analysis showed that there was a very significant (p < 0.01) effect on protease activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and energy metabolism of fermented CPLM. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that CPLM (6:4) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus gave the best results seen from protease activity 7,25 U/ml, 21.23% crude protein, 19.80% crude fiber, 59.65% nitrogen retention, 62.99% crude fiber digestibility and metabolic energy 2671 Kcal/kg.

Keywords: quality, Casava peel-leaf mixture, fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus

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556 Ecosystem Restoration: Remediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

Authors: Ayodele Adelusi Oyedeji

Abstract:

The study was carried out under a controlled environment with the aim of examining remediation of crude oil polluted soil. The germination rate, heights and girths, number of leaves and nodulation was determined following standard procedures. Some physicochemical (organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium) characteristics of soil used were determined using standard protocols. Results showed that at varying concentration of crude oil i.e 0 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 75 ml and 100 ml, Leuceana leucocephala had germination rate of 92%, 90%, 84%, 62% and 56% respectively, mean height of 73.70cm, 58.30cm, 49.50cm, 46.45cm and 41.80cm respectively after 16 weeks after planting (WAP), mean girth of 0.54mm, 0.34mm, 0.33mm, 0.21mm and 0.19mm respectively at 16 WAP, number of nodules 18, 10, 10, 6 and 2 respectively and number of leaves 24.00, 16.00, 13.00, 10.00 and 6.00 respectively. The organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased with the increase in the concentration of crude oil. Furthermore, as the concentration of crude oil increased the germination rate, height, girth, and number of leaves and nodules decreased, suggesting the effect of crude oil on Leuceana leucocephala. The plant withstands the varying concentration of the crude oil means that it could be used for the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Keywords: ecosystem conservation, Leuceana leucocephala, phytoremediation, soil pollution

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555 Blending Effects on Crude Oil Stability: An Experimental Study

Authors: Muheddin Hamza, Entisar Etter

Abstract:

This study is a part of investigating the possibility of blending two crude oils obtained from Libyan oil fields, namely crude oil (A) and crude oil (B) with different ratios, prior to blending the crude oils have to be compatible in order to avoid phase out and precipitation of asphaltene from the bulk of crude. The physical properties of both crudes such as density, viscosity, pour point and sulphur content were measured according to (ASTM) method. To examine the stability of both crudes and their blends, the oil compatibility model using microscopic, colloidal instability index (CII) using SARA analysis and asphaltene stabilization test using Turbiscan tests were conducted in the Libyan Petroleum Institute laboratories. Compatibility tests were carried out with both crude oils, the insolubility number (IN), and the solubility blending number (SBN), for both crude oils and their blends were calculated. The criteria for compatibility of any blend is that the volume average solubility blending number (SBN) is greater than the insolubility number (IN) of any component in the blend, the results indicated that both crudes were compatible. To support the results of compatibility tests the SARA analysis was done for the fractional determination of (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) content. From this result, the colloidal Instability index (CII) and resin to asphaltenes ratio (R/A) were calculated for crudes and their blends. The results show that crude oil (B) which has higher (R/A) and lower (CII) is more stable than crude oil (A) and as the ratio of crude (B) increases in the blend the (CII) and (R/A) were improved, and the blends becomes more stable. Asphaltene stabilization test was also conducted for the crudes and their blends using Turbiscan MA200 according to the standard test method ASTM D7061-04, the Turbiscan shows that the crude (B) is more stable than crude (A) which shows a fair tendency. The (CII) and (R/A) were compared with the solubility number (SBN) for each crude and the blends along with Turbiscan results. The solubility blending number (SBN) of the crudes and their blends show that the crudes are compatible, also by comparing (R/A) and (SBN) values of the blends, it can be seen that they are complements of each other. All the experimental results show that the blends of both crudes are more stability.

Keywords: asphaltene, crude oil, compatibility, oil blends, resin, SARA

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554 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

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553 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metals

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552 The Potential Use of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Vegetable Plants

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Application of crude palm oil waste combined to suitable concentration of benzyl-adenine give the significant effect to mean relative growth rate of vegetable plants and the same pattern in net assimilation rate crude palm oil waste has also significantly increased during 28 days old plants. Combination of treatment of suitable concentration of crude palm oil and benzyl adenine increased the growth and production of vegetable plants. The relative growth rate of vegetable plants was rapid 3 weeks after planting and gradually decreased at the end of the harvest time period. Combination of 400 mg.l-1 CPO with 1.0 mgl-1 till 10mgl-1 BA increased the Mean Relative Growth Rate (MRGR), Net assimilation rate (NAR), Leaf area and dry weight of Brassica juncea, Brassica oleraceae and Lactuca sativa.

Keywords: benzyladenine, crude-palm-oil, nutrient, vegetable, waste

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551 Prediction Fluid Properties of Iranian Oil Field with Using of Radial Based Neural Network

Authors: Abdolreza Memari

Abstract:

In this article in order to estimate the viscosity of crude oil,a numerical method has been used. We use this method to measure the crude oil's viscosity for 3 states: Saturated oil's viscosity, viscosity above the bubble point and viscosity under the saturation pressure. Then the crude oil's viscosity is estimated by using KHAN model and roller ball method. After that using these data that include efficient conditions in measuring viscosity, the estimated viscosity by the presented method, a radial based neural method, is taught. This network is a kind of two layered artificial neural network that its stimulation function of hidden layer is Gaussian function and teaching algorithms are used to teach them. After teaching radial based neural network, results of experimental method and artificial intelligence are compared all together. Teaching this network, we are able to estimate crude oil's viscosity without using KHAN model and experimental conditions and under any other condition with acceptable accuracy. Results show that radial neural network has high capability of estimating crude oil saving in time and cost is another advantage of this investigation.

Keywords: viscosity, Iranian crude oil, radial based, neural network, roller ball method, KHAN model

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550 Fault Tree Analysis and Bayesian Network for Fire and Explosion of Crude Oil Tanks: Case Study

Authors: B. Zerouali, M. Kara, B. Hamaidi, H. Mahdjoub, S. Rouabhia

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In this paper, a safety analysis for crude oil tanks to prevent undesirable events that may cause catastrophic accidents. The estimation of the probability of damage to industrial systems is carried out through a series of steps, and in accordance with a specific methodology. In this context, this work involves developing an assessment tool and risk analysis at the level of crude oil tanks system, based primarily on identification of various potential causes of crude oil tanks fire and explosion by the use of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), then improved risk modelling by Bayesian Networks (BNs). Bayesian approach in the evaluation of failure and quantification of risks is a dynamic analysis approach. For this reason, have been selected as an analytical tool in this study. Research concludes that the Bayesian networks have a distinct and effective method in the safety analysis because of the flexibility of its structure; it is suitable for a wide variety of accident scenarios.

Keywords: bayesian networks, crude oil tank, fault tree, prediction, safety

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549 In-Situ Synthesis of Zinc-Containing MCM-41 and Investigation of Its Capacity for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Crude Oil

Authors: Nastaran Hazrati, Ali Akbar Miran Beigi, Majid Abdouss, Amir Vahid

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Hydrogen sulfide is the most toxic gas of crude oil. Adsorption is an energy-efficient process used to remove undesirable compounds such as H2S in gas or liquid streams by passing the stream through a media bed composed of an adsorbent. In this study, H2S of Iran crude oil was separated via cold stripping then zinc incorporated MCM-41 was synthesized via an in-situ method. ZnO functionalized mesoporous silica samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and TEM. The obtained results of adsorption of H2S showed superior ability of all the materials and with an increase in ZnO amount adsorption was increased.

Keywords: MCM-41, ZnO, H2S removal, adsorption

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548 Effects of Different Dietary Crude Fiber Levels on the Growth Performance of Finishing Su-Shan Pigs

Authors: Li Bixia, Ren Shouwen, Fu Yanfeng, Tu Feng, Xiaoming Fang, Xueming Wang

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The utilization of dietary crude fiber in different breed pigs is not the same. Su-shan pigs are a new breed formed by crossing Taihu pigs and Yorkshire pigs. In order to understand the resistance of Su-shan pigs to dietary crude fiber, 150 Su-shan pigs with 60 kg of average body weight and similar body conditions were allocated to three groups randomly, and there are 50 pigs in each group. The percentages of dietary crude fiber were 8.35%, 9.10%, and 11.39%, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 15 pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered. The results showed as follows: average daily gain of the 9.10% group was higher than that of the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group; there was a significant difference between the 9.10% group and the 8.35% group (p < 0.05. Levels of urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in the 9.10% group were significantly higher than those in the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group (p < 0.05). Ratios of meat to fat in the 9.10% group and the 11.39% group were significantly higher than that in the 8.35% group (p < 0.05). Lean percentage of 9.10% group was higher than that of 8.35% group and 11.39% group, but there was no significant difference in three groups (p > 0.05). The weight of small intestine and large intestine in the 11.39% group was higher than that in the 8.35% group, and the 9.10% group and the difference reached a significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing dietary crude fiber properly could reduce fat percentage, and improve the ratio of meat to fat of finishing Su-shan pigs. The digestion and metabolism of dietary crude fiber promoted the development of stomach and intestine of finishing Su-shan pig.

Keywords: Su-shan pigs, dietary crude fiber, growth performance, serum biochemical indexes

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547 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Cleoma viscosa Linn. Crude Extracts

Authors: Suttijit Sriwatcharakul

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The bioactivity studies from the weed ethanolic crude extracts from leaf, stem, pod and root of wild spider flower; Cleoma viscosa Linn. were analyzed for the growth inhibition of 6 bacterial species; Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 5562, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Streptococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli DMST 4212 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with initial concentration crude extract of 50 mg/ml. The agar well diffusion results found that the extracts inhibit only gram positive bacteria species; S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis. The minimum inhibition concentration study with gram positive strains revealed that leaf crude extract give the best result of the lowest concentration compared with other plant parts to inhibit the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis at 0.78, 0.39 and lower than 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. The determination of total phenolic compounds in the crude extracts exhibited the highest phenolic content was 10.41 mg GAE/g dry weight in leaf crude extract. Analyzed the efficacy of free radical scavenging by using DPPH radical scavenging assay with all crude extracts showed value of IC50 of leaf, stem, pod and root crude extracts were 8.32, 12.26, 21.62 and 35.99 mg/ml, respectively. Studied cytotoxicity of crude extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by MTT assay found that pod extract had the most cytotoxicity CC50 value, 32.41 µg/ml. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts exhibited that the more increase of extract concentration, the more activities indicated. According to the bioactivities results, the leaf crude extract of Cleoma viscosa Linn. is the most interesting plant part for further work to search the beneficial of this weed.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, Cleoma viscosa Linn., cytotoxicity test, total phenolic compound

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546 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian

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Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separation

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545 Polysaccharides as Pour Point Depressants

Authors: Ali M. EL-Soll

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Physical properties of Sarir waxy crude oil was investigated, pour-point was determined using ASTM D-79 procedure, paraffin content and carbon number distribution of the paraffin was determined using gas liquid Chromatography(GLC), polymeric additives were prepared and their structures were confirmed using IR spectrophotometer. The molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution of these additives were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). the performance of the synthesized additives as pour-point depressants was evaluated, for the mentioned crude oil.

Keywords: sarir, waxy, crude, pour point, depressants

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544 Fed-Batch Mixotrophic Cultivation of Microalgae Scenedesmus sp., Using Airlift Photobioreactor

Authors: Lakshmidevi Rajendran, Bharathidasan Kanniappan, Gopi Raja, Muthukumar Karuppan

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This study investigates the feasibility of fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in a 3-litre airlift photobioreactor under standard operating conditions. The results of this study suggest the algae species may serve as an excellent feed for aquatic species using organic byproducts. Microalgae Scenedesmus sp., was cultured using a synthetic wastewater by stepwise addition of crude glycerol concentration ranging from 2-10g/l under fed-batch mixotrophic mode for a period of 15 days. The attempts were made with the stepwise addition of crude glycerol as a carbon source in the initial growth phase to evade the inhibitory nature of high glycerol concentration on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. Crude glycerol was chosen since it is readily accessible as byproduct from biodiesel production sectors. Highest biomass concentration was achieved to be 2.43 g/l at the crude glycerol concentration of 6g/l after 10 days which is 3 fold times the increase in the biomass concentration compared with the control medium without the addition of glycerol. Biomass growth data obtained for the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. was fitted well with the modified Logistic equation. Substrate utilization kinetics was also employed to model the biomass productivity with respect to the various crude glycerol concentration. The results indicated that the supplement of crude glycerol to the mixotrophic culture of Scenedesmus sp., enhances the biomass concentration, chlorophyll and lutein productivity. Thus the application of fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation with stepwise addition of crude glycerol to Scenedesmus sp., provides a subtle way to reduce the production cost and improvisation in the large-scale cultivation along with biochemical compound synthesis.

Keywords: airlift photobioreactor, crude glycerol, microalgae Scenedesmus sp., mixotrophic cultivation, lutein production

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543 Alternative Animal Feed Additive Obtain with Different Drying Methods from Carrot Unsuitable for Human Consumption

Authors: Rabia Göçmen, Gülşah Kanbur, Sinan Sefa Parlat

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This study was conducted to determine that carrot powder obtain by different drying methods (oven and vacuum-freeze dryer) of carrot unfit for human consumption that whether feed additives in animal nutrition or not. Carrots randomly divided 2 groups. First group was dried by using oven, second group was by using vacuum freeze dryer methods. Dried carrot prepared from fresh carrot was analysed nutrient matter (energy, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, beta carotene, mineral concentration and colour). The differences between groups in terms of energy, crude protein, ash, Ca and Mg was not significant (P> 0,05). Crude oil, P, beta carotene content and colour values (L, a, b) with vacuum-freeze dryer group was greater than oven group (P<0,05). Consequently, carrot powder obtained by drying the vacuum-freeze dryer method can be used as a source of carotene.

Keywords: carrot, vacuum freeze dryer, oven, beta carotene

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542 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka

Abstract:

Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon contamination, bioremediation, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid

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541 Desulfurization of Crude Oil Using Bacteria

Authors: Namratha Pai, K. Vasantharaj, K. Haribabu

Abstract:

Our Team is developing an innovative cost effective biological technique to desulfurize crude oil. ’Sulphur’ is found to be present in crude oil samples from .05% - 13.95% and its elimination by industrial methods is expensive currently. Materials required :- Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, oxygen, Pyragallol and inert gas(nitrogen). Method adapted and proposed:- 1) Growth of bacteria studied, energy needs. 2) Compatibility with crude-oil. 3) Reaction rate of bacteria studied and optimized. 4) Reaction development by computer simulation. 5) Simulated work tested by building the reactor. The method being developed requires the use of bacteria Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius - an acidothermophilic heterotrophic, soil dwelling aerobic, Sulfur bacteria. The bacteria are fed to crude oil in a unique manner. Its coated onto potato dextrose agar beads, cultured for 24 hours (growth time coincides with time when it begins reacting) and fed into the reactor. The beads are to be replenished with O2 by passing them through a jacket around the reactor which has O2 supply. The O2 can’t be supplied directly as crude oil is inflammable, hence the process. Beads are made to move around based on the concept of fluidized bed reactor. By controlling the velocity of inert gas pumped , the beads are made to settle down when exhausted of O2. It is recycled through the jacket where O2 is re-fed and beads which were inside the ring substitute the exhausted ones. Crude-oil is maintained between 1 atm-270 M Pa pressure and 45°C treated with tartaric acid (Ph reason for bacteria growth) for optimum output. Bacteria being of oxidising type react with Sulphur in crude-oil and liberate out SO4^2- and no gas. SO4^2- is absorbed into H2O. NaOH is fed once reaction is complete and beads separated. Crude-oil is thus separated of SO4^2-, thereby Sulphur, tartaric acid and other acids which are separated out. Bio-corrosion is taken care of by internal wall painting (phenolepoxy paints). Earlier methods used included use of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species. They were found to be inefficient, time and energy consuming and reduce the fuel value as they fed on skeleton.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, fluidized bed reactor principle, reaction time for bacteria, compatibility with crude oil

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540 Biochemical Assessments of the Effects of Crude Oil Contaminated Diets Wistar Rats

Authors: Olawuyi Sikiru Owolabi

Abstract:

A research was carried out to assess the biochemical effects of crude oil contaminated cat fish on selected rat kidney function tests. Thirty-six (36) albino rats (rattus novergicus) were grouped into six (6) of (6) in each group. The rats in group one served as control and they were placed on feed formulated with catfish cultured in borehole water while those ones from group 2 to group 6 were placed on feed formulated with catfish exposed to various concentrations of crude oil (0.1%,0.25%,0.5%,0.75% and 1% respectively).The results obtained showed that there was a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, Urea, sodium and potassium ions in the kidney of experimental rats when compared with the control. This may be interpreted to mean possible adverse effects on the kidney. Several studies have been done especially on the biological effects of crude oil in fish. These include Direct Lethal Toxicity, Sub-Lethal disruption of physiological and behavioral activities, interference with feeding and reproduction, direct coating or tainting of fish, effect of entry of hydrocarbons into the food web as well as alteration of biological habitat. The present study attempts to assess the effects of crude oil contaminated diet on rat kidney by carrying out some kidney function tests like determination of serum sodium and potassium ions by flame photometry method, determination of serum urea and determination of serum creatinine.

Keywords: crude oil, serum urea, creatinine, wistar rats

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539 Improving the Quality and Nutrient Content of Palm Kernel Cake through Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Mirnawati, Gita Ciptaan, Ferawati

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a waste of the palm oil industry. Indonesia, as the largest palm oil producer in the world, produced 45-46% palm kernel cake. Palm kernel cake can potentially be used as animal ration but its utilization for poultry is limited. Thus, fermentation process was done in order to increase the utilization PKC in poultry ration. An experiment was conducted to study the effect between Inoculum Doses with Bacillus subtilis and fermentation time to improve the quality and nutrient content of fermented Palm Kernel Cake. Material and Methods: 1) Palm kernel cake derived from Palm Kernel Processing Manufacture of Andalas Agro Industry in Pasaman, West Sumatra. 2) Bacillus subtilis obtained from The Research Center of Applied Chemistry LIPI, Bogor. 3) Preparations nutrient agar medium (NA) produced by Difoo - Becton Dickinson. 4) Rice bran 5) Aquades and mineral standard. The experiment used completely randomize design (CRD) with 3 x 3 factorial and 3 replications. The first factors were three doses of inoculum Bacillus subtilis: (3%), (5%), and (7%). The second factor was fermentation time: (1) 2 day, (2) 4 day, and (3) 6 day. The parameters were crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC). Results: The result of the study showed that there was significant interaction (P<0.01) between factor A and factor B and each factor A and B also showed significant effect (P<0.01) on crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that fermented PKC with 7% doses of Bacillus subtilis and 6 days fermentation time provides the best result as seen from 24.65% crude protein, 17.35% crude fiber, 68.47% nitrogen retention, 53.25% crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC).

Keywords: fermentation, Bacillus Subtilis, inoculum, palm kernel cake, quality, nutrient

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538 Detection and Expression of Peroxidase Genes in Trichoderma harzianum KY488466 and Its Response to Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Michael Dare Asemoloye, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Rafiq Ahmad, Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi, D. O. Adejoye

Abstract:

Fungi have potentials for degrading hydrocarbons through the secretion of different enzymes. Crude oil tolerance and degradation by Trichoderma harzianum was investigated in this study with its ability to produce peroxidase enzymes (LiP and MnP). Many fungal strains were isolated from rhizosphere of grasses growing on a crude oil spilled site, and the most frequent strain based on percentage incidence was further characterized using morphological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization was done through the amplification of Ribosomal-RNA regions of 18s (1609-1627) and 28s (287-266) using ITS1 and ITS4 combinations and it was identified using NCBI BLAST tool. The selected fungus was also subjected to an in-vitro tolerance test at crude oil concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% while 0% served as control. In addition, lignin peroxidase genes (lig1-6) and manganese peroxidase gene (mnp) were detected and expressed in this strain using RT-PCR technique, its peroxidase producing activities was also studied in aliquots (U/ml). This strain had highest incidence of 80%, it was registered in NCBI as Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ KY488466. The strain KY488466 responded to crude oil concentrations as it increase, the dose inhibition response percentage (DIRP) increased from 41.67 to 95.41 at 5 to 25 % crude oil concentrations. All the peroxidase genes are present in KY488466, and expressed with amplified 900-1000 bp through RT-PCR technique. In this strain, lig2, lig4 and mnp genes were over-expressed, lig 6 was moderately expressed, while none of the genes was under-expressed. The strain also produced 90±0.87 U/ml lignin peroxidase and 120±1.23 U/mil manganese peroxidase enzymes in aliquots. These results imply that KY488466 can tolerate and survive high crude oil concentration and could be exploited for bioremediation of oil-spilled soils, the produced peroxidase enzymes could also be exploited for other biotechnological experiments.

Keywords: crude oil, enzymes, expression, peroxidase genes, tolerance, Trichoderma harzianum

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537 Development of a Process to Manufacture High Quality Refined Salt from Crude Solar Salt

Authors: Rathnayaka D. D. T. , Vidanage P. W. , Wasalathilake K. C. , Wickramasingha H. W. , Wijayarathne U. P. L. , Perera S. A. S.

Abstract:

This paper describes the research carried out to develop a process to increase the NaCl percentage of crude salt which is obtained from the conventional solar evaporation process. In this study refined salt was produced from crude solar salt by a chemico-physical method which consists of coagulation, precipitation and filtration. Initially crude salt crystals were crushed and dissolved in water. Optimum amounts of calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) were added to the solution respectively. Refined NaCl solution was separated out by a filtration process. The solution was tested for Total Suspended Solids, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+. With optimum dosage of reagents, the results showed that a level of 99.60% NaCl could be achieved. Further this paper discusses the economic viability of the proposed process. A 83% profit margin can be achieved by this process and it is an increase of 112.3% compared to the traditional process.

Keywords: chemico-physical, economic, optimum, refined, solar salt

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536 Antifungal Activity of Free Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L. against Toxigenic Aspergillus

Authors: H. Malainine, A. Amrouche, H. Benmehdi

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was aimed at evaluating antifungal effect of crude esters and their corresponding FAMEs isolated from Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L. and Nigella sativa L. seeds against two toxigenic fungal strains namely Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus. The results of the antifungal activity performed radial growth on solid medium (PDA; potatoes dextrose agar) showed that the crude esters and their corresponding FAMEs have exhibited against the two strains tested. Overall, FAMEs have provided an antifungal effect more efficient than that of crude esters. Inhibition of Aspergillus ochraceus has been labeled with percentages ranging from 13.33 to 26.61% by crude esters, While FAMEs inhibition was ranged between 27.33 to 41.13%. However, the inhibition observed against the Aspergillus flavus was varying from 14.68 to 18.59% by crude esters compared with the inhibition percentages ranging from 21.5 to 33.45% by the FAMEs. The antifungal potency of esters oils seeds of the studied plants may be an alternative for consideration by the authorities interested, due to serving the public health, in reducing the fungal enormous peril.

Keywords: Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., FAMEs, antifungal activity, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus

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535 The Anti-Allergic Activity of Prasaprohyai Preparation Extract after Accelerated Stability Testing

Authors: Sunita Makchuchit, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Prasaprohyai, a Thai traditional medicine preparation listed in the Thai National List of Essential Medicines, is commonly used for treatment of fever and colds. Prasaprohyai preparation consists of 21 different plants, with Kaempferia galanga (50% w/w) as the main ingredient. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic activity of the crude extract from Prasaprohyai after accelerated stability test procedure. The method of extract used maceration in 95% ethanol and the crude extract was kept under accelerated condition at 40 ± 2 oC and 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH) for six months. After six months of storage at 40 oC, the crude sample in various storage times (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days) were investigated for anti-allergic activity using IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cell lines. The results showed that the stability of crude ethanolic extract from Prasaprohyai under accelerated testing had no significant effect of anti-allergic activity when compared with day 0. The results showed that the ethanolic extract could be stored for two years at room temperature without loss of activity.

Keywords: accelerated stability, anti-allergy, prasaprohyai, RBL-2H3 cell lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 287