Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2211

Search results for: medicinal plants

2211 Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Morocco: Diversity and Socio-Economic Role

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Morocco is characterized by a great richness and diversity in aromatic and medicinal plants and it has an ancestral knowledge in the use of plants for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. In effect, the poverty of riparian, specially, mountain populations have greatly contributed to the development of traditional pharmacopoeia in Morocco. The analysis of the bibliographic data showed that a large number of plants in Morocco are exploited for aromatic and medicinal purposes and several of them are commercialized internationally. However, these potentialities of aromatic and medicinal plants are currently subjected to climate change and strong human pressures: Collecting fruits, agriculture development, harvesting plants, urbanization, overgrazing...

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, plant, Morocco

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2210 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

Abstract:

Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

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2209 The Introduction of Medicine Plants in Bogor Agricultural University: A Case Study in Cikabayan and Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory

Authors: Eki Devung, Eka Tyastutik, Indha Annisa, Digdaya Anoraga, Jamaluddin Arsyad

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Plant medicine is a whole species of plants are known to have medicinal properties. Bogor Agricultural University has high biodiversity, one of which flora potential as a drug. This study was conducted from 19 September to 10 October 2016 at Bogor Agricultural University using literature study and field observation. There are 85 species of medicinal plants which include a medicinal plant cultivation and wild plants. Family herbs most commonly found in Cikabayan that while the Euphorbiaceae, family which is found in the Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory is the family of Achantaceae. Species of medicinal plants is dominated by herbs and shrubs. Part herbs most widely used are the leaves. The diversity of diseases that can be treated with medicine plants include digestive system diseases and metabolic disorder.

Keywords: benefits, biodiversity, Bogor Agricultural University, medicinal plants

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2208 Introduction of a Medicinal Plants Garden to Revitalize a Botany Curriculum for Non-Science Majors

Authors: Rosa M. Gambier, Jennifer L. Carlson

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In order to revitalize the science curriculum for botany courses for non-science majors, we have introduced the use of the medicinal plants into a first-year botany course. We have connected the use of scientific method, scientific inquiry and active learning in the classroom with the study of Western Traditional Medical Botany. The students have researched models of Botanical medicine and have designed a sustainable medicinal plants garden using native medicinal plants from the northeast. Through the semester, the students have researched their chosen species, planted seeds in the college greenhouse, collected germination ratios, growth ratios and have successfully produced a beginners medicinal plant garden. Phase II of the project will be to tie in SCCCs community outreach goals by involving the public in the expanded development of the garden as a way of sharing learning about medicinal plants and traditional medicine outside the classroom.

Keywords: medicinal plant garden, botany curriculum, active learning, community outreach

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2207 The Use of Medicinal Plants among Middle Aged People in Rural Area, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Rian Diana, Naufal Muharam Nurdin, Faisal Anwar, Hadi Riyadi, Ali Khomsan

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The use of traditional medicine (herbs and medicinal plants) are common among Indonesian people especially the elderly. Few study explore the use of medicinal plants in middle aged people. This study aims to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in middle aged people in rural areas. This cross sectional study included 224 subjects aged 45-59 years old and conducted in Cianjur District, West Java in 2014. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information about preference in treatment of illness, the use of medicinal plants, and their purposes. Information also recorded plant names, parts used, mode of preparation, and dosage. Buying drugs in stall (83.9%) is the first preference in treatment of illness, followed by modern treatment 19.2% (doctors) and traditional treatment 17.0% (herbs/medicinal plants). 87 subjects (38.8%) were using herbs and medicinal plants for curative (66.7%), preventive (31.2%), and rehabilitative (2.1%) purposes. In this study, 48 species are used by the subjects. Physalis minima L. 'cecenet', Orthosiphon aristatus Mic. 'kumis kucing', and Annona muricata 'sirsak' are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and stiffness. Leaves (64.6%) are the most common part used. Medicinal plants were washed and boiled in a hot water. Subject drinks the herbs with a different dosage. One in three middle aged people used herbal and medicinal plants for curative and preventive treatment particularly hypertension and stiffness. Increasing knowledge about herbal or medicinal plants dosage and their interaction with medical drugs are important to do.Doses vary between 1-3 glasses/day for treatment and 1-2 glasses/months for prevention of diseases.

Keywords: herbs, hypertension, medicinal plants, middle age, rural

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2206 Medicinal Plants and Arbuscular mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Ammani K., Glory M.

Abstract:

Demands of traditional herbal medicines are increasing day by day over the world. Considering the growing demand of medicinal plants in curative treatments and the role of VAM fungi in augmentation of the production of active secondary metabolites by the medicinal plants, the present work has been undertaken to survey the mycorrhizal status in 30 different medicinal plants belonging to various families from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. The roots were collected carefully and stained by the Phillips & Hayman technique. Basing on the occurrence of vesicles and arbuscules, categorized into four grades; Excellent: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present more than 75% of root bits, Good: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 50-75% in surface of root bits, moderate: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 25-50% in surface of root bits, and poor: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 1-25% in surface of root bits. The study reveals that the roots of all plants were colonized by AM fungi. Percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was more in Aloe vera, Phylanthus emblica, Azadiracta indica and least in plants such as Aerva lanata, Vinca rosea, Crotalaria verrucosa among the 30 medicinal plants in present study. The enhancement of growth and vigour and increased production of bioactive compounds of the medicinal plants is desirable which may be achieved by inoculation of the roots with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. There is a steady increase in the cultivation of medicinal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand but corresponding researches of VAM fungi and their association in medicinal plants have received very little attention as compared to the studies on forest species and field crops. So a vast research on this field is necessary for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizae, colonization, categories, medicinal plants

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2205 Utilization of Biodiversity of Peaces Herbals Used as Food and Treat the Path of Economic Phu Sing District in Sisaket Province Thailand

Authors: Nopparet Thammasaranyakun

Abstract:

This research objects are: 1: To study the biodiversity of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 2: To study the use of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 3: To provide a database of information on biodiversity for food and medicinal plants and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 4: Learn to create a biodiversity of medicinal plants used as food and treatment by Journeys economic Phu Sing district Sisaket province Boundaries used in this study was the Phu Sing district. Population and Agricultural Development Center, rayong Mun due to the initiative for youth Local, Government Health officials, community leaders, teachers, students, schools, the local people and tourists. Sage wisdom to know the herbs and women's groups, OTOP Phu Sing district in SiisaKet province. By selecting the specific data that way. The process of participatory action research (PAR) is a community-based research. The method of collecting qualitative data. (Qualitative) tool is used from context, Community areas, interview and Taped recordings. Observation and focus group data was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (Descriptive Statistics). The results findings: 1- A study of the biodiversity of plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. Were used in the dry season and the rainy season find the medicinal plants of 251 species 41 types of drugs. 2- The study utilized medicinal plants used as food and the treatment of indigenous Phu Sing Sisaket province. Found 251 species have medicinal properties that are used for food and medicinal purposes 41 types of drugs. 3- Of the database technology of biodiversity for food and medicinal plants used by local treatment Phu Sing district Sisaket province. A data base of 251 medicinal species 41 types of drugs is used for food and medicinal properties Sisaket province. 4- learning the biodiversity of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province.

Keywords: utilization of biodiversity, peaces herbals, used as Food, Sing district, sisaket

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2204 Documentation of Traditional Knowledge on Wild Medicinal Plants of Egypt

Authors: Nahla S. Abdel-Azim, Khaled A. Shams, Elsayed A. Omer, Mahmoud M. Sakr

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Medicinal plants play a significant role in the health care system in Egypt. Knowledge developed over the years by people is mostly unrecorded and orally passes on from one generation to the next. This knowledge is facing the danger of becoming extinct. Therefore there is an urgent need to document the medicinal and aromatic plants associated with traditional knowledge. The Egyptian Encyclopedia of wild medicinal plants (EEWMP) is the first attempt to collect most of the basic elements of the medicinal plant resources of Egypt and their traditional uses. It includes scientific data on about 500 medicinal plants in the form of monographs. Each monograph contains all available information and scientific data on the selected species including the following: names, description, distribution, parts used, habitat, conservational status, active or major chemical constituents, folk medicinal uses and heritage resources, pharmacological and biological activities, authentication, pharmaceutical products, and cultivation. The DNA bar-coding is also included (when available). A brief Arabic summary is given for every monograph. This work revealed the diversity in plant parts used in the treatment of different ailments. In addition, the traditional knowledge gathered can be considered a good starting point for effective in situ and ex-situ conservation of endangered plant species.

Keywords: encyclopedia, medicinal plant, traditional medicine, wild flora

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2203 Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Diseases and Drug Discovery in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Neelam Rashid, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Syed Nasar Shah

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The present study was conducted to study the role of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments in Azad Kashmir. Various ethno medicinal surveys were carried out during 2016 to enlist the uses of plants against various ailments by rural communities of the area. Information was obtained from 60 local people including 45 males (10 traditional health practitioners) and 15 females by semi structured interviews and group discussions. 65 plant species belonging to 45 families were reported. The dominant plant habit was herbaceous (56%) while decoction was the most common method of utilization (40%). The most cited turmoil was the gastrointestinal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using ethno medicinal indices such as FL, UV, ICF, FC, and RFC. Results revealed that various species had numerous uses in curing of diseases. So conservation of biodiversity of these medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can play important role in improving the local health conditions of rural people and modern drug discovery and development.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ailments, drug, health, traditional

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2202 Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants from Bechar Region, South-West of Algeria

Authors: Naima Fatehi

Abstract:

The paper reports on 107 medicinal plants, traditionally used in the South-West of Algeria (Bechar region). The information has been documented by interviewing traditional herbalists, various elderly men and women following different ethnobotanical methods. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by botanical name, followed by family name, vernacular name, and part used. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants used extensively in Bechar region for treating various diseases and provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical survey, South-West Algeria, Bechar region

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2201 Biological Activities of Species in the Genus Tulbaghia: A Review

Authors: S. Takaidza, M. Pillay, F. Mtunzi

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Since time immemorial, plants have been used by several communities to treat a large number of diseases. Numerous studies on the pharmacology of medicinal plants have been done. Medicinal plants constitute a potential source for the production of new medicines and may complement conventional antimicrobials and probably decrease health costs. Phytochemical compounds in plants are known to be biologically active aiding, for example, as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The overwhelming challenge of drug resistance has resulted in an increasing trend towards using medicinal plants to treat various diseases, especially in developing countries. Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from current literature that T. violacea is the most promising species. The other species of Tulbaghia still require further studies to ascertain their medicinal potential.

Keywords: biological activities, antimicrobial, antioxidant, phytochemicals, tulbaghia

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2200 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai

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Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: antimicrobial, colletotrichum, endophytic fungi, medicinal plants

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2199 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous People of Community Forest User Groups of Parbat District, Nepal

Authors: Gokul Gaudel, Zhang Wen Hui, Dang Quang Hung, Le Thi Hien, Liang Xiao

Abstract:

The community forests of Nepal serve as a major source of medicinal plants for majority of local people who are dependent on traditional health care system. This study aims to explore the ethnobotanical information of the medicinal plants used by five different community forest user groups of Parbat district of Nepal. The research was conducted during different periods of the year 2015, using semi-structured, open-ended questionnaires, formal and informal interviews, and group discussions. In total 145 different plant species within 77 families were documented, the majority of them being herb were found to be used to treat 84 different ailments. In terms of plant parts use: whole plants, barks, fruits, leaves were found to be in top priorities. Oral administration was the dominant route (57%), followed by both oral and dermal route (29%) and dermal only (14%). Females were found to have 24% more ethnobotanical knowledge than male. The knowledge of ethnobotanical medicinal plants was found excellent on age group 65-75. This study showed that community forests of Parbat district are rich in medicinal plants but the new generation was found less interested in using them. Easy access to modern medicines, lack of documentation and knowledge transfer to young generations are the major causes of diminishing utility of traditional medicinal practices.

Keywords: ailments, community forest, ethnobotany, medicinal plants, Parbat

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2198 Studying Medicinal Plants of Rajasthan Used by Tribes for Different Diseases

Authors: Rekha Vijayvergia

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Around seven percent of tribal population of India lives in Rajasthan. Rajasthan has rich cultural diversity and biodiversity. Ethno-botany can be defined as the total natural and traditional relationship and the interactions between man and his surrounding plant wealth from times immemorial, due to sheer, necessity, intuition, observation, and experimentation. Medicinal plants are valuable and are used for the production of various drugs. These plants produce a high diversity of natural products or secondary metabolites like Mahanimbicine, Andrographine, murrayaline, lupeol, and limonin etc. with a prominent function in the protection against diseases like diabetes, kidney stones, osteoporosis, tumours, opthalmia, leucorrhoea, bronchial asthma, diarrhea, cancer, etc. The present report gives an account of traditional medicinal uses of common medicinal plants of Rajasthan. A total of 18 plant species belonging to 13 families are reported, that are being used for various purposes.

Keywords: ethno botany, Rajasthan, secondary metabolites, traditional medicines

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2197 Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in Bridim Village Development Committee in Langtang National Park, Nepal

Authors: Ila Shrestha

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Bridim Village Development Committee (VDC) is one of the medicinal plants hot spots of Nepal. It is located on a ridge above the lower Langtang Khola, steep and narrow spot in between 1944 m to 4833 m altitude. The study area is homogeneously inhabited by Tamang communities. An investigation on folk herbal medicine on the basis of traditional uses of medicinal plants was done in 2014. The local traditional healers, elder men and women, traders and teachers, were consulted as key informants for documentation of indigenous knowledge on the medicinal plants. It was found that altogether seventy-one medicinal plant species belonging to sixty genera and thirty-three families were used by local people for twenty-seven diseases. Roots of thirty-four species were the most frequently used plant parts and bigger numbers of species were found to be used in fever of ten species. Most medicines were prepared in the form of juice of forty species. The attempt of the study was to document ethno medicinal practices to treat different diseases in the study area for conservation of indigenous knowledge.

Keywords: Bridim village, ethnomedicine, national park, plants

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2196 The State of Herb Medicine in Oriental Morocco: Cases of Debdou, Taourirt and Guerssif Districts

Authors: Himer Khalid, Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Elachouri Mostafa

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It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine to meet their daily health requirements. In Morocco reliance on such medicine is partly owing to the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. There was high agreement in the use of plants as medicine in Oriental Morocco. Our objective is to evaluate the informant’s knowledge on medicinal plants by the local population and to document the uses of medicinal plants by this community, for the treatment of different illnesses. Using an ethnopharmacological approach, we collected information concerning the traditional medicinal knowledge and the medicinal plants used, by interviewing successfully 458 informants living in oriental Morocco (from Debdou, Taourirt, Guersif a,d Laayoune districts). The data were analyzed by statistical methods (Component Analysis “CA”, Factorial Analysis “FA”) and other methods such as through Informant’s Consensus Factor (ICF) and Use Value (UV). Our results indicate that, more than 60% of the population in these regions relies on medicinal plants for the treatment of different ailments with predominance of women consumers. 135 plant species belonging to 61 families were documented. These plants were used by the population for the treatment of a group of illness (about 14 principal ailments). We conclude that, in oriental Morocco, till now, the population has some traditional knowledge commonly used as medical tradition. These wealthy heritage needs conservation and evaluation.

Keywords: Morocco, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge, wealthy heritage

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2195 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Promprom, W. Chatan

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Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: ethnobotany, ethnophamacology, medicinal plant, taxonomy, utilization

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2194 Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Southwest Algeria to Treat Gastro-Intestinal Ailments

Authors: Karima Sekkoum Abdelkrim Cheriti, Leila Feguigui

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Algeria has a large plant biodiversity accounting more than 4125 species (123 Families) and is endowed with resources of medicinal plants growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to semi-arid and Saharan. On the other hand, the ethnopharmacology investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and finding bioactive substances derived from medicinal plants. In continuation of our works in Saharan ethpharmacopeae and phytochemistry of Saharan medicinal plants, we focus our attention on the importance of local ethnopharmacology especially to treat gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria (El Baydh, Naama and Bechar region) as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development. Our present investigation deals with an ethnopharmacological study on medicinal plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria. The study presents the uses of plants in local traditional herbal medicines, determines the homogeneity of informant traditional knowledge and the preferred medicinal plants used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. The results indicated that Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are the most locally used families and medicines were prepared in the form of powder or infusion and used orally. Aerial parts were the most frequently used plant part. Thus, the results can be used as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development especially for the preferred plant species used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, gastro-intestinal, phytochemical, South Algeria, Sahara, endemic species

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2193 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik

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Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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2192 Identification and Classification of Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalayan Region Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Kishor Chandra Kandpal, Amit Kumar

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The Indian Himalaya region harbours approximately 1748 plants of medicinal importance, and as per International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the 112 plant species among these are threatened and endangered. To ease the pressure on these plants, the government of India is encouraging its in-situ cultivation. The Saussurea costus, Valeriana jatamansi, and Picrorhiza kurroa have also been prioritized for large scale cultivation owing to their market demand, conservation value and medicinal properties. These species are found from 1000 m to 4000 m elevation ranges in the Indian Himalaya. Identification of these plants in the field requires taxonomic skills, which is one of the major bottleneck in the conservation and management of these plants. In recent years, Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques have been precisely used for the discrimination of plant species with the help of their unique spectral signatures. In this background, a spectral library of the above 03 medicinal plants was prepared by collecting the spectral data using a handheld spectroradiometer (325 to 1075 nm) from farmer’s fields of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states of Indian Himalaya. The Random forest (RF) model was implied on the spectral data for the classification of the medicinal plants. The 80:20 standard split ratio was followed for training and validation of the RF model, which resulted in training accuracy of 84.39 % (kappa coefficient = 0.72) and testing accuracy of 85.29 % (kappa coefficient = 0.77). This RF classifier has identified green (555 to 598 nm), red (605 nm), and near-infrared (725 to 840 nm) wavelength regions suitable for the discrimination of these species. The findings of this study have provided a technique for rapid and onsite identification of the above medicinal plants in the field. This will also be a key input for the classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images for mapping of these species in farmer’s field on a regional scale. This is a pioneer study in the Indian Himalaya region for medicinal plants in which the applicability of hyperspectral remote sensing has been explored.

Keywords: himalaya, hyperspectral remote sensing, machine learning; medicinal plants, random forests

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2191 The Study of Biodiversity of Thirty Two Families of Useful Plants Existed in Georgia

Authors: Kacharava Tamar, Korakhashvili Avtandil, Epitashvili Tinatin

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The article deals with the database, which was created by the authors, related to biodiversity of some families of useful plants (medicinal, aromatic, spices, dye and poisonous) existing in Georgia considering important taxonomy. Our country is also rich with endemic genera. The results of monitoring of the phytogenetic resources to reveal perspective species and situation of endemic species and resources are also discussed in this paper. To get some new medicinal and preventive treatments using plant raw material in the phytomedicine, phytocosmetics and phytoculinary, the unique phytogenetic resources should be protected because the application of useful plants is becoming irreversible. This can be observed along with intensification and sustainable use of ethnobotanical traditions and promotion of phytoproduction based on the international requirements on biodiversity (Convention on Biological Diversity - CBD). Though Georgian phytopharmacy has the centuries-old traditions, today it is becoming the main concern.

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, poisonous, spicy, dye plants, endemic biodiversity, endemic, ELISA, GIS

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2190 The State of Research on Medicinal Plants in Morocco

Authors: Alami Ilyass, Loubna Kharchoufa, Elachouri Mostafa

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The two great realms of living diversity are cultural and biological. Today, both are being lost at an alarming rate. Of all the Earth’s biological diversity, plant kingdom is of high significance, and most essential to human welfare, in fact, medicinal plants are extensively exploited for countless purposes. Among these multiple uses, medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine for humankind healthcare and well being. In recent years there has been a great surge of public interest in the use of herbs and plants. Some scientists have viewed this phenomenon as a modern “herbal renaissance”. The importance of plants as medicines in developed and developing countries has recently been acknowledged by the United Nations (UN). However, to date fewer than 5% of the approximately 250,000 species of higher plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential pharmacological activity. A number of drugs from ethnobotanical leads have provided significant milestones in Western medicine. Despite this success, pharmacognosy research on Moroccan flora needs more studies aimed at the exploration of their therapeutic potential. A major weakness is the absence of strong funding agencies in the country, and a real national drug discovery program. Moreover, the lack of the coordination between different universities and research institutions leads, in most cases, to a waste of time, money and efforts of many researchers. In this work, we focus our attention on research into traditional indigenous medicinal plants in Morocco. Three parts constitute the head lines of this work: In the first one, we take up Moroccan biodiversity matter, the second part is devoted principally to the state of research into medicinal plants by Moroccan scholars and the last one is consecrated to the debate of factors which handicap the progress of research on phytomedicine in Morocco. The objectives of the present study are twofold: first, to highlight the state of the medicinal plants researches in Morocco. Second goal is to assess and correlate the levels of knowledge of the local flora to the research on medicinal plants to attempt to build capacity for research within Moroccan Scientific community at rate of developing country.

Keywords: Morocco, medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, pharmacognosy, phytomedicine

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2189 Beneficial Effect of Micropropagation Coupled with Mycorrhization on Enhancement of Growth Performance of Medicinal Plants

Authors: D. H. Tejavathi

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Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products. Wild populations of many medicinal plants are facing threat of extinction because of their narrow distribution, endemicity, and degradation of specific habitats. Micropropagation is an established in vitro technique by which large number of clones can be obtained from a small bit of explants in a short span of time within a limited space. Mycorrhization can minimize the transient transplantation shock, experienced by the micropropagated plants when they are transferred from lab to land. AM fungal association improves the physiological status of the host plants through better uptake of water and nutrients, particularly phosphorus. Consequently, the growth performance and biosynthesis of active principles are significantly enhanced in AM fungal treated plants. Bacopa monnieri, Andrographis paniculata, Agave vera-curz, Drymaria cordata and Majorana hortensis, important medicinal plants used in various indigenous systems of medicines, are selected for the present study. They form the main constituents of many herbal formulations. Standard in vitro techniques were followed to obtain the micropropagated plants. Shoot tips and nodal segments were used as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog, and Phillips and Collins media supplemented with various combinations of growth regulators. Multiple shoots were obtained on a media containing both auxins and cytokinins at various concentrations and combinations. Multiple shoots were then transferred to rooting media containing auxins for root induction. Thus, obtained in vitro regenerated plants were subjected to brief acclimatization before transferring them to land. One-month-old in vitro plants were treated with AM fungi, and the symbiotic effect on the overall growth parameters was analyzed. It was found that micropropagation coupled with mycorrhization has significant effect on the enhancement of biomass and biosynthesis of active principles in these selected medicinal plants. In vitro techniques coupled with mycorrhization have opened a possibility of obtaining better clones in respect of enhancement of biomass and biosynthesis of active principles. Beneficial effects of AM fungal association with medicinal plants are discussed.

Keywords: cultivation, medicinal plants, micropropagation, mycorrhization

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2188 Conservation of Rare, Endangered and Threaten Medicinal Plants: Participatory Approach

Authors: G. Raviraja Shetty, K. G. Poojitha, Pranay Kumar

Abstract:

Biodiversity refers to the numbers, variety and variability of living organisms and ecosystem. The climatic and altitudinal variations, coupled with varied ecological habitats of this country, have contributed to the development of immensely rich vegetation with a unique diversity in medicinal plants which provides an important source of medicinal raw materials for traditional medicine systems as well as for pharmaceutical industries in the country and abroad. World Health Organization has listed over 21000 plant species used around the world for medicinal purpose. In India, about 2500 plant species are being used in indigenous system of medicine. The red data book lists 427 Indian Medicinal plant entries on endangered species, of which 28 are considered extinct, 124 endangered, 81 rare, and 34 insufficiently known. It is abundantly clear from the experience of all govt agencies that on their own they cannot efficiently conserve the biodiversity. Participatory Approach with the involvement of local people in conservation is found to be more effective these days. Involvement of local people reduces the cost involved in conservation. Local communities have long tradition of resource use in particular area, hold in depth knowledge and experience of plant which can be invaluable for conservation efforts.Medicinal plants occupy a vital sector of health care system in India and represent a major national resource.There is an immense need for conservation of diversity of medicinal plant wealth for the present and fore coming generations, by adapting the suitable strategy with most appropriate method of conservation.

Keywords: conservation, biodiversity, participatory, medicinal plants

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2187 High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Study on Lay Understandings and Uses of Pharmaceuticals and Medicinal Plants for Treatment in Matzikama Municipal Region, Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Diana Gibson

Abstract:

Aim: The first aim of the study was to ascertain the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/ or Type2 Diabetes Mellitus in Matzikama municipal district, Western Cape, South Africa. These two conditions are reportedly very high in this particular province, even though few statistics are available. A second aim was to gain insight into the understanding of these two conditions among sufferers. A third aim was to determine their allopathic use as well as indigenous medicinal plants to manage these conditions. A fourth aim was to understand how users of medicinal plants attend to their materiality and relationality as a continuum between humans and plants. The final aim was to ascertain the conservation status of medicinal plants utilised. Methods: One thousand one hundred and eighty-four (1184) respondents were interviewed. Semi-structured surveys were utilised to gather data on the percentage of people who had been medically diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Local healers and knowledgeable old people were subsequently selected through a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were helped with plant collection. The plants were botanically identified. Results: The study found that people who have been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus drew on and continuously moved between biomedical and local understandings of these conditions. While they followed biomedical treatment regimens as far as possible they also drew on alternative ways of managing it through the use of medicinal plants. The most commonly used plant species overall were Lessertia frutescens, Tulbaghia violacea, Artemisia afra and Leonotus leonurus. For the users, medicinal plants were not mere material entities, they were actants in social networks where knowledge was produced through particular practices in specific places. None of the identified plants are currently threatened. Significance: Sufferers had a good understanding of the symptoms of and biomedical treatment regime for both conditions, but in everyday life they adhered to their local understandings and medicinal plants for treatment. The majority used reportedly used prescribed medication as well as plant alternatives.

Keywords: diabetes, high blood pressure, medicine, plants

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2186 Different Biological and Chemical Parameters that Influence the Polyphenols from Some Medicinal Plants in Western Algeria

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud, Fouzia Toumi Benali, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza

Abstract:

This work focuses on the influences of biological and chemical parameters on the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins in different medicinal plants in western Algeria (Papaver rhoeas, Daphnegnidium, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula dentata, Lavandula stoicha, ...). Thus we look the difference between species of the same genus, difference between the different organs of the same species, the influence of environment all temperature influences, time, percentage of solvent on the extraction. Quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed by spectrophotometric method then treated with statistics tools such as variance analysis, multivariant analyzes, response surface methodology). The results show that the polyphenols are influenced by the parameters mentioned.

Keywords: polyphenols, influences, medicinal plants, west Algeria

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2185 Ethnobotanical Study of Spontaneous Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Viral Respiratory Diseases in the Prerif, Morocco

Authors: El Amane Salma, Rahou Abdelilah

Abstract:

Viral respiratory infections (common cold, flu, sinusitis, bronchiolitis, etc.) are among the most common infections in the world with severe symptoms. In Morocco, as everywhere in the world, especially in developing countries, the therapeutic indications of medicinal plants are very present to treat several diseases, including the respiratory system. The objective of our study is to identify and document medicinal plants used in traditional medicine to treat viral respiratory infections and alleviate their symptoms in order to generate interest for future studies in verifying the efficacy of these traditional medicines and their conservation. The information acquired from 81 questionnaires and the floristic identification allowed us to identify 19 spontaneous species belonging to 11 families, used as traditional therapies for viral respiratory diseases in the Prerif. The herbs are the most used life form. The results also showed that leaves were the most commonly used plant parts and most of the herbal medicines were prepared in the form of infusions and administered orally. Documented data was evaluated using use value (UV), family importance value (FIV) and relative frequency citation (RCF).

Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, viral respiratory diseases, Morocco

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2184 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux* 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, India, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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2183 Seasonal Stirred Variations in Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata

Authors: Francis Machumi, Ester Innocent, Pius Yanda, Philip C. Stevenson

Abstract:

Curative dependence of traditionally used medicinal plants on season of harvest is an alleged claim by traditional health practitioners. This study intended to verify these claims by investigating antifungal activity and chemical composition of traditionally used medicinal plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata harvested in rainy season and dry season. The antifungal activities were determined by broth microdilution method whereas chemical profiling of the extracts from the plant materials was done by gas chromatography (GC). Results indicated that extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season showed enhanced antifungal activity as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season. GC chromatograms showed overalls increase in number and amount of chemical species for extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season.

Keywords: antifungal activity, chemical composition, medicinal plants, seasonal dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
2182 Use of Radiation Chemistry Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux * 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, INDIA, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

Procedia PDF Downloads 172